HIST 011' THlII UNITED STATES FROM 1492 ro THE PRESENT TIME. /~ ¡?' "-.: .. :...

011' THlII


¡?' "-.: .. : '~'>\:-.~ ~

FOR TIrE USE OF SCIIOOL(, .~. '. 7 <





17 North Seventh Street.


Jfirst District of Penneylvania..

Pldladelphia, July 12, 1866.
At a meeting of the Controllera oC Pu]¡lic Sebool., }'irst Diotriet o(

Pennsylvania., held at the Controllera' ChamlJer, July 10,1866, the fol·
lowing resoIution wa8 adopted:

"Resol'Ved, That 'l\1artindale'a IIistory of the United State.' be intro-
duced to be used in the Public Schools of this District."

From tlJe Minutes:
JI. W. JIALLIWELL, Secretarg.

~~---------~~--------~A~ ~ Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the yenr 1866, ll1 )J<{$

In tb. Clerk'. Office of the District Court of the Unit.d Stat •• (n
and for the EH.Btern District of P(·IlDsylvania. ~ '«~

--.: ~




b prepnring tbis IIistory of tbe U nited State~
tbe nuthor has endeavored to meet the wants of
our Common Schoo1s as expressed to him by
many of the prominent euueators in this country,
and as suggested by his own experience as a

Sorne teachcrs instruct thcir pupils, when pre-
paring a history les son for recitution, not to com-
mit the whole of the text to memory, but to
extract tho me::ming from it und to express that
meuning in sentences of their own. vVhen this
is done, the pupils, except it be in some of the
higher classes of our Aeademies and U niversi-
ties, often neglect the events whieh are important
and study those which are unimportant. They
111so frequently express what they do learn in
ungrammaticul sentences, or in sentences giving
a very imperfect idea of the meaning intended.
In order to obviate these difficulties, most teachers
require their pupils to commit the text to mem-
Dry. knowing, from experience, that the only



way to teach childreu successfully is to require
them to be exact iu aH their auswers. Wheu
this is doue, much of the detail that is usually
fouud iu our sehoo1 histories may, with advan·
tage, be omitted. The author has therefore aimed
at preseutiug the important events of the history
of our country in a clear, coueise sty1e, uuadorned
by the vivid desi?riptious and imagiuings which
make our histories pleasing as reading-books,
but which, experience teaches the practica1 iu·
structor, are not at all suited to the wants of the

The Chrouo1ogica1 Table contains almost every
eveut mentioned in this ITistory, and will be
found a useful adjuuct if used in connection with
the texto

This little work is intended for the Common
8chools of our country, aud, as such, is submitted
to the publico

J. C. M.


In compliance with suggestions from numorous educators,
the author has prepared a series of "Review Questions."
(Soo page 174.) It is beheved that a careful study of these
qllesbons will enable a student to lludorgo, slLtisfactorily, any
rt>asonable examination !U the History of the United States.

J. C. M.





• 35







DISCOVERIES (1492-1607).
l. IN 149~, the New World, comprising the conti.

Dents of North amI South ATIlerica, was discovered
by Christopher COIUlllbus, a native of Genoa.

2. In 1-197, .JOhll Cabot, with his son Sebastian, saiJed
froTll Englulld, and discovered Labrador and Newfound-

3. In 1498, Scbastian Cabot made a second voyage
to Amarica, and explorcd the coast from Labrador to
l\lary land.

4. In 1499, Americus Vespucius made a voyage to
the New World, and sueeeeded in having it named afier

5. In 1512, Juan Ponee de Leon sailed from Porto
Rico, and on Easter Sunday, callcd by the Spaniards Pas-
cua Florida, Ile discovcred a eountry whieh, on account

QUESTIONS. -1. When and by whom was America discovercd?
2. WhnL discuvcric. werc illnde in 1497? .. 3. In 1498? 4. What ¡.
said of Americus Vespucius? 5. Give an account of tbe discovel1
of Florida.



of ita blooming appearanee and the day when first seen,
was ealled Florida.

6. In 1524, J ohn Verrazani sailed from France on :1
voyage of discovery, and reaclled the continent in the
latitude of Wilmington, North Carolina. He then ex-
plored the whole coast northward as far as Nova Scotia.

7. In 1534, James Cartier sailed from France, and
in twenty days reached Newfoundland. He diseovered
and named the Gulf and River of Sto Lawrcnee, and
took possession of the eountry in the name of the ll'reneh

8. In 1535, while on a second voyage, Cartier sailed
up the river 8t. Lawrence to Montreal. He returned to
the Isle of Orleans, where he passed the wintcr, and in
the spring sailed for France.

9. In 1539, Ferdinand de Soto, a Spaniard, landed
on the coast of Florida with the dcsign of conqucring
that country. He marchcd westward, and, in 15·n,
discovered the Mississippi River.

10. In 1542, when about to descend the l\Iississippi
River, De Soto died, and his body was sunk in the
deptha of the stream he had discovered. The remnant
of his followers afterwards found their way to a Spanish
settlernent in l\Iexico.

11. In 1541, Cartier sailed on a third voyage to tl1e
Sto Lawrence. He built a fort near the present site of

6. Of the ,"oyagc of V crrazani tú America. 7. What is "aid of Car-
tier's firot voyage to America? 8. What of Lis second vOyllge?
9. WLat is SJlil of De Soto', expedition to America? 10. What
became of him and hip followers? ll. What is said .,& Cartier's
third voyage?


Quobee, where he passed the winter; but his com-
pan ion s were dissatisfied, and he returned to Franee
the following spring.

12. In 1562, Adllliral Coligny of Frauce scut an
expedition under Ribault to Florida. He cxplored tIle
eoast from Sto J ohn's River to Port Royal entrancc, whcre
he planted a colon y which was afterwards abandoned.

13. In 1564, Coligny sent out another expedition to
Florida, under the command of Laudonnier, who made
a settlement on the River Sto John's. In 1565, Ribault
arrived with additioual emigrants aud supplics.

14. Thc Spauiards sent out Melendez with an expe-
dition to destroy the French colony in Florida. He
arriyed in Septcmbcr, 1565, and laid the foundation of
Sto Augustinc, after whieh he captured the French fort
and murdered al! itB inmates.

15. In 1565, De Gour¡;es, a French soldier, sent out
an expedition which destroyed sorne of the Spanish forts
in Florida and put their gnrrisons to dcnth.

16. In 15íl3, Sir Ilumphrcy Gilbert, having obtained
a patent from Elizabeth, Qucen of Bng:land, set sail for
Newfoundland. A series of disasters iuduced him to
return to England, when the vessel in whieh he sailed
was lost, and all on boanl perished.

17. In 1584, Sir Walter Raleigh, brother-in-law of
Gilbert, sent out two vesscls under the command of

]2. "'hat is s"id of the expcrlition sent out under Rihanlt1
13. What uf the expe,lilion under Laudonnier? When did Ribault
arrive? 14. 'Yhat. \Vas done by Melcndez? 15. How did the Frencb
retaliate? 16. What is said of Gilbert's expeditiou? 17. What is
... id of th. expedition under Amida. snd Ilarlow?


Amidas and Barlow. They cxplored thc Albcmarle und
Pamlico sounds, and nUllled the coulltry Yirgiuia, ir:
honor of Elizabeth, tho ,'irgin Queoll.

18. In 1585, lbleigh sent out another flcet under Sir
Richard Grenville, who 10ft a. colony on lloanoko Islanél
undor the control of llalph I"ane. They became dis·
couraged, and, oarly the next year, all returned to Eng.
land with Sir Francis Drake.

19. In 1587, Haleigh sont out anot1ler company of
emigrants to lloanokc Island, under J ohn White. He
was sont to England for supplies, but on his roturn,
thrce years afterwards, no trace of the colony remained.

20. In lGO~, Bartholomew Gosnold sailcd frolll Eng-
land to the coast of i\lassachu~ctts. ne disco"ercd und
named Cape Cod, and the islaDds of Nantucket and
l\lartha's Vineyard.

21. In Hl0G, the KiDg of Englund grantod the eoun-
try from the 34th to the 38th degroe of north latitude
to the London Company, and that from the 41st to the
45th degreo to the Plymouth Company, for the purpose
of establishing colonies.

18. What of the one unucr Richarn Grenville? 19. What ii
saiu of the settlcment on Roanoke Islanu under .John Wbite?
20. Whnt did Gosnold do? 21. Wbat granta werc made by lIle
King oC England?



1. IN 1607, Captain Newport, with one hundred and
five persons, was sent out by the Lomlon Company to
establish a cololly in Virginia. He sailed up theJames
River and laid the foulldation of J alllcstown.

2. The early colonists suffcrcd greatly from the 11OS-
tility of tho Tndians, and from hungor, cold, and disease.
lIJany of thcir numbcr dicd, and they wcre about to
abandon tho oolony, when Captain John Smith assumod
thc command and inducod them to romain.

3. 'Yhile Oil a voyage up tho Chickahominy, Slllith
was captured by the lndians and takon to Powhatan,
who condemned him to die. lIis life was spared through
the intercessions of Pocahontas, the daughter of Pow-
batan, and he was perlllitted to return to J alllestown.

4. New settlers arrived, and the colony continued in
a state of prosperity until Slllith was compclled to return
to England, in 1610, when order and industry ceased,
and all was again confusion.

l. What was done by Captain Newport? 2. What waa lhe con.
ditioQ of the earIy settJera? 3. Wbat happened lo Smith while 011
his voyage? IIow wn 8 his life saved? 4. What ;3 said of the colen;)'
before and ",fter Smitb's departuro to Eng\and ?



5 The colonists now prepared a second time to aban-
don the colony, but the arrival of Lord Delaware, with
ships and supplies, prevented their departure.

6. The colony was governed by martial law until
1619, when tho first Legislative Assembly in Americ.a
mot nt J amestown.

7. In 1620, African slavery was introduced into the
colony by tho Duteh. During the same year ninqj;y
young women were sent to the settlement, as wives for
the planters.

8. In 1622, the Indians fornied a plan for destroying
the English. The plot was revealed by a friendly
Indian, and sorne of the larger settlements were saved,
hut those on the outskirts of the colony were entirely
destroyed. The number of the plantations was thus
reduced from eighty to eight.

9. In 162.1, the London Company was dissolved, Vir-
ginia became a royal province, and its governors were
appointed by the king.

10. In 1639, Sir William Berkeley was appointed
governor. He ruled witl! moderation, and continued in
office for thirty-seven years.

11. In 16.14, a second lndian massacre occurred. It
Was followed by a war which lasted two years, and ended
in the submission of the Indians to the English.

5. What prevented the colony being ab:tndoncd? 6. What changa
was made in the govcrnrncnt of thc colony? 7. W1mt was brought
into the colon y in 1620? 8. What is s:tid of the massacre in 1622?
9. What was done in 1624? 10. What is said of Sil' Willia:n Berke..
ley? 11. What of the second ludian massacre?


12. In 1663, Parliament enforced the Navigation
Act, which prohibitcd the colonists from importing or
exporting goods except in British vessels.

13. In lü76, Nathaniel Bacon headed a party and
compelled Governor Berkeley to submit to his authority.
Soon after this Bacon suddenly died and the rebellion
\Vas suppressed.

14. In 1677, Culpepper became governor, but he was
deprivcd of his oflice in 1684. Virginia again became a
royal province, and was so continued until the Hevo.


1. In 1609, Hcnry Hudson, who was in the service
of the Dutch East India Corupany, discovered the H ud·
son River, which he ascended as far as Albany. In
consequence of this the Dutch claimed the countryand
named it New Netherlands.

2. In 1614, theDutch erected a few rude hoveIs on
Manhattan Island. Thc settlcment was called N ew

3. In 1614, a settlement was made at Fort Orange
(Albany). During tha same ycar New Netherlands was
capturcd by the English under Argall, who rctained
posscssion of it until the next summer.

12. Whllt is said of the N avigation Act 7 13. What is s"id of
Bacon 's rebellion? 14. What changes were ruade in the govern.
ment of Virginia 7

l. What discovcry did Hudson ruake 7 Who claimed the country,
and why? 2. What is said of the settlement at New Am"terdam7
3. Wben was Albany settled? What is sa\d of the capture of New
Netberlands by the English 7


1. In 1645, the Dutch commcnced a war with the
Algonquin Indians, which lasted two years and ended
in the defeat oI' the saYagos at Strickland rJains.

5. In 1664, the King of England granted the Terri.
tory of New Netherlands to the Duke of York. Tho
bttcr sent out a squadron under Colonel Nichols, which
captured the settlement at New Amswrdam and changed
its name to New York.

6. In 1673, New York was recapturcd by the Dutch,
through the trcachery of Sir John Manning, but it was
restorcd to the Englillh tlie next ycar.

7. In 1674-, Sir Edmund Andross eommcnced his
tyrannical administration as govcrnor oI' Ncw York.
He eontinued in office until 1682.

8. In 1683, a legislative asscmbly met at New York
and established a " Chartcr of Libertics."

9. In 1688, Andross again became governor and
continued his administration until 1689, when William,
Prince of Orange, ascended the throno oI' England,
and the colonists were rid of their oppressors.

10. In 1691, King William appointed Colonel
Sloughter governor oi' N ew York. He was succeeded
by Fletcher, in 1692, whose aots eaused him to be
despised by the peopIe.

n. In 1698, the Earl of Bellamont became governor.
He was sueceeded by Lord Cornbury, in 1702, whose

4. What io said of thc war with the Indians 7 5. What was don~
in 1664 7 6. What in 16737 'l. What is saiJ. of the administratioIl
of Andross7 8. What was done in 16837 9. What is said of the
seeoIld admillistration of Andros.? 10. What changcs were made
In the governors in 1691 /lnd 1692? n. What in 169B ant! 17021


oppressive mensures caused great dissatisfactioll among
the inhabitants.


1. In 1607, the Plymouth Company sent a hundred
emigrants under G corge Popham to N ew England.
They commenced a settlement near the Kennebec
River, but it was abandoned the following spring.

2. In lü l-!, Captain J ohn 8mith explored the eoast
of New England. In 1615, he attempted to plant a
colon y there, but was unsuecessful.

3. The first permanent settlement in l'tIassachusetts
was made at Plymouth, by thc Puritans, on the 20th
of December, 1G~0. They had been driven from Eng-
Iand by religious perseeution, and they sought an asy-
lum in the wilds of America.

4. On their arrival they elected J ohn Carver governor.
He made a treaty with Massasoit, the great Indian
chief of the country, which was kept unbroken for
fifty years. They suffered greatly from disease, hunger,
and cold, and many of their number perished.

5. In 1628, John Endicott and threc hundrcd emi-
grants made a settlemcnt at Salem. In 1630, Governor
Winthrop settled Boston. Charlestown, Dorchester,
and Cambridge were settled about the same time.

l. What settlement was attempted by the Plyrnouth Compuny in
1607? 2. What was done by Captain John Srnith 7 3. What is
.aid of the settlement at Plymouth? 4. Who was elected govcrnor,
and what did he do 7 From what did they sulfer 7 5. What place
W8.S setUed ill 16287 What in 1630?


6. In 1635, Roger Williams, minister of Salom, was
banished from the colony for advuIlcing dúctrines iu
opposition to those held by his brethren. During this
year a large numbcr oi' emigrunts arrived, among whom
was Govcrnor Vane.

7. In 1636, Ann Hutchinson and Rev. John Wheel-
wright caused much trouble by their opposition to the
clergy, and were finally compelled to lcavc the colony.

8. In 1643, Plymouth, Massuchusetts, Connecticut,
and N ew IIaven were unitcd for mutuul protection
under the title of the "U nited Colonies of N ew Eug-
land." This union lasted for more than forty years.

9. In 1656, a law was passed banishing all Quakers
from the colony, and imposing the penalty of death on
those who remuined. Four persons were executed
under this bw.

10. In 1675, a war broke out between the whites
and the Narragansctt and "\Vampanoag lndians under
King Philip. Troops from Plymouth and Massachu-
setts wcnt against thcm and destroyed both the tri bes.
Philip was shot by a faithless ludian, in 1676, and his
wife and children were captured aud enslaved by the

n. In 1684, the charter of Massachusetts was de-
clared invalid, and, in 1686, the King appointed Sir
Edmund Andross governor of all New England.

6. When and why was Roger Williams banishetl? Who arriYed in
16351 7. Who were banished in 1636? 8. What union was formed in
1M3? 9. What is said of the law ¡tgainst the Quakers? 10. What
is said of King Philil"s \Var? 11. What wal done in 1684 and
1686 ~


12 The people were much opposed to Andros~, ando
in 1689, during the revolution in England, they seized
and imprisoned him, and restored the old form of

13. During King William's War the colonists suffered
much from the hostility of the Indians and Canadians.
Expeditions were sent against them, but they were
gcncrally unsuccessful.

1-!. At the close of the \Var, King William granted
a new Charter to l\lassachusetts, which enlarged her
territories and gave her many privileges j but in it he
reserved the right of appointing the governors.

15. In 170-1, the Freneh and Indians attacked and
burned Deerficld, in l\lassaehusetts, killed many of the
inhabitants, and carried the rcmainder to Canada.


1. In 1622, the Plymouth Company granted
territory of New Hampshire to Ferdinand Gorges
John Mason.



2. In 16~3, they sent over two companies of emÍ-
grants to make settlcments on the Piscataqua River.
One of the places seuled was caIled Dover. In 1638,
Exeter was settlad by the Rev. J ohn Wheelwright.

12. What was done with Andro". in 1689? 13. What elfect had
King Wl'Iliam's War on Ihe coloni"ts? 14. What is .aid of the
new Charler grnnted by King WilIiam? 15. What is said of the
attack on Deernclrl ?

1. When nnd to whom was New Hampshire granted? 2. '''hat
settlemeD's were made iD 1623? When and by whom was Exeter



3. The settlers suffered so much from the hostility
of the Indians that they placed themselvcs under the
protection of l\Iassachusetts, in 1641. In 1079, they
were again separated, and N ew Hampshire became a
royal provinee.

4. A legislative assembly met at Portsmouth, in 1680,
but the king disregarded its aets and appointed
Edward Cranfield governor. By a course of injustice
and oppression he became odious to the peoplo, and
was forced to leave the country.

5. In 1690, Samuel AlIen, who had purchased
Mason's claim to New Hampshire, was appointed
govcrnor. Betwcen him and the people lawsuits about
the land continued for many years. 'l'hey were finalIy
settled in favor of the co¡oni~ts.

6. Previous to 1746, N cw IIampshire suffercd greatly
from the Indian wars. Doyer and other towns were
plundercd and burned, and many of the inhabitants
killed or earried prisoners to Canada.


1. The first settlement in New Jersey was made at
Bergen, by the Duteh, in 1624.

2. In 1664, Elizabethtown was settlcd by a company

3. 1Vhen was New IIampshire placed under the protectiun of
M,ssachusetts? When .eparated fraID it ag'ain? 4. Wba! was done
In 1680? What is said of Cranfield's administmtion? 5. What of
Allen's administration? 6. What is said of tbe Indian war. pre·
viou. to 1746?

1. When and wbere was Xcw Jersey first settled? 2. What WII8
done in 1664 ?


)f English under Berkeley and Sir George Uarteret.
Philip Carteret was appointed the first goverrlor.

3. The culonywas flourishing untilIG70, when the pay-
ment of fjuit-rents was UClllauueu by the proprietors. So
great was the opposition to this measure that the settlers
rose in rebellion in 167~, and appointed another governor.

4. In ]674, JJord Berkeley sold his share of New
Jersey to Edward Byllinge. The btter sold out to the
Fricnds, or Quakcrs, in 1676. In 1677, the provinec
was diviucd, Carterct taking East Jersey, and thc Friends
West .Jeroey.

5. In 1682, \Villiam Penn, with eleven other Friends,
purchased East Jersey of the heirs of Carteret and
appointed Robert Barclay governor.

6. In 1688, tite Duke of York made Andross govo
ernor of Jersey. Great confusion prevailed from this
time until 1702, when Eust unu \Ve¡;t Jersey wcre
united under the name of New Jersey, and placed undel
thc govcrnmcn t of Lord Corn bury of N ew York.

7. In 1738, the goyernroent of N ew Jersey was sepa-
rated froro that of New York, and Lewis Monis waa
appointed the first governor.


l. In 1629, the Swedcs and Finns purchased the
t<:rritory' extending froro Cape Henlopen northward for

3. 'Vhat trouhles arORe in 1670? 4. 'Vhat changcs were m.nne in
the o\\'ner:-:hip of New .Tersey? 'Yben and how W:lS New Jersey
;livilled? 5. 'Vhcn nnll by whom was East Jersey pUl'~hnsed 7
6. When ,lid AndroEE become governor? What waB done in 17021
7. What in 1738? .

1. What was done by tbe Swerlel ana Finns in 16297


(¡ve¡ thirty miles. They made a settlement near Cap6
Renlopen, which was, however, afterwards broken up.

2. In 1638, a body oi" Swedes under Peter ;\linueÍl!
settled near the DJouth of Christiana Creek, and called
the place N ew Sweden.

3. In 1651, the Dutch built a fort nt New eastle.
The Swedes under Rising visited thern under pretence
of fricndship, and succeeued in obtainillg possession of
the fort.

4. In 1655, thc Dutch goycrnor of N ew York, witb
a fleet oi" sevcn ships, entercd the Dclaware and took
possession of al! the Swedish settlcmcnts.

5. In 1664, the English subdued the Dut,ch, and
Dclaware became a depcndeney uf New York.

6. In 1682, thc tcrritory of Delaware, called the
"Three Lower Countics," was grantcd to \\'ilIiam Penn,
who landed at Ncw Castle in October of that ycar.

7. Delaware inercased rapidly in population and pros-
perity, and remained annexed to Pennsylvania until
1691, when the two States were separated and Dclaware
was plaeed under the contrul of Colone! ~IarkhaDJ.

8. In] 693, the two colonies were again united by
Colon el Fletchcr ofNew York; but, in 1702, they were
finally separated, and Dclawarc had a distinet legis-
lature, although both eolonies remained under the same

2. What settlemcnt was made in 1638? 3. Wrat is said of the fort
at N ew CasUe? 4. Whnt was done by the Dutch in 1655? 5. What
WItS done in 1664? 6. What in 1682? 7. What WIlS done in 16911
8. What in 1693 and in 1702?



1 In 1632, William Clayborne, a surveyur employed
by the London Company, built several tratling houses
on Kent Island.

2. In 1632, George Calvert, Lord Baltimore, obtained
a eharter for the colony which was called l\1aryland in
honor of Quecn Maria. Before the charter rassed the
royal seal, George Calvert died, and the territory Wall
granted to his son Cecil.

3. In 1633, Leonard Calvert was appointed governor
of the colony. In 1634, he, with two hundrcd emi.
grants, mostly Catholics, purchased an Indian vilIage on
the Sto lHary's Rivcr, where they formed a settlement.

4. Dnder the wise government of Lord Baltimore, al!
Christian dcnominations were welcomed to the colony,
and aH were protected from perseeution. The Indians
were friendly and the Boíl and cIimate inviting. These
things causcd the colon y to ¡ncrcase rapidly in wealth
and population.

5. The peaee of the colony was disturbed by Clay.
borne, who refuscd to Sublllit to Lord Baltimore. In
1635, he took up anns ag-ainst the governmcnt, but was
defcated and rorced to leave the colony.

6. In 1642, a general Indinn war broke out, which

l. Wha! was done hy Claybornc in 16~2? 2. WhaL is sni.1 of the
eh"r!er grante,¡ to Lord P"ltimore? 3. What was done by Leonard
Clllvcrt in lr,~4? 4. Wllat is said of the co]ony nnder Lord Balti·
more? 5 What is ~aid of Claybo •. nc·s rebellian? 6. Wha! occurrad
in 16427 What in 1645 r


lasted two years. In 1645. Clayborne returncd te
Maryland and excited another rebcIE:m, which lasted
for more than ayear.

7. In 1652, during Cromwcll's rcign, Lord Baltimort'
was deprived of the govcrnmcnt. A civil war ensued
in 1655, and it was not until 1660 that Calvert's
anthority was fully recognized and harmony restorcd in
the colony.

8. In 1676, Cecil Calvert died. He was distinguished
for wisdom, bencvolcnce, and liberality of sentimcnt.
At his death his son Charles suceceded to his title and
estate, and was govcrnor of the colony during the next
fourteen years.

9. In 1681, King iVilliam made a royal province of
Maryland. l\eligious frecdom was abolished, and the
Church of EngIand was established as the religion of
the State to be supported by taxation.

10. In 1715, thc govcrnmcnt was again restored to
the heirs of Lord Baltimore, with whom it rcmained
until thc Revolution.


1. In 1630, the soil of Connecticut was grantcd oy
the Plymouth Company to the }2arl of Warwick, and
in the following year hc grantcd it to Lord Say and
Seal, Lord Brooke, and othcl's.

7. Wh .. ! is s"id of MarylantI during Cromwcll's reign? 8. Wben
did Cah,~ert. lIle, und for w hat \Vas be distinguL:5hed 7 \Vho succeedcd
iúm? 9. Whnt WllS .Jone in 1691? 10. What in 17151

l. To whom vmB Connectiout gmnteu ?


2. In 1633, the Dutch built a fort at Hartford
During tbe same year the English erecood a trading-
house at Windsor.

3. In ] 635, emigrants from Massachusetts made Ret-
tlemcnts at Windsor and Weathersfield. In 1636, thc
Rev. 'I'homas Hooker, with one hundred cmigrants, [eft
l\1assachuietts and laid the foundation of Hartford.

4. In 1637, a war was commenced between the Pe-
quod tribc of Indians, numbering about seven hundred
warriors, and thc Connecticut settlers. It was oormi-
nated the same year by the destruction of the tribe.

5. In 1638, the Rev. John Davenport and Theophi-
lus Eaton founded N ew Haven. After a day of fasting
and prayer they made a covenant "to be governed in
al! things, civil and rcIigious, by thc rules and principIes
of the Bible."

6. In 1639, the people of Hartford, Windsor, and
'W cathersficld met at H artford and formed a separate
governmcnt for thcmselves. Their constitution waa
very liberal, and carefully protected the rights of tbe

7. In 1650, Governor Stuyvesant made a trcaty with
tbc English, by which the Dutch gave up al! claim to
thc territory of Connecticut.

8. In 1662, John Winthrop was sent to England to
secure a charter for the c010ny, from Charles n. He

2. What w"" dono in 1633? 3. What in 1635? What in 1636 (
4. What is s",id 01' tbe Pcquod War? .5. Whae is sRid of the settle-
mene of New lIoven? 6. What was done in 1639? 7. What i~
said of the treaty iu 1650? g. What is suid of the charter obtainod
by Winthrop?


obtained one which was very liberal in its pro\i~ions;
and embraced the N ew Haven colony within its limita.
That colon y, however, refused to be unitcd undcr tha
charter until 1665.

9. In 1675, Andross proceeded with a naval force to
the Connecticut River and endeavored to extend his
authority over the settlernents there, but the colunists
were firm in their opposition to hirn, and he was como
pelled to return to New York without having accom·
plished his object.

10. In 1687, King JalUes commissioned Andross as
governor ol' all N ew EngIand. He went to Hartford,
where the Assembly was in session, and demanded their
charter. It was placed on the table. The discussion
was continued until evening, when the lights wcrc sud-
denly extinguished, and J oseph lVadsworth took the
charter and secreted it in a hollow tree, which has ever
since been called the " Charter-Oak."

11. Although Andross failed to obtain the charter,
he assumed the control of the government in 1687, and
continued to rule until 1689, when his patron King
James was driven from the throne of England.

12. In 1692, Governor Fletcher of New York was
appointed commander of the Connecticut mili tia. In
1693, he went to Hartford to takc the command, but he
was so resolutely opposed by 'Wadsworth, thcir capta¡n,
that he gave up the attempt and returncd to New York.

9. What was done by Andross in 1675? lO. Wha! is said of An-
;lros.'. atterupt to ohtain the charter? 11. What did Andro88 do
aller failing to obtain the charter? 12. What wa8 done by Governol


R H o DEI S L A N D.

1. In ] 636, Rhode Island was settled by Roger Wil.
liams, who hall been banished from Massachusetts the
previous year. The town was called Providencc, to
express his confidencc in the mercies of God.

2. The colony soon becamc an asylum for the
persecuted in other provinces. In 1638, William
Coddington and several others w ho had been banish~d
from Massachusetts settled at Portsmouth, on the
island of Rhode Island. In 1639, they commenced
the settlement of Newport.

3. In 1644, Roger Williams obtained from the
Parliament of England a free and absolute charter fOl
the government of both the settlcments.

4. In 1647, delegates from the several towns met at
Portsmouth and adopted a liberal constitution for the
govewrnent of the colony.

5. In 1663, Charles n. grantcd a charter to Rhode
Island, which embraced al! the principIes of .the
previous charter, and secured to the people the civil
and religious liberty for which they had contended.

6. This charter was dissoIved by Andross when he
became govcrnor of thc N ew EngIand colonies, in 1687,

1. When aud hy WhOlU was Rhode IsJan<l settled? What waS
the town called? 2. Far WholU did the colon y become an asylllID?
Wbat was done by William Coddington and otbers? 3. Wbat wal
done in 1644? 4. What was done hy (he delega!e" at PortSlUoulh?
D. What is saiol of tbe charter granted by Charles TI.? 6. W hat
did Andross do with this charter, aud bow long did it reUlaÍn in
force 1


but afier his imprisonment it was resumed and con-
tinued in force until a state constitution was adoptad
in 1842.

N O R T JI e A ROL 1 N A.

1. Between the years 1640 and 1650 a number of
persons from Virginia began a colonJ north of Albe-
marle Sound. In 1661, a number of emigrants from
lHussachusetts settled on Cape Fear Rivcr, but the
settlement was afterwards abandoned.

2. In 1663, a settlement was made on Albemarle
Sound, und William Drummond was appointcd governor.
In 1665, emigrants fl'om the island of Barbadoes settled
on Cape Fear River ncar the former settlellcnt.

::l. In 1663, a Iarge extcnt of territory was granted
to Lord Clarendon and soven associatcs, who gaye it the
general nalle of Carolina.

4. In 1665, they employeJ the celebrated philosopher
J ohn Locke to prepare a constitution for the goveru-
ment of tbe colony. Its provisions were at varianee
with the wisbes of the people, causing much discol'd
among the settlers, and it was finally abandoned.

5. In 1683, Seth Sothel, one of the proprietors,
arrived as governor of tho province. He was avaricious
3nd corrupt, and used his office solely for the acquisition
of wealth. Tbe peoplo, after bearing his cruel opprcs-
sions for nearly six years, banished him from the colony.


1. What scttlcrncnt was mn~e bctwcen Jfi40 and 1650? Whal
in Hifil? 2. 'Vhat Bcttlement was maJe in lH6;~? 'Yh:tt in 1fi65'
~. What gmnt WllS made in 1063? 4. What is said of tbe eon"tltu-
tion prepared by John ::'ocke? .;_ Whllt is ,,¡,id uf 8clh 80thol1


~. In 1695, the amiable Quaker, Archdale, became
governor. U nder his administration the pcoplc were
prospcrous and happy.

7. In 1707, a COlllpany of Frcnch Protcstants settled
on the Trent River, :md, in 1710, one hundred German
familics scttlcd ncar thc same place.

8. In 1711, tllC Tuscarora and Coree Indians massa-
cred one hundrcd and thirty of these settl<;rs. Troops
frolll South Carolina were sent to their relief. They
defcatcd the Indians, capturing eight hundred of them,
and driving the remainder to N ew York, where they
joined the confederacy of the Five NationA.

9. North and South Carolina wcrc united under the
same board of proprietors, untill729, when a distinct
govcrnmcnt was estnblished over each. From this
period until thc Revolution the colony was peaceful
and prosperous.

s O U T TI e A ROL 1 N A.

1. In 1670, a number of English emigrants under
William Sayle entcrcd thc harbor of Port Hoya!.
After a bricf sojourn they sailcd into Ashley River, on
the south side of which they commenced the settlement
of Old Charlcston.

2. This place was not suited fol' commercc, and, in

6. What is s"id of A rchdale ? 7. What ig ."id of th~ settlements
on Trent River? 8. What is ~aid of the war with the Tusenrora
ana Coree Indians? 9. What is .uid of the separation of N orth
"nd South Carolina?

1. What W:1S done by Willialll Sayle in 1670? 2. What was done
in ll1g0? From what diil tha c"rIy sett1ers sulfer?


1680,.it was deserted for the more eligible one known
as Oyster Point, where the present city of CharIeston
was commenced. The earIy settIers sufi'ered from the
hostility of the Indians and the tyranny of their

3. In 1690, Seth Sothel, who had been banished
from North Carolina, came .into the province and was
made governor. But peace was not restoreu, and
Sothel, after two years of opprcssive rule, was banished
from the colony.

4. In 1693, the "Fundamental Constitution" was
abolished. In 1695, John ArchdaIe became goveruor.
By a wise and equitablc administration he did much
to restore order in the colony, and establish friendly
relations with tho Indiana.

5. In 1702, during the Europcan wars, James Moore,
governor of SOl1th Carolina, made an unsuccessfuI
expedition against the Spanish settIemcnts in Florida.
Soon after his rcturn he marched against the A paIach-
ian Indians, who were in alliance with the Spaniards,
captured eight hundred of their warriors, and took
possession of an thcir territory.

6. In 1706, a f1eet of 1<'rench and Spanish vesseIs
from Ravana, attempted to capture Charleston, buí
was rcpulsed by the inhabitants.

7. In 1715, a general war brokc out with tlle

3. What was done by 8eth Sothel? 4. When was the Fnnda-
mental Constitution abolished? What is "aid of Jobn Arch'lalel
5. What is s",id of Moore's expeclition against the Spanish sellle·
ment. in Florida? What of tbe one ngainst the Apalaohiun
Indians? 6. What was done by tbe Freneh snd Spanish in 17051
r. Describe the Yam8see W9r.


Yamasee Indians. They destroyed ~he frontier settle-
mcnts, and threatened the whole colon y with ruin.
Uovcrnor Craven, with twelve hundred men, defeated
',heir main body, on the bauks of the Salkehatchie,
und drove the survivors into Florida.

8. The oppressions of the proprietors eontinued until
1719, when the people rose in rebellion und eleeted
James JUoore governor of the colony. The diffirulties,
however, were not entirely settled until 17~9, when
N orth and South Carolina beeame distiuct royal prov-


l. In 1643, the Swedes erected a fort on Tinicum
Tsland, where their governor, J ohn Printz, built a
handsome rcsidcnce. Several Swedish scttlcments were
on the Sehuylkill and the west 'side of the Dclaware,
as early as 1677. AH of these were embraced in
" Upland Connty."

2. In 1681, William Penu, a member of the Society
of Friends, reccivcd a grant of the territol'y wcst of
the Dclaware River, on aceount of his father's elaim on
the British Government for si~teen thousand pounds
sterling. To this the King gave the name of Penn.

3. In thc autumn of 1681, a large eompany of

8. Wha! io snid of the rulers of South Carolin,,? How and when
wcre the difficultics scttled?

1. Wh"t scttlcment was maJe by the Swcdes in 16.13? Wha!
other Swedish settlcmcnts were miLde as early as 1677? 2. Whal
gmnt was nrade to William l'enn in 1681? 3. When and by whom
lI'as Chester settled 7 Who was appointed governor 7


emigrants, mostIy Quakers, left EngIand and settled at
Chester. They were under the direet.ion of WillüLm
lHarkham, who was appointed deputy-governor.

4. In 1682, Penn reeeived from the Duke of York
the grant of the present State of Delaware, and, in
October of that year, he, with two thousand eolouists,
landed at N ew Castle.

5. On the day after his arrival, he addressed the
people, expIaining the principIes of his government,
and promising to aeenre thcm civil and reIigious liberty.

6. Penn next procccded up the Delaware Iliver and
foundcd Philadelphia. In order to sceure the friend-
ship of the Indians, he invitcd thClll to the eity. where
a treaty of peaee and friendship was mude \yhieh was
kept unbroken for more than seycnty years.

7. In Deeember, lUin, the fil'st Assemhly mot at
Chester. In the fol1owing: year thcy ns¡;cll1blcd nt l'hi-
ladclphia and adoptcd a charter whieh was of unex-
ampled liberality.

8. In 1684, Penn returned to EngIand, Icaving tlle
government in the hands of fivc comlllissionors.

9. Little occurrcd to disturb the peaee of Pcnnsyl-
vania, until 169:2, whcn King William supposing Penn
to be friclldly to James n., the dcposcd so, ercign;
dcprived him of the gOYCl'llillCllt of the provincc and
llonferred it upon Coloue! Flctcher of New York.

4. Whatwas done in 1682? 5. What ,lid Penn do (he n€xt ,laf?
6. What city did Penn found? IIoIY di,] he S('CUTe lhe friclIdship
of the Iudians? 7. What 18 g!lid 01' (he Assembly? 8. What did
PenD do iu 1684? 9. How was the peaee of Pennsylvania disturbed 1


10. The innoccnce of Penn was soon established,
and, in 1694, he was rcstored to his proprictary rights.
In 1699, Penn visited his eolony a second time

11. l!'inding that the inhabitants were di8satlsfied
with the govcrnmcnt, Penn granted them a new charo
ter in 1701. This was more liberal than any previon!
one, and conferrcd upon the people all the political
privilcges they desired.

12. Sooa after this (1701) Penn returned to England
and left Andrew Hamilton as deputy-governor. Undcr
the government of Penn the colony became an asylum
ror the oppressed of every c\ime, and increased in
wealth and population beyond any previous example.

13. Willium Pcnn died in London, in 1718, leaving
his province to his children. It continued in the Penn
fami1y until 17/5, when their daíms were purchased by
the Ccmmonwealth for 580,000 dollars.

14. The boundary line separating Pennsylvania froro
Maryland caused much trouble between Penn and Lord
Baltimore for many year8. It was finally settled in
1761, whcn two surveyors, Mason and Dixon, fixed the
present boundary, which has since been known a~
"Mason and Dixon's Line."

10. What was done in 1694? When did Penn re\'isit his colany?
11. What is said ()f the new charter granted in 1701? 12. What is
6nid of Penn's !'eturn tu England? \Yhat is said of PelJllf:yh·¡)r.ía
under Penn's governmf'nt? 13. 'Yhcn did Penn die? I10w lon~
<lit! the prodnce continue in the Penn family? 14. What is mV uf
tua ooundar)' line bctween Pellnsylvania und Marylun<l? How wad
¡ho uiflicult.y settled?



1. In 1732, a company of benevolent gentlcDlcn
o!Jtallled from George II. the grant of the territory
now constitutillg thc State of Georgia. Thcy designcd
it as an asylum for the poor of England and fOl" the
persecuted Protnstants of all nations.

2. In No\'elllber, 173Z, Jam{'s Oglethorpe with one
hundred and twenty emigrants left England for Amer-
ica. He ascended the Savannah River, and, in Feb·
ruary, 1733, commenced a settlement which was called

3. Oglethorpe made treaties of friendsh:p with th
neighboring Indian tri bes, and by his kindness gained
their confidence.

4. The trustees made libera) offers to all who would
settle in the colony, and hundreds from Germany,
Switzerlaud, and Scotland were induced to emigrattl.

5. In 1736, Oglethorpe, who had been to England,
arrived in the colony with thrce hundred emignmts.
In 1738, George Whitefield, a cclebrated preacher,
visitcd the province and founded an orphan asylulll at

6. In 1739, England declared war against Spain, and
Oglethorpe preparcd for an expedition against tl,e set.
dements in Florida. In May, 1740, he attackcd Sto

1. What is suid of the grant of Georgia? 2. What of tl:e settle-
ment "r Savannah? 3. How did Oglethorpe treat the Indians?
4. How were persons induced to settle in tbe colony? 5. What waS
done in I¡¡¡57 In IT3S? 6. What was done in 17391 In L7407


Augustine, but was defeated and oblIged to return to

7. In Ji 42, thc Spaniards witha Heet of thirty-six
vcssels and threc thousand men invaded Georgia, but
they were defeated by Oglethorpe and compellcd to leave
the coast.

8. In 1743, Oglethorpe returned to England. The
t1'ustees thcn appointcd a president and council to
manage thc affairs of the colony. Its prospcrity, how-
ever, was not fully cstablished until 1752, when the
tl'ustees gave np theil' chal'te1' and Gcol'gia bccame a
royal province.

KING WILLIAM'S W AR (1689-1697).
1. King William's War commcnced betwccn Englanci

and France, in 1689, and soon extended to their colo-
nies in Ame1'ica. In J uly, of that yea1', the tow.n of
Dover was dcst1'oyed and many of the inhabitants killed
01' carried prisoners to Canada,

2. In 1690, Schenectady, in Ncw York, was burned
and sixty of the inhabitants massacred. These barbari.
ties induced the colonists of N ew England and Ncw
York to make preparations for invading Canada.

7. What is said of tbe invasion of Gcorgia by the Spaniards?
8. What change in tbe government was made in 1743? IIow waa
the prosperity of the colony cstablishcd?

l. Wbat is ""id of Ring Williarn's War? Wbat of the destruc-
tion of Dover? 2. What was dono at Schenectady? What did tbose
barharities induce the colonists to do?



3. In 1690, an expedition under Sir William Phipps
was sent against Quebec ami a force by Iand against
MOlltreal. Both were unsuccessf'ul.

4. The colonists continucd to Buffer sevcrely frúUl
these attacks by thc French and Indiana untiI the war
was ended by thc 'frcaty of Ryswick, in 1697.

QUEEN ANNE'S W AR (1702-1713).
5. In 1702, Qucen Anne's 'Yar commenced between

England on the one side and .Franee and Spain on th6
other, and in it the colonists 800n became involved.

6. In 1704, Dcerfield in Massachusctts was ourncd
and its inhabitants killed or carried prisoncrs to Canada.
Thcse attacks becamc so alarming that many of thc set-
tlements were abandoned and thc people collected in
forts for protection.

7. In 171 O, N ew England sent out a Heet, aidcd by
one from England, which capturcd Port Roya! and
challged its name to Annapolis. Nova Seotia then
became a British province.

8. In J u!y,.1711, a large Heet and army under Ad-
mira! \Yalker arrived in Bastan, where they obtained
additionaI forees, and, in August, departed fol' Canada
with nearly seven thousand men. Eight of thcir ship~

3. Whllt c"pcditions were Bent out in 1690? 4. When did tbó
sufl'erings of the colonists cnd? 5. 'Yhal is said of Quecn Anne'.
War? 6. 'Vben waslJeerfield attacked? What cffect had the waT
up<>n the 8ettlement8? 7. What i8 .ai.! of the captnre of Port Royal?
8. n.3oribe tlle naval expedition against Can,,,l,,.

were wrecked in thc Sto Lawrence, and ninc hundred ol
the men lost. This misfortune causcd the expedition
to be abandoned.

9. The arruy, which was assembled at Albany t,o
cooperare with the ficet, returncd upon hearing of thi8
disaster. In 1713, the war was ended by the Trcaty oi"
Utrecht .

• KlNG GEOIWE'S WAR (1744-17-18).
10. In 1744, King George's War eommenced between

France and England and at once involved tlle colonies.
The important event of the war in America was the
capture of Louisbul'g on Cape Breton lsland.

11. Governor Shirley of J\Iassachusetts proposed a
plan for capturiug the place, and N ew York, Pennsy1'
vania, and the Ncw England Sta tes joined in thc expe·
dition. Three thou~and two hundred troops undel
WilIiam Pepperell sailed i'or Boston, in April, 1745.
At Canso thcy were mct by Admiral Warren, who witb
a British Hect was ready to assist them.

12. The combined forces, numbel'ing foul' thousand
men, commenced a regular siege of the place, which
was continued until the 28th oi' June, 1745, when
Louisburg and the loland of Cape Breton were surrcn-
de red to the English.

9. What was done by che anny at Albany? When wns the war
"nde,!? 10. When did King Gcorge's War commenee? What mu
the important e"cnt of the war? 11. Describe the preparations fOI
lUl expedition agILinst Louisburg. 12. What is said of the siego of


13. In 1746, a large fleet was sent by the Freneh to
desulate the English eulonies, but sturIns, shipwrccks,
and disease eaused the enterprise to he abandoned
In 1748, the Treaty of Aix-Ia-Chapelle terminated the
war, and Louisburg was restored to the French.

1. The territory along the great lakes and the lUis-

sissippi River was claimed by the Freneh, who, about
the year 1750, eommenced erecting a chain of forts
from Lake Erie to the Gulf of l\Iexieo.

2. This territory was also elaimed by the English
who opened a trade with the Indians, but the tradera
were seized by the French, in 1753, and imprisoned in
thcir fort on Presque lsle.

3. Governor Dinwiddic scnt Gcorge Washington, a
young Virginian in his twenty-seeond year, with a
remonstranee to the French governor. After a journey
uf four hundred miles, one halr of whieh was through
a dreary wilderness, 'Yashin/:,rton deliver('d the message
and brought back a reply to the remonstranee.

4. 'l'he reply was not satisfactory, and, in April, 17;;-1,
Washington with four hundred men marehed agamst
the French at Fort Duquesne. On his arrival at the

13. 'What was done by the Freuch in 1746? Wheu aud h D\V \Va,
the WltT terminated?

1. What was done by the French abont 1750? 2. What by the
Euglish 7 3. What was done by Dinwiddie? What is said oC Wa.sh·
ington'sjourney? 4. What di'l Washington do iu 1754?

EVENTS OF oiJ.755. 39

Great Meadows he surpriscd and captured a body of the
encmy, only one of their number escaping.

5. Learning that a strong force was coming to meet
him, Washington built Fort Necessity. Here he was
attacked by the cnemy, and, on the ]'ourth of J uly,
1754, was compeIled to surrender, but he and his
troops were permitted to return unmolested to Virginia.

6. In J une, 1754, delegates from seven colonies met
at Albany and agrced upon a plan for the union of aU
thc provinecs. This plan was rcjccted by the British
govcrnment and also by the colonies as unsatisfitctory.


1. General Braddock, who was appointed commander-
in-chicf of thc English forees in America, arrived in
February, 1755. Expeditions were planned against
Nova Scotia, 110rt Duquesne, Niagara, and Crown Point.

2. Generals Winslow and l\Jonckton with three thou-
sand men were sent against N ova Scotia. They took
posscssion of the whole country and carried away seven
thousand inhabitants, who were afterwards scattercd
among the English colonias.

3. Braddock with two thousand men marched against
Fort Duquesnc. He reached the vicinity of the fort

5. What was done at Furt Necessity? 6. What was done at
AJb"ny in 175+?

1. What General arrived in 175.5, and what expeditions we1'6
plannad? 2. What is said of the cxpedition against Nova Seotin (
S. What of Braddock's expedition against Fort Duqu&sne?


on thc 9th of July, 1755, whcre he was attackefl and
defeatcd by the French and Indians. In this battle
Braddoek was mortally woullued und one haIf of his
army was destroyed. Washington then took the eom.
mand, and the army retreated to Philadelphia.

4. Govcrnor Shirley eommanded the expedition
against Niagara. He advanced to Oswego whcre he
built a fort, but storms, sickness, and the desertion of
the Indians caused hirn to abandon the enterprise.

5. General J ohnson commanJed the forees sent
against Crown Point. He buiIt Fort Edward, where
he left a part of the troops, and then procccded to Lake
George. CoIonel Williams was scnt out to attack the
l!'rench and Indians under Dieskau, but he was killed
and his troops defeatcd.

6. Dieskau then attacked the fort, but was repulsed.
J ohnson now gave up the entcrprise and, having built
Fort William Henry, returned to Albany where he
disbanded his army.

EVENTS FROM 1756 to 1759.

1. In May, 1756, England formally declared war
against Franee. Lord J~oudon, who was appointcd
eommander-in-chief of the forees in America, arrivcJ

4. What of Shirley's cxpedition against Niagara? 5. 6. What was
done by General Jobnson?

1. When did England declare war against France1 Whlll is
sald of Lord Loudon? •

EVENTS FROl\! 1756 TO 1759. n

m July, but uothing was attempted until the nE'xt

2. In August, 1756, the Frcnch under l\1ontcalm
captured the forts at Oswego, took sixteen bundrAd
prisoners and one hundred and twenty cannon, which
they carried safely to Canada.

3. In July, 1757, Montcalm besiegod Fort William
lIenry then commanded by Colonel Mouro. General
W obb was stationed at Fort Ed ward, only fifteen miles
distant, but he refused to ~end any assistance to Monro,
and the fort was surrendered. Tho garrison were
promised protection, but as soon as they left the fort
the Indians plundered and butchered them witbout

4. In the summer of 175 i, W illiam Pitt was placed
at the head of atfairs in England. He recalled the
inefficient Lord Loudon, appointcd General Abercrombie
in his· place, and prepared to proseeute the war with

5. In .Tune, 1758, General Amherst with twelve
thousand men eommer.ced the siege of Louisburg.
The garrison, aftcr a brave rcsistance, surrendered, and
the whole island of Calie Breton fell into tho hands of
the English. .l!'ifteen hundrcd of the Freneh were
tilied and five thousand taken prisoncrs.

6. In July, 1758, General Abercrombie with fifteen

2. What \Vas done by the French in 1756? 3. What is saiu of
the capture of Fort William Henry? 4. What changes wero mada
in 1757? 5. What is said of the capture of LouisLurg? 6. What
ío oaid of Ihe attack on Montcalm? What was done at Fort
~'rontenac? ,,'hat chango was mn<le in tbe commander.?



thousand n:en attaeked lVIontealm at Ticonderoga, but
after losmg nearly two thousand men he retreated to
the head of Lake George. Colouel Bradstreet was
then sent against Fort Frontenac, which was captured
and destroyed. General.Abcrcrombie was now recalIcd,
and General Amherst appointed to succeed him.

7. In July, 1758, General Forbes with eight thou-
sand men was sent against Fort Duquesne, which he
found deserted. The name of the place was then
changed to Fort Pitt, in honor of the Prime Minister

EVENTS OF 1759 AND 1760.

l. In 1759, expeditions were planned by the English
against Niagara, Ticonderoga, and Quebec. In July:
General Prideaux commeneed the siege of Fort Niagara.
He was killed by the bursting of a can non, and the
command devolved upon Sir William J ohnson, to whom
the placc was surrcndcr·cd.

2. In July, 1759, General Amhcrst with eleven
thousand men advaneed against Tieonderoga. On his
approach the garrison retreatcd to Crown Point and
afterwards to Islc aux Noix. Amherst prepared to
folIow thcm, but storms compelled him to return to
Crown Point where he passed the wintcr.


'l. What was done by General Forbes, in 1758? Wh"t name
WBB given to Fort Duquesne?

l. What expeditions wcrc planned in 1759? What is said of th~
!icge of Niagara? 2. What is said of th'! exp9dition agldost


3. In June, 1759, Gelleral '''olfe with eight thou-
sand men commenced the siege of Quebec. On tha
13th of Septelllber, thcy were attacked by the French
nnder Montcallll, but the assailunts were defeateu and
tbe generals of botb armies killed. On the 18th of
September, 1759, Quebec was surrendercd to tha

4. In April, 1760, the French attcmpted to rccapture
Qucbec, but wcrc unsuccessful. In September, l\1ontreal,
the last stronghold of the Frcnch in America, was sur-
rendered to General Amherst.

5. A treaty of peace was signed at Paris, in February,
1763, by which France ceded to Great Britain aH her
territory in the northcrn parta of America east of tha
Mississi ppi.

REVOLUTION (1763-1775).

l. Soon after the close of the Frencb and Indian
War England asserted the right to tax tbe American
colonies in order to fiU her exhaustcd treasury. In
1764, a bill imposing duties on sugar and other prod-
uets was passcd by Parliament.

2. In 1765, thc Stamp-Act was passed. It reqnired

3. Whllt of the siege of Quebeo? 4. What was done in 1760?
5. What i8 .aid of the treaty of peace in 1763?

1. What right did England assert after the French and ludian
War? Whal hill was pasged by Parliament? 2. When was the
Stamp-Act pa"c,l, and what did it require?


that an deeds, bonds, notes, newspapers, ete. sllOuld ba
executed upon stamped paper, for which 'a duty should
be paid to the British govcrnment.

3. The news of the passage of the Stamp-Act was
received in America with general indignation. In
sorne places riots broke out, in others the be lis were
mullied and rung, the stamps seizcd and destroyed, the
stamp officers compelled to resign, and appeals made to
England t11at the Act might be repcaled. ~'he mer-
chants of NewYork, Boston, and Philadelphia resolved
to import no more British goods while the Stamp-Act
was in force.

4. In October, 1765, the first Colonial Congress met
1.t N ew York. It was composed of delcgates from nine
colonics. Timothy Ruggles was c)¡osp.n President.
They agreed upon a "Declaration of Rights" and a
statement of grievances, in which was asserted the
doctrine that England had no right to tax America.

5. So great was the opposition to the Stamp-Act,
that it was repealcd by the Parliament, in 1766. This
caused great joy throughout America. But the British
ministry díd not give up the ríght of taxation, and, in
1737, a duty was imposed on tea, glass, and other

6. This 1ast act again aroused the peopIe, and they
adopted measures for r~sisting the King and Parlia-

3. IIow was the Slamp-Act reoeived in Amerioa? 4. What i •• aid
of the first Coloni"l Congreso? 5. What i5 said of U.e rcreal of th6
Stamp.A el? Did the TIritish ministry give np the right oí
taxation? 6. How was this ael recclved? Whal is said oC the
circular scnt by Mass01ohusetts?


mento In Fcbruary, 1768, lHassaehusctts sent a
circular to thc colonies, asking thcir coopcration in
olJtaining a l'cdreps of gl'ievances. Thcre was a conlial
response fayorable to the circular· frolll nearly cyory

7. This act of Massachusetts displeased the Bl'itish
ministry, and in the namc of the king the asscmbly
was ordered to rescind the resolution adopting the
circular. They rcfuscd to do so by an almost unani-
moas yote, and reaflirmed that England had no right to
tax America.

8. General Gage was now ordered to Boston, with a
regiment of troops, to crush aU opposition. In October,
1768, thcy arrived and wcre stationed in different parts
of the city.

9. Thc insolcncc of thc soldiers servcd to incrcase
the opposition of the people, so that disturbances
bctwecn them werc of frer¡ucnt occurrence. On the
iíth of JJarch, 1770, a couflict cnsucu, whcn the soIdicrs
fircd upon thc citizcns, killing thrcc, and wounding eíght.
This was caUcu the "Boston ;\Iassacre."

_ 10. 'fhe British Pal'liament, in j}hrch, 1770, re-
pealed all tho duties excopt that on tea. Thís did not
satisfy the Americans, bccausc tbey denied the right
of England to tax them fol' any purpose whatever;
they therefore agreed to use no more tea.

7. JI"w ,"as this oct of Massachusetts reeeiveu by lbe mini.!ry?
Diel lIJ""",,,ltu.-ctt.- oh"y the ordor? S. WlIat i~ said "f General
Oa.;o? U. Wllat re.-ulto! [¡'OID h,wing the soldiers stalioned in
!luarun? 10. \\"11"t <lid tilo Parlialllent now do? Huw was this
tL~eivet.l by' thc AlJleri(~ans?


11. In 1773, the East India Company was directed
to send several cargoes of tea to Alllerica. The in-
habitants of Philadelphia and New York refused to
have the tea unloadcd, und the vessels returned Üi

12. At Boston, the people refused to let the tea be
landed, and the goverilor would not permit it to be
aent back to England. Findiug tlIC authorities werc
deterrnined to un load tho te:l, a party of men, on the
6th of December, 1773, disguised as Indians, went on
board the ships, broke open the tea-chests, and emptied
their contents into the harbor.

13. In order to punish the Bostonians, the Parlia,..
ment, in 1774, passed the Boston Port Bill, which
forbade the landing or shipping of goods at Boston,
and removed their custom-house to Salem. An Act
was also passed authorizing the governor to scnd per-
sons, indicted for crime, out of the colon y for tria!.

14. The Port Bill eaused mueh suffering in Boston.
The people of Salern generously refused to take th~
trade of theil' neighbors, and contributions were sent
from many of the colonies for the relief of tite Buston
m Jrchants.

15. In Scptember, 1774, the first Continental COll-
g-ress assembled at Philadelphia. It was composcd of
delegatcs from all the colonics cxccpt Gcorgia. They

n. What is said of the te" sent to America? 12. Wh,t wa~
done with tile tea at Boston? 13. IIow were tha Bostoniall5
punished for this uet? 14. Wlmt was the effeet oí the Boston Porl
Bil!? How were their sulferings reliel'ed? 15. What is said ot
the tiut Continental Congrc." ?


adopted rt;solutions setting forth the rights of the
oolonists, and suspending al! trade with Great Britain
until those rights were acknowledged.

16. General Gago, who W:1S appointed military gov-
ernor 'of Massaohusetts, now oceupied Boston with an
army to compel obedience. An assembly of delegates
from Massachusctts met in October, 1774, and voted to
raisc and equip an army of twelve thousand men for
the protcction of thc colonics.

1. On the 19th of April, 1775, General Gage

sent eight hundred troops under Major Piteairn and
Licutenant-ColoncI Smith to destroy tho. military sup-
plics at Coneord. At I,cxington they met a small body
of Americana whom they defeated and dispersed. This
was the first battle of the American Revolution. They
then proceeded to Concord and destroyed the stores.

2. On their return to Boston they were terribly har-
aased by the Americans, and would have been captured
had not Lord Percy with nine hundred men been scnt
to their assistance. They finally reached Charlestown,
having lost tW::J hundred and seventy-three men while
the Americans lost but eighty-eight.

16. Wbnt was clone by General Gago? What was done by thb
delega!es fram :lIassachusetts?

1. Who were sent ont to destroy the military store. at Concord 1
What Wall done at Lexington? 2. What is said of thmr return to


3. The news of ihis battJe spread through the land
and so many came to assist their countrymcn that, by
the 1st of .JIuy, the British were closely besicged in
Boston by twenty thousand Americans.

4. Colonel Ethan AlIeli and Benedict Arnold,-with a
small body of troops, marched against the forts at Ti-
con deroga and Crown Poillt. On the 10th of May,
1775, the fort at Tieonderoga was capturéd, and, on the
next day, Crown Point surrendered. Along with these
forts the Americana obtained forty-nillo prisoners and
one hundrcd and forty cannon.

5. On the 10th of May, 1775, the Continental Con-
greas again met at Philúdelphia. John Ilancock W:lS
ch08en president. They formed a unien under the title
of" The United CoJonies," voted to raise and equip un
army of twe,pty thousand men, and eJected George
Washington corumander-in-chief of all the forces.

6. On the 25th of May, 1775, large rcenforcements
of EngJish troops arrived in Boston under Generals
Howe, Clinton, and Burgoyne. General Gage now had
twelve thousand ll1en under his cOll1mand.

7. On the evening of the 16th of June tho Amer-
ieans sent Col"llel Pl'escott to fortify Bunker's Hill
which commandcd Boston, but, by mistake, he ascenued
and fortified Breed's Hill nearer the city.

8. On the 17th of June, 1775, three thousanu soluiers

3. Wbat effect bad lhe news of tbi, battle upon the l'c"ple?
4. Who marched ngainst Ticontlel'oga and Crown Poin! I Wilb
wb~t rcmlt? 5. Wbat j. said of lbe sec(¡nd Continental Congre""?
6. By whom were the Briti.h reenforced in 1775? 7. Wbllt was done
by Prescott? 8. Describ~ the Ilttack of Ihe British.


umler Gencral~ IIowe and Pigot were sent to drive th6
Americans from the hill. They ad vanceu against the
redoubt but "ere twice repulsed and retreated in con-

9. General Clinton having arrived with reenforco.
ments, U-.e British advaneed to a third attack, but tha
ammunition of the Americans was exhausted and they
rctreated from the hill. The British lost one thousand
and fifty-four, and the Americans four hundred and
fifty meno

10. On the 3d of July, 1775, Washington took com-
mand of the army at Cambridge. 1t was composed of
fourteen thousand undiseiplined men who were deficient
in the means neecssary to carry on a siege.

11. The Americans now planned two expeditions for
the invasion of Canada. One was sent by way of Lake
Champlain under General Sehuyler, but he was suc-
ceeded by Montgomery, who captured Sto John's on
the 3d, and nIontreal on the 12th of November, 1775.
Montgomery then proceeded to Quebec.

12. General Arnold with tbe other expedition marched
by the way of the Kennebec Hiver to Quebee, whcre he
arrived in November, 1775, und wa~ joined by Mont-

la. Tbe Americuns commenced the siege, which wus
'~ontinued until Deceruber 31st, 1775, when un assault

9. How did the battle result? 10. What is said of Ihe army al
Cambridge? 11. What expeditions wcre planned? Describe the
one under Schuyler. 12. What is said of Arnold's expeditiou 7
13 What is said oí tbe siege of Quebec?


wa.~ made upon lhe place, but they were repulsed witb
the loss of lHontgomery aud four hundred meno

14. Arnold with the remainder of the army retired a
short distan ce from Quebec where they spent the winter.
In the spring the Americans wcre unable to resist tho
attacks of the British, and, on the 18th o: J \lne, 1776,
fuey evaeuated Canada.

15. Lord Dunmore, governor of Virginia, seized a
quantity of powder belonging to thc colony. Patl'ick
Henry headed a band of militia and demanded tha
powder or its value. Payment was immediately made.
Dunmore was forced to leave the State, and in revengo
he burned Norfolk, in January, 1776.


l. The Americans continued the siege of Boston
through tho winter, and on the 2d of March, 1776,
they commenced cannonading the city. On the night
of the 4th, General Thomas was sent to fortify Dor-
chester Heights which commanded Boston. An attempt
was made to dislodge the Americans, but it was unsue-
cessful, and the British were forced to leave tho city.
On the 17th of March, 1776, they embarked fol' Hali-
fax, and W ru;hington with his army triumphantly entered

14. Wbat wus done by tbe Americans after the repulse at Qnebec!
15. What was done by Dunmore in Virginia?

1. What is said of the siego of Boston? Of tbe fortifioations OD
Dorchestor Heigh tB? What is sait! of the evacuation ?

EVENTS OF 1771.1.

2. Early in the spring of 1776, General Clint~)ll,
aided by a fleet under Sir Peter Parker, sailed fOl
Charleston, South Carolina. On the 28th of J une,
they attaeked the fort on Sullivan's Island, but, after
an action of ten hour8, were forced to leavc the harbor
and 800n afterwards sailed for N ew York. In honor of
the commander, the fort was afterwards ealled Fort

3. On the 7th of June, Richard Henry Lee made a
motion in the Continental Congress, then sitting in
Philadelphia, to declare the colonies independent. After
some debate it was postponed and a committee appointed
to draft a Declaration of Independence. This was writ-
ten by Thomas J efferson and reported on the 2d of J uly.
On the 4th of J nly, 177G, it was adopt.ed and published
to the world. 'I'he colonies now assumed the name of
the "United States of Arnerica."

4. After the Rritish had evacuated Baston, Wa..,hing-
ton proceeded to New York which he thought would be
the next point of attack. General Howe arrived in the
vieinity in J une, and, on the 2d of .J uly, 1776, took
possessiou of Staten rsland. On the 12th, Admira!
Lord IIowe arrived with a fleet and troops from Eng-
land. On the 1st of August, he was reenforced by
Clinton and Cornwallis, from Charleston. The combined
force of the British was not Icss than thirty thousand
men, while ene Americans had only seventeen thousand
lit for duty.

2. De<cribo the expedition against Charleston. 3. Wh:ü is said
of the Declaration of Inclependence? What name did the coJonies
a_sullle 7 4. What is 8:tid of the prcpamtion. for attacking Long
Islalld 1 D


5. On the 22d of Augu~t, 1776, the British lnnded
on the west end of Long Island. Generala Putnam and
Sullivan, with about five thousand men, were stationcd
at Brooklyn. On the 27th of August, thcy were attacked
by Clinton anu driven to their fortifications with the losa
of sixtcen lmnurcu in killeu, wounucd, and prisoners,
while thc I~ritish lost but three hundrcd and sixty-seven.

6. General HGwe feared to attack the fortifications at
Brooklyn without tbe aid of his fleet. While he was
waiting for it, \Vashington procured boats, and, on the
night of the 29th, silentlyerossed over to New York
witb aH his stores and baggage.

7. On the 12th oi' September, 1776, the Americans
withdrcw from Kew York to Harlem Hcights. On the
15th, tlle British entercd thc city, and tlle ncxt day
attacked the Americans at Harlcm Plains, but wcro
defeated. The British army was now recnforced, and
the Americans cnlCuated the whole of Manhattan Island,
except Fort \V ashington, and procceded to White Pluins.

8. A battle was fonght at this place on thc 28th of
Octobcr, 1776, when the AmerieanR were drivcn to the
rocky hills of N orth Castle. TIJe British now returned
to New York, and, on the lGth of November, captured
Fort Washington and with it more than two tbousand
eight hundred Americans.

9. On the 18th of November, 1776, Cornwallis

5. Describe tho attack. 6. Why llid lInwe not nttnck the Amor-
icana? Wh"t w"s done while wniting for the !lcd? 7. What is said
of the evacuation of Ncw York? 8. Wha! is s"id of tho battle of
White Plaim? Of the capture of FOl't Washinp;ton? 9. Wbat Wal
done a.t Fort Lee? Wha! <lid Washington now do?

EVENTS OH 1777. 53

marchod against Fort Lee, which was abandonen on hiR
approach. 'W u8hington now rctrcuted across N ew J e1'-
sey, closcly pursued by the British, allll, on the 8th of
Deccmber, crossed the Delaware with less than three
thousand meno Cornwallis here gave up the pursuit
nnd scattered his troops in several of the towns of New

10. General Lee was directed to leave the HudsOD
and join tho arllly under 'iVashington. In his march
aeross N ew Jersey he was captured by the British, and
the command devolved upon General Sullivan, who
hastened to the rcliof of tho main army.

11. Washington now determined to attaok the Hos-
sians at Trenton. For this purpose he crossod the
Delaware with two thousand four hundred men, and,
on the 26th 01' Deccl1lber, 1776, fell upon the enemy,
killed about twenty, and took one thousand prisoners.
'iVith his spoils Washington recrossed the Delaware,
but the close of the year found him with hj~ whole
army aguin at Trcnton.


l. On the 2d of J anuary, 1777, Cornwallis attackcd
t11e Americans at Trenton. The two armies encampeo

10. Whnt is s/titi of General Lee? 11. Describe the attack OD

1. Describe lhe attltck by CornwalJis. What wa~ the result of
the battle of Princoto)} ?


for the nigh t on opposite si des of a small stream.
Cornwallis fdt certain of capturing the Americans in
thc morning, but 800n after dark, Washington silently
moved off his arllly towards PrineetoL, where he met
some British regiments on their way to Trenton. A
battIe ensued, when the enemy was defeated with the
loss of fou1' hundred meno The Amerieans lost about
thirty, among whom was General Mereer.

2. Cornwallis arrived just as the battlc enrl')d; but
the Amerieans were exhausted, and 'Washington ordered
a retreat to the hi lis of East Jersey. Soon after this
the Amcricans went into wiuter-quarters at ~lorristown
und the British at New Brunswick.

3. In l\Jarch, 1777, Congress sent Silas Deane to
solicit aid 01' France Dr. Franklin and Arthnr Lee
afterwards joined him. They secured about twenty
thousand stand of arms and one thousand barreis of
powder. Several of the French, among whom was
Lafayette, came to Ameríca to take part in the strnggle
against England.

4. In Apríl, 1777, Governor Tryon with two thou-
sand men was sent to destroy the military stores at
Danbury. He burned the town, but during his retreat
was attacked by the Americans under SilIiman, 'Vooster,
und Amold, and ¡ost three hundred meno

5. Soon after this, Colonel l'Ieigs attacked the B1'itish

2. What wa8 done on the arrival of Cornwallis? Where did tb"
armies go into winter-quarters? 3. Wha! WfiS accomplished by the
O')llluússioners sent to France? Did Hny 01' lhe }<'rench como to
A Ulcrica? 4. Describe the attack on Danbury. 5. Describe tbll
.. ttack on Sag Harbor.

EVENTS OF 1777. 55

at Sag Harbor, on Long Island, took ninety prisoners
and burned several vess~ls and magazines without
losing a single mano

6. 1Vashington's army now numbered about ten
thousand meno In March, he left l\10rr~8town and
encamped at l\Iiddlebrook. \Vhile here, the Briti~h
tried to bring on a battle, but failing to do so they
withdrew to t)taten Ialand.

7. In June, 17i7, General Burgoync with ten thou-
sand men left Canada to invade the U nited States by
way of Lake Champlain. On the 2d of J uly he
drove Sto Clair from 'I'iconderogu, and pursued him
towards Fort Edward, capturillg a large amount of
artillery and stores.

8. General Schuyler, the commander of the northern
army, made every effort to obstruct Burgoync's march
towards Fort Edward, and the !atter did not reach that
place until the 30th of J uly. On the approach of
the British, Schuyler retreated to the mouth of the

9. Colonel Sto Leger with seyen thousand men was
sent by Burgoyne to besiege Fort Schuyler. General
Herkimer wcnt to the relief of the garrison, but he
was attacked and four hundred of his men killed.
Arnold was thcn sent to the assistance of the besic¡!cd,
Upon his approach the IndianB fled and Sto LcgcT
retreated to Canada.

6. What is Raid of Washington's arrny 7 What did the Briti8~
lo? 7. What invasion was ma'!e froro Canarla? Whot iid Bur·
güyn. do in July? 8. Whnt wns (lone hy General Schuylerl
9. Desoribe tbe .i~$!e of 10rt Rchuyh>r.


• 10. On the 19th of Augmt, Generaí Gate~, who had
been appointed to the chicf eOllllll,md oi' the northern
arroy, superseded General Sehuyler. Burgoyne sent
Colone! BauUl with six hundred men to capture tbe
stores at Bennington. He was met by General Stark,
OIl the 16th of August, 1777, and totaJIy dcfeated. A
reenforccmcnt of five hundrcd filen uudcr Colonel
Breylllau was also dcfeated by Coloue! Wamer. In
both battles the eneIDy lost over eight hundrcu mell.

11. Burgoyne now stationcd his army at Saratoga,
while the Americans were encamped at Stillwater. Ou
the 19th of Scptember, an indecisive battle was fought
at StiJIwatcr. On the 7th of Octobcr, 1777, a second
battle wa2 fought at the saIDe place, when the llritish
were defeatcd with the loss of four hundred meu,
General Frazer being among the slaín.

12. Burgoyne now attempted to return to Fort
Edward, but his retreat was cut off by the Americans.
He, therefore, offered to surrender, and the articles of
capitulation were signcd on the 17th of Octoher, 1777.
The whole number of troops surrendercd was five thou-
sand seven hundrcd and ninety-one.

13. Clinton had sent three thousand men up tbe
Hudson to meet Burgoyne, but when they henrd of his
surrender, they returned to New York, plundering and
burning several villages along the river.

10. Whnt change was made in lhe commltnders of the northcrn
army? What is said of the battle of Benninglon? 11. Where wer.
the two armies stationed? What is said of the first battIe of 8till-
wat er? What uf the ~econd battIe? ] 2. What did Burgoynl
DIlW do? 13. What is said of the expedition sent to meet Bur.

EVENTS OF 1777. 57
14. On the 23d of J nly, 1 ~ 7i, the British fieet len

New York for the Chcsapcake Ijay, w:th the intention
oi' making an attack upou Philadclphia. Thcy sailcd
up the Hayas fin as Elkton, whcre thcy landcd eighteen
thou~and troops and commenced thcir march toward,
tlJC Dclaware.

15. As 800n as the British left N ow York, Washing.
tdn marched to Philadciphia, wllCre he was joined by
Llfnyettc and Connt Pula8ki. He tl!C1I advallced to
Chad's Ford, on Brandywine Creek, where he was
atLacked by the British, on the 11th of September, 1717.
In this battle tho Amerieans were defeated and forced
to retreat with the 1088 of twelve hundred meno

16. Soon after this the armics again met, but a heavy
rain prevented a battle, and W~ashington witl1drew to
Rcuding. General Wayne was now seut with fifteen
hundred men to check the advance of the enemy, but
he was surpri"ed, on the llight of the 20th, at Paoli, and
lost three hundred meno

n. Congress adjourned from Philadelphia to Lan-
caster, on the ] 8th, and 800n afterwards to York. On
the 26th of September, 177i, the British entered Phi-
ladclphia und prepared to make the eity their wintcr·
quartcrs. A portion of the army was quartered at Ge.)'.

J8. On the 4th of October, 1771, 'Washington

14. What did the British do inJuly? 15. How did Washington try
lo preven tbe capture of Philadelphia? 16. What <lid Washington
do after retreating to l'hi\n.delphia? What happened to General
Wayne? 17. What ,lid Congrcss ,1<1? What io s"id of Ihe entry 01
the Briti"h int.o Phihdc1phin? 18. Dee"ri]'o tbe hatOe of German-


attacked the enemy at'Germantown. The AmeriJans
were repulsed with the lilss of one thousand men and
returned to their camp nt Whitemarsh. Thc British
lost about six hundrcd.

19. After Howe's army had been landed at Elkton, the
British fleet sailed round to the Delaware, but was pre-
vented from reaehing Philadelphia by the obstructions
in tho ehannol and by the forts below tI,e city. In
October, 1777, Count Donop with a body of Hessians
attacked Fort 1\1ercer, but was repulsed. The attack
on Fort J\iiffiin, by the British ships, was al so unSllC-
cessful. Howe afterwards sent a large force which cap-
tmed these forts and removed the obstructions, so that
the fleet sailed up to Philadelphia in Novcmber.

20. On the 4th of December, 1777, IIüwe attempted
to surprise the American camp at Whitemnrsh, but
wns unsuccessful. On the 11th of December, Wash-
ington went into winter-qunrtcrs nt ValIey Forge, on tha


1. The condition of the American army at ValIey
Forge was truly distressing. The soldiers were insuf..
ficiently clothed and worse fed. l\1any were without
ahoes, and their bare feet were terribly bruised on tlto

19. What was done with the British ficet in the Ches.peake?
How were the (bstructions in the Dela,ware removed? 20. WJlal
attempt was made against the eamp at Whitemarsh? When and
where did Washington go into winter-'luarters?

l. Describe tho eondition of the AmericaD llrmy at Valle, Forge.

EVENTS OF 1178. 59

frozen ground, in the march from W hítemarsll to thcir
winter-quarters. A few of tho officers resigned their
commissions, and sorne of the soldiers deserted, hut the
most of them bore their sufferings with patienee.

2. During tbe winter an attempt was made to remove
Washington from his eommand and giye it to General
Gates, hut, fortunately for America, it did not succeed.
In the spring of 1778, France openly aeknowledged the
Independence of the United States and sent troops to
assist the Americans.

3. On the 11tb of :M ay, 1778, Sir Henry Clinton
arriyed at Philadelpbia and succeeded General Howe as
commander-in-chief of tbe Britisb forces. N eWB was
receiyed that a French fleet waB expected at the moutb
of the Delaware. 'l'his alarmed the British, and, on
the 18th of J une, 1778, they evacuated Philadelphia
and proceeded across N ew J Jrsey towards N ew York.

4. Washington immediately left Valley Forge and
commenced the pursuit. He eros sed the Delaware
aboye Trenton, and, on the 28th of J une, 1778, attackcd
the enemy at Monmouth. In this battle the Americana
were nearly defeated by the retreat of General Lee.
Washington succeeded in checking the retreat and the
battle was continucd until evcning, when Clinton with-
drew his army to New York. Washington Boon after-

2. What is said oC the attempt to removo Washington from his
eommand? What did France now do? 3. Who now took command
of the British army? What i. said of the evacuation of Philadel-
phia? 4. What course did Washington take? Describe the battle
of Monmouth. What did Washington do afler the battle?


wards marched to 'White Plains, where he remained
until he went into winter-quarters at Thliddlebrook.

5. On the 8th of .J uly, a French Heet under Count
D'Estaing arrivcd at the mouth of the Dclaware. An
arrangement was made betwcen the Americans and
Frellch to rccapture Ilhode Island. In August, ] i78,
G cncral Snllivan huded on the island, and dnring tbe
same day D'Estaing attacked the British Heet off the
coast. Soon after this the Freneh sailed to Boston for
repairs, and General Sullivan was eOlllpelled, after some
skirmishing, to leave the island.

6. In .J nly, 1778, abont sixteen hundred Tories and
Indians, under Colonel Hntler, attaeked \Vyoming, mas-
saered the scttlers and bnrned their honses. In No-
vcmber, Colonel Brant with a band of Tories attacked
Cherry Valley and bntchered or carried off most of the

7. In December, 1 i78, two thous:lnd British troops,
under the command of Colonel Campbell, landed near
Savannah, in Georgia, and, after dcfeating a small forcr.
under General Robert Howc, took posscssion of the cit.y.


1. Early in January, 1779, General Prevost took
Sunbury and marched to Savannah, where he assumed

5. What is s"id of tbe nrrival of the French? Describe t:'.
ottcmpt to reeapture Rhode Island. o. Describe the "ttacks on
Wyoming and Chcrry Vttllcy. 7. Descri1,c the attnek on Savanna.h

1. What did Prevost do? Wha took COmInaDa of the Americana 1
[lAscribe the halt16 of K~We Orook.

EVENTS OF 1779. 61

the commanu of t11l") British forces. General Lincoln
also arrivcd und too k command of the American army
on thc SaV:lllllah. In Fcbruary, 1779, Colone! Pickcn8
routeu a band of Tories in a battIe on Kettle Creck,
killing seventy and taking sevcnty.five priRoncrs.

2. Lineoln sent General Ash with two thousand men
against the British in Georgia. He cncamped ut Brier
Creek, whel'c he wus surprised by Prevost, in March,
1779, und dcfcatcd with the loss of neurly fivc hundred
meno The British now laid siege to Churleston, und
Lincoln hastcned to thc rclief of that city. On hi8
arrival the enemy withdrew, but left a strong detach-
ment near Stono Ferry. In .Tune, Lincoln attacked
this detachment, but was repulsed with thc loss of three
hundrcd meno

3. BarIy in Septcmber, 1779, a powerful Hect under
D' Estaing urrived on the coast of Georgia, rcady to
coüperate with Lincoln in besieging Savannah. In
October tbcy attemptcd to carry the works by storm, buí.
werc repulsed and soon afterwards abandoncd tbe siege.

4. In 1\1ay, 1779, the British plundered Norfolk and
Portsmouth, in Virginia. Soon after this, Clinton cap.
tured Stony Point and Verplanck's Point on the Rud-
son. J n .T uly, Tryon wcnt to Connecticut, wbere he
plundered New Haven and burned Fairfield andNorwalk

5. In .Tuly, 1779, General 'Yayne attacked Stony
Point, which was garrisoncd by six hundred British

2. Describe the b"ttle on Brier Creek. What is said of the ¡¡iege
of Charleston? ~. What of the siego of Su.vannah? 4. What was
done in May? In J uly? 5. Describe the oapture of Stony Point by
the Amenoan9. Of Pauluo Raok.


troops. His mcn advanccd with fixed bayonets and
captured the place without firing a gun. About tha
sume time Colon el Lee captured the fort at Paulus
Hook (now Jersey City), killing thirty and taking one
hundred and sixty of the 13ritish garrison prisoners.

6. In August, 1779, General Sullivan was sent against
the Indians, on the frontiers of N cw York and Penn-
sylvania. The savages were everywherc defeated and
forty of their villages dcstroyed. The Americans tben
returned to Easton.

7. During the summer of 1779, tbe American com-
missioners at Paris fittcd out a squadron which was
placed under the command of Paul J ones. In Scptem-
ber, while cruising near the British coast, he captured
two English ships which he carried as prizes to Holland.


l. The Americans, in their winter-quarters at M!\lr-
ristown, suffered much from want of food and clothing.
They were paid in continental money, which had
decreased so much in value that thirty or forty dollara
of it were wl'rth only one of silver. They wcre oitcn
without food, and it was with the greatcst difficulty that
enough could be obtained to save the army from destrue-

6. Describe Sullivan's expedition aguinst the Indiana. 7. What
prizea were taken by Pau! J o"es?

1. Wha.t waa the oonditioD of th. Americano at Morristown?

EVEN,TS OF 1 'T80. 68

2 Clinton with five thousand troops sailed from New
York with the intention of invading South Carolina.
[n February, 1780, he landed near Charleston and
began preparations for besieging that eity. In April,
Colon e! Tarleton captured Monk's Corner. This shut
off the supplies from Charleston. The siege was eon-
tinued with so much vigor that Lincoln, on the 12th of
May, 1780, surrondored the city. With it the British
obtained about five thousand prisoners and four hundred

3. General Clinton supposing tho war at tho South
nearlyat an end, sailed for New York, in June, 1780,
leaving Cornwallis with four thousand men to keep
possession of the subjugated States. The Americans,
however, were not conquered, and soon collected another
army with which they harassed the enemy.

4. In J uly, General Gatcs arrived and superseded
Baron de Kalb in the command of the Southern army.
He immediatcly marchcd to Clermont twelve miles
froIll Curnden. The British under Lords Rawdon and
Cornwallis were stationed at the latter place.

5. A battle was fought at Sander's Creek, in August,
1780, when the Americans were defeated with the loss
of one thousand men, among whom Was Baron de
Kalb. Soon after this Sumpter's forces wcre badly
defeated by Colonel Tarleton, at Fishing Creek.

2. What did Clinton now do? Describe the siege of Charleston
3. Why die! Clinton go to Naw York? What is said of (he Ameri-
cans? 4. Who took commaDd of lhe American army? Where did
he go? Where were the British? 5. What i! said of Ihe battle al
8andEl'r'1I Creek? At Fishing Creek ?


6. Cornwallis now established a military despotism
at the South, and sent out detaehments of his urmy W
encnurage the Tories in their work of plundcr. In
00tober, 1780, one of these bunds under Colonel
Ferguson was uttackcd and defeated at King's Moun-
tain by a body of militia. 1\1ore than cleycn hundred
of the British "ere killcd, woundcd, or taken prisoncrs,
while the Americans lost but two hundrcd. On the
2d of Deceruber, General Greeno sl1pcrscdod Gates, in
the comrnand of tho ~rmy, but no engagement occurred
until January.

7. In June, 1780, Washington marchcd to the Hig;h-
lands in order to protect \Vest l'oint. In July, II
French Heet with six thousand troops urrived at N ew-
])ort, Rhodc IsI;llld. Soon aftcrwards a large Hect
arriverl frolll England amI prcnnted the Frcllch from
cooperating with the Americ,ms.

8. Abont this time Arnold was ruaking prcparations
to betray W e~t Point to the enemy. While he WRS
military governor of Phihvlelphia, after its cvacuation
by the British, his conduct was so imprudent that he
was sentenccd by a eourt-martial to be reprimanded by
Washington. lIis pride was now wounded, and medi-
tating revenge he turned traitor.

9. Arnold obtained fi-om "'ashington the cornmand

6. How iliil Cornwallis net? What happened to one of the,.
b~nd5? What ehan~e was maele in ¡he eornmand of the Americ:w9?
7. 'Yhere did "rasbillgton ~o in ,J une? 'Yhat fií'et ~ arri\'ed? R. "~hat
was Arnold (loing nt this lime? 1,Yh:\t 18 sai(t of him while goycrnot
of Philadelphia? 9. II"w eJiel he 'titempt lo exeúute his plan s ?
What was neces",lry lo complete the armngements? What agree-
mant was made?

EVENTS OF 1180. 65

of West Point, and opened a correspondence with
Major André, a British officer, proposing to betray that
place to Sir Henry Clinton. A personal interview was
necessrrry to complete the arrangemcnts, and Major
André went up the II udson in the sloop-of-war V ulture
for that purpose. It was there agrccd that Arnold
should rcceivc thirty thouSltnd pounds sterling for hig
treachcry, aud be made a brigadier-general in the
Rritish army.

10. When André was rcady to return he found the
Vulture had been moved down the river, therefore he
attempted to reach N ew York by land. For this pur-
pose Arnold furnishcd him with a pass under the name
of J ohn Allderson, and he set out on his journey dis-
guised in the drcss of a citizen. At Tarrytown he was
seizcd by three militiamen to whom he cOllfessed thrrt
he was a British officer. They sent him to Colonel
Jameson at the nearest military post.

11. The capture of André was then made kllown to
Arnold, who fied imlllediately to the Vulture and joined
t11e British army. André was tried by a court-martial,
and, on the 2d of October, 1780, hanged as a spy.
His captors were J ohn Paulding, Isaac Van Wert, and
Dayid Williams. To each of them Congress voted a
silyer medal and a pension of two hundred do llar s a

12. In December, 1780, England declared war l'.gaillst

10. What is said of Anflré's roturn? 11. Whatbecnmc of Arnol,]!
What was done with Andr6? Who were bis captors, and !Jow weTe
they rewarded? 12. Against what nation <lid Englantl declare war?
Agolmt what nations had sbe previously decláTed war?


Holland on account of the protcction that nation had
f:iven to American privateers. She had previously
declared war against France and Spain.


1. On the 1st of January, 1781, thirteen hundred
of the Pennsylvania line left the camp at Morristown,
with the intention of marching to Philadelphia to
obtain a redress of grievances. They were mct at
Princeton by a committee from Congress who satisfied
their demands and they returned to campo

2. On the 18th of J anuary, 1781, a portion of the
N ew Jersey line revolted, but they werc promptly
quelled by military force. Robert Morris of Philadel-
phia was now appointed treasurer by Congress. To
him the eountry was indebted for the means of carrying
on the campaign of 1781.

3. Arnold, the traitor, had been sent by Clinton
with sixteen hundred troops to invade Virginia. In
January, 1781, he marched to Richmond where he
destroyed much property. In Mareh, he was joined
by General Phillips with an army of two thousand
meno With these he went on another plundering
expedition up the James river. In May, Cornwallis
took Lhe command and Arnold returned to N ew York.

1. Describe the revolt of the Pennsyh'ania lino. 2. Of the N cW
Jersey lineo Whac is sai<1 of Robert Morris? 3. Desoribe Amold',
inva~ion oí Virginia.

EVENT8 OF 1781. 6T

4. Early in January, Greene sent out General Morgan
with one thousand men to occupy a position on the
}{road river. Tarleton wiLh eleven hundred men was
Bent against him. The two armies met at the Cowpens,
where asevere battle was fought, on the 17th of
January, 1781. The British were defeated with the
10ss of ncarly seven hundred meno Thc Americans
lost but seventy-two.

5. Morgan irnmediately set out with his spoils for
Virginia. Cornwallis started in pursuit as 800n as he
hcard of the defeat of Tarleton, and endeavored to cut
off the Americans before they reached the Catawba
river. Two hours after Morgan had crosscd tlle
stream the British arrived on the opposite banlc.
During the night a heavy rain feH which made the
river impassable.

6. Cornwallis crossed as soon as possible and con-
tinued the pursuit. Greene now took the command
and hastened to the river Yadkin, where a portion of
his baggage was cut off by the enemy. Both armies
then started for the river Dan, but Greene crossed it
before Cornwallis arrived.

7. The British now gave up the pursuit and retired
to HilIsborough. Greene soon returned to N orth
Carolina, and, in March, reached Guilford Court-House
wllere he was attacked by the enemy. The Americans
were driven from the field, but the British army WU8

4. Describe the battle of Cowpens. 5. 6. Describe the relreat of
tbe Americans. 7. Where did the two .. rmies now go? Wha~ Ú
said of tho battle at Guilford (Jourt-liouae?



BO much Bhattered that Cornwallis retreated towardi
Wilmington, and, in April, set out for Virginia.

8. Greene marched to Hobkirk's HilI where he was
attacked and defeated by Lord Uawdon, in A pril, 178l.
About this time, General Marion and Colonel Lee
eaptured several British posts, among which were Fort
"\Vatson, Fort Granby, and Fort Motte.

9. In :May, General Greene commenced the siege of
Ninety-Six. Learning that Lord ltawdon was advanc-
ing to the relief of the garrison, the Americans made
an assault upon the fort, but were repulsed.

10. In Septcmber, 1781, Greene attacked the British
under Colonel Stewart, at Eutaw Springs. The Amer-
icans had the advantage in this battle, and tho enemy
Boon afterwards retreated to Charleston.

11. Cornwallis reached Virginia, in 1\1ay, 1781. llis
first object was to capture J./afilyette, who was at Rich-
mond with three thousand mcn, but that general
retreated until he was reenforeed by General Wayne
and nine hundred troops. He then pursued Cornwallis
who retreated to Yorktown, which was afterwards
strongly fortified.

12. At the North, Washington made preparations to
attack N ew York. For this purpose he was joined by
the French army under Count de Rochambeau. Learn.
ing that a Frcneh Hect under Count de Grasse was on

8. De.cribe the battle at Hobkirk's Hm. What did Marion and
Lee capture? 9. Describe the siego of Nincty.Six. 10. Dcscribe
the battle at Eutaw Springs. 1 t. What is 8aid of Cornwalli. and
Lafl\yette? 12. What preparations did Washington make? Why
dld he change his plans ?


ita way to the Chesapeake, Washington abandO:led tha
attack UpOll N ew York amI marched against the enemy
in Virginia, where he arrived on the 25th of Sep-

13 . .As soon as Clinton was assured of Washiogton's
movernents, he seot Arnold 00 an expedition to Con-
necticut. On the 6th of Septcmbcr, 1781, he bumed
N ew Londoo and captured .Fort Griswold. In the
latter fort oearly the whole garrison were massacrcd
after thcy had surrcndercd.

14. De Grassc nrrivcd in the Chesapeake, on the 5th
of Scptember, 1781, after he had driven off the British
fteet under Admiral Graves. On the 28th of Sep-
tembcr, the allied armies, numbering twelve thousand
meo, appeared before Yorktown. The siege was soon
eommenced, and, on the 9th of October, the batteries
opened upon the British fortifications and the town.
Comwallis now attempted to escape aerosa the river,
but was prevented by a violent storm. Ret.reat was
entirely cut off, and on the 19th of Oetober, 1781, he
Burrendcred his army, amounting to seven thousand
men, to 'Vashington, and his ships and seamen to Count
de Grasse.

15. The news of this event was hailed with joy
throughout the country, for it was considered the death-
hlow to the war. The power of the British was now

13. Deseribe the expedition to Connectieut. 14. When did De
Grasse arrive? Describe the siege of Yorktown. 16. IIow wns tbe
news of this event rcceived? To whnt citic. W!1S the power of tbe
British limited? Wbcre tlid tbe French o.nd American armiee spcnd
the winter 7


Iimited almost entirely to the three cities, Savannah.
Charleston, ana N ew York. The Frcnch army remained
in Virginia during the wintar, while tho Americana
encamped at Nowburg on the IIudson.


1. In the spring of 1782, the British ministry offered
to treat with the Americans. J ohn Adaros, Benjamin
Franklin, Henry Laurcns, and John Jay, wcre ap-
pointed eommissioncrs for thc Uniteu States, to con-
elude a peaee with Grcat Britain, ana, on thc 20th of
January, 1783, a treaty was signcd at Paris. This
joyful news was proclaimed in the American arroy, on
the 19th of April, 1783, just eight years "aftcr the battle
of Lexington.

2. On the 25th of Novcmber, 1783, tlle British
evaeuated New York, and General ·Washington, accom-
panied by Governor Clinton :md others, entered the
eity. On the 4th of December, Washington took a
finalleave of his officers, after which ha procecded to
Annapolis where Congress was in session, and on the
23d of the same month resigncd his commission 3,9
eommander·in-chief of the American armies.

l. What ",as done in 1782? By ",horo and when was a treaty
mad.? When was tbe new" proclaimeu in the American army7
2. What ia said of the evacuation of Naw York? Whllt did
Washington do in Decamber7

EVENT8 J'ROM 1781 TO 1789. 'U

3. At the close of the war thel"e was mueh murmuro
ing by the unpaid soldiers. In order to inerease the
discontentment, some persons eil'culated letters through
the American cump, nt Newburg, advising the solJiers
to m~reh to Philadelphia and eompel Congress to do
them justiee. It reqllired al! of Washington's influenN
to satis(y the disaffecteu and prevent a general mutiny.

4. The Articles of ConfeJcration gaye Congress no
pcwer to tax the people ur provide fur the expenses of
the goverllment. Al! they conlt! do was to reeomrncnd
certain Illeasures to the States without any rneans of
enforcing them. Business was depressed and the
resourees of the country were exhausted. The Statea
now laid heayy taxes on thcír citizcns for the support
of gOYCrnllIcnt.

5. These things caused insurrcctions among the
people in 178(3. In l\Iassachusetts, Daniel Shay with
a nurnber of citizcns went to \Vorcester to compel the
AsseDlbly to repeal the taxes. General Lincoln with a
body of mili tia was sent to quel! the disturban ce.
Fourteen of the leadenl were taken and condcrnned to
death, but were afterwards pardoned.

6. A ehange in the general governDlent was badly
needed, and in May, 1i87, represelltatives froDl al! the
States, except Rhode Island, met at the State House in
P]¡iladelphia, with Washington as president.

3. What ocrurred in the CRmp At Newburg? 4. Mention sorne
cE the dcfccts in lhe Articlc. of Confederntion. What was lhe con.
ditioll ut" the counlry IIfter lhe close of the Hevnlllti,m? 5. What
ÚI said of Shay's insurreetion? 6. What mellSLLreS wece taken to
ohango the government7


7. After deliberating for four months, they agreed
upon a new Constitution which was presented to Con-
6Tess, on the 17th of September. lt was sent to the
States, where it met with some opposition, but wa8
finally ratified by eleven of them. 'l'he 4th of .Mareh,
1789, was named as the day for the new government to
go into operation.

t. What i8 iaid of the adopLion of the new Con8titution?


1. Congress assemblcd in New York, in the spring

of 1789, when it was found that General Washington
was unanimonsly chosen President, and J ohn Adame
Vice-President, of the United States. On the 30th of
April, 1789, the oath of office was administered to
Washington, at New York, by Chancellor Livingstone.

2. 1'he first seRBion of Congress was ehieRy occupied
in organizing the new government. Alexander Ramil-
ton was appointed Secretary of the Treasury, Thomas
Jefferson Secretary of State, Henry Knox Secretary of
War, John Jay Chief Justice, and Edmund Randolph

3. Congress adjourned on the 29th of September,
and soon afterwards Washington made a tour through
the New England States, where he was received with
roany marks of affection.

4. '1.'he second session of Congress comm€'lced in 1790,
when :i\Ir. Hamilton, Secretary of the Treacury, recom-

1. iVho wel'c chosen President and Vice-Presiden~ in 1789 f
When and by whom wa? the oath of amee administered to Washing-
~n? 2. How wa8 tbe 61'st session of Congress occnpied? What
aftiee!'s were appointed? 3. What did Washington do a'ter Con-
gresa adjourned 1 4. What did lIamilton recommend to Congressl

(73 )


mended to that body a plan for establishing the public
credit. He wi~hed the National Government to aRRume
the debts both of the United Statcs and oí' tite several
Statea, amounting in all to about seventy-four ruillions
of dollara. After considerable opposition, the plan was
adopted, and confidence in the governmcnt restored.

5. In 1790, an Act was passed, in whieh it was agreed
that Congress should hold their sessions at Philadelphia
for ten years, and, at the end af that time, a territory
ten miles square, on the Potomac River, which was called
the District of Columbia, should become the seat of the
National Government.

6. The Indians north-west of the Ohio became so
hostile, that, in Scptember, 1790, General Harmer with
fourteen hundred men was sent against them. After
destroying sorne of their villages, he was badly defeated.
In Noveruber, 1791, an expedition of fiftcen hundred
men was sent out under General St. Clair, buí he was
surprised and defeated by thc Indians, with a loss of
nine hundred of his troops.

7. Congress met, in December, 1790, at Philadelphia.
In 1791, Vermont was admitted into the Union as a
State. The first settlement was made at Fort Dummer,
now Brattleborough, in 1725, by the English. During
the year 1791, a bilI establishing thc Bank of the Unitcd
States, with a capital of ten millions of dollars, WaB
passed. Congress also passed an Act for taxing distilled

5. What WRS done in regord to the seat of government? 6. De-
SCribe Harmer's expedition ngainst lhe lndian,. Sto Clair'. expe-
dition. 7. Where did Congress meet in 1790? Whnt is said o(
Vermont? What bills wcrc p'''"( 1 hy Congrc88 in 1791 ?


8. In H9~, Kcntucky was admittcd into tho Union
as a Statc. Thc first settlement was made at Boones-
boru', in Hi5, by Colonel Daniel Boone. At the presi-
dential election, in H92, 'Yashington was reclected
Prcsident, and J ohn Adums Vice-President, of the
U nited States.

9. At the commencement of Washington's second
ter m of office the country was disturbed by tbe revolu·
tion in France. l\lany persons wished to aid the eiti-
zens of that nation in establisbing a republic, but Wash.
ington determincd upon a striet neutrality.

10. The Freneh appointed citizcn Genet minister to
the U nited States. He landcd at Cbarleston, in 1\lay,
1 i93, and, in opposition to the laws, cOInlllcneed to fit
out privateers to cruise against the enemics of France.
Washington requcstcd his rccall, and he was finálly
superscdcd by Mr. Fauchet.

11. In 1 i9-i, the people of Western Penllsylvania re-
sisted the attempt to co)]ect the 1::tx Oll distilled spirits.
The President issucd his proclamation warning the
insurgents to desist, and finally sent General Lee with
fiftcen thousand troops, who at once enforccd obedienee.
This is known as the " 'Vhiskey Insurreetion."

12. In H94, General Wayne with three thousand
men marched against the Indians west of tlle Ohio
He overtook them on the banks of the ~laumee River,

-;/,\\NCIJ; . /--~~
8. Wh,ü is said of Kentucky? "'hat wa. Ihe result of the elec~') .. ~~. -.: &.

in 1792? 9. What was Ibe condition of Ihe country at the ¡'orii. "e-::.~ .~,.
mencement of Wa.hington's second terrn? 10. What i. s"¡i.:o~·< '
Mini.ter Genet? 11. Describe Ihe Whiskcy lnsurrection. 12:'De~ .<,<~.
Bcribe Wayn,;'. el<pedition against the lndiaD!. \ 'é:

""here he gained a complete victory. In li95, the)
entered into a treaty by which pence was secured.

13. During the year 1794, the British ministry did
many acts which excited the hostility of the Americans,
aud it was feared that a war would resulto vVashington,
desirous of peace, sent John Jay to Great llritain with
fuI! powers to settle the disputes. He eoneluded J, treaty
w hich provided that the western posts held by the Bntish
should be given up, and authorized a restricted trade
betweeu the U nited States aud the British West Indies.
It Illet with Illuch opposition, but was finally ratified by
the Senate, in J uue, 1795.

14. During the year 1795, a treaty was made with
Spain, which secured to the Americans the free naviga-
tion of the l\Iississippi River, and one with Algiers, which
protected the U nited States commerce in the Mediter-

15. In 1796, Tennessee was admitted iuto the Union
as a Sta te. The first settlement was made at Fort Lou-
don, iu 1757. In the autuIlln of 1796, Washington
published his Farewell Address, iu which he anuounced
his intentiou to retire from public life.

16. At the election, in 1796, J ohn Adams was chosen
Prcsident, and ~'hoIllas J efferson Vice-Prcsident, of thc
United States. On the 4th of March, li97, they were
inauguratcd, and 'N ashington returned to Mount Vernon,
wherc he hoped to apend the remainder of his days.

18. What is said of the difficulties with Great Brituin? 14. What
is .aid of tbe treaties witb Sl'ain "nd Al)':iers? 15. Wbat is said
of Tennessce? Of Washington's Farewell Adrlress? 16. What W&.I
the resu!t of the presidentia! election in 1196? What took plaoe
tu Ma.roh, 1797?

1. Toere were difficulties between the Uuitcd 8tates

and Franc~ a:'; the corulllenceruent of Adams's adminis-
t!ation; he, therefore, called an extra session of Congress
on the 15th of May, 1797. That body authorized the
President to raise an army, enlarge the navy, and take
such otller measures as would muintain the honor of the
lJ nited 8tate8.

2. In July, 1797, John Marsball, Elbridge Gerry, and
Charles C. Pinekney were appointed envoys to Franca
to se cure if possible an honorable adjustment of al! th6
difficulties. The French government refused to receive
thelll, but intimated that a loan of money might open
the way to u negotiation. This was iudignantly refuacd.
Marshall und Pinckney were tben ordered to leave the

3. In l\1ay, 1798, Congress authorized the raising of
an army of ten thousand men, and 'Vashington was ap-
pointed commander-in-chief. They also ordered U nited
Statcs vcssels to cruise against the armed vcssels of
France, and several uf the latter were captured. Among
these was the L'Insurgent, of forty guns, captured by
the Constel!ation, ol' thirty-eight guns, under Commo-
dore Truxton.

4. 'i'he French government now proposed to adjust
al! difficulties, :lOd, in February, 1799, William Y.1\111r-

L ""'hat is f;uid of the commencement of Adams's administration 7
Wh"t diu Congress do? 2. Wh:tt is said of the envoys scnt to
France in 179i? 3. What did Congrcss do in 1708? What ve88cl
.. as captured? 4. What i •• aid of tho envoys to France in 17991



ray, W. R. Davie, and Olivor Ellsworth were ap¡;ointed
enyoys to France for t1wt purpuso. Thoy faund )\ npo-
leon at the hend oY tlie Fronch nation nuJ cOllcludcJ a
treaty of peace with him, in Scptcmber, 1800.

5. In 1798, the Alien and Scdition Laws were passed
by Congrcss. By the Alien Law, any person, not a
citizen, SU8pecteJ of eonspiring against the gOYCrnmellt,
might be expelled fruIl1 the COUlltry by the President
The Soditiun Law was intcnded to suppress all publiea.
tions which would tend to weaken the goYermnent.

6. On thc 14th of Deccmber, 1790, Washington dicd
The whole nation lllourned his loss, and impressive
funeral eeremonies were eyerywhere obserycd. In 1800,
the seat of goyernmont was remoycd from Philadelphia
to "\YaBhingt.on, in the District of Columbia, and Con-
gress assemblod there in Deeember.

7. At tho next presidential election, no candidate
had a majority of al! the yotes, und it beeame the duty
of the House of Representatives to eh008e a PresidclIt.
The eontest was between Thomus J efferson and 1\ arl)!)
Burr. At the thirty-si;'th ballot, J efferson was ChO~Cll
President and Burr Vice-Presiuent.

1. In 1802, Ohio was udmitted into the Union as a

State It was settled at Marietta, iu 1788, and formed

5. What were the Alien Rnd Sedition L","s? 6. What ia ~aid cf
Washington's death? What is said of the B~at of government!
'1'. What waB the result af the next electiaD?

1. What ia said of Ohio? Of Louisiana?


8 part of the Northwestern Territory. In 1803, Louis-
iana was purchascd from France, by tlle U nited States,
for tho sun; ,.,¡ fiftcell milJions of d01lar8. By this pur-
chnse the Americans sccurcd the free navigation of tho
Mississippi River. _

2. The United States had long be en a sufferer froro
the depredations made upon her commerce by the Bar-
bary Statea. This was on the inerease, and, in 1801,
the Amcrican government remonstrated in su oh terms
as to causc a declaration of war on the part of Tripoli.

Z. In 1803, a Heet under Commodore Preble was
sont against the Tripolitans. While cruising before
Tripoli the frigate Philadelphia, commanded by Captain
Bainbridge, ran upon a rock and was capturod by the
enemy. In Fcbruary, 1804, IJieutenant Decatur, with
sixty mon, entered the harbor of Tripoli, set fire to the
capturcd frigato and reiurncd without losing aman.

4. In August, 1804, the Amorieans bombarded that
city, seriously injuring tho fo1't and destroying some of
tho Tripolitan vessels in the harbor. In 1805, William
Eaton, the American consul, captured Derne a Tripoli-
tan eity on t11e Mediterrancan. He then marched
towarus Trípoli, bu't the reigning bashaw was w torrified
nt his approach that a treaty was made with Mr. Loar,
A:nerican consul at Algiers.

5. In July, 180J, Alexander Hamilton was kilIed in

2. Whnt i, ,oid ofthe depreclations of tbe Barbary States? 3. Whul
,.as done in 1803? IIow was the frigatc Philadelphia destrnyed?
4. Wha! did the Americans ,lo in 180~? How was the war ended?
6. What is said of the uuel in 1804? Of tbe elootion in 1805 r
What ji said of Burr', oon:luct?


a dud by Aaron Burr. At the election, in 1805, Jef.
fj,rson was reelected President of the United States, anu
George Clinton becume Vice-PresiJent in place oi" Hurr.
In 1806, Burr secretly made preparations for an expe-
ditit)n down the Ohio. This.caused him to be arrestcd,
in 1807, on a charge of attempting to separate the W cst-
ern States from the Union, or of preparing to attack
Mexico, but at the trial he was acquitted.

6. At this time England and France werc at war, 3nd
the United States, as a ncutralnation, was carrying on a
trade witb all the ports of Europe. In on1er to check
this, the British government, in May, 1806, declared a
large part of the coast of Europe in a statc of blockade.
In November, 1806, Napolcon rctaliatcd by declaring
the blockade of the British Islands. In consequence of
thcse acts American vcsscls were captured and American
commerce nearly destroyed.

7. Great Britain claimed the right of searching
U nited States vessds and carrying away suoh of the
crew as she suspected to be British deserters. The
American government indignantly denied this right.

8. In J une, 1807, while the frigate Chesapeake was
going out to sea, she was attacked by the British ship
Leopar.], and three of her men were killed and eightccn
wounded. Four men were then taken from the Amer-
ican vessel, three of whom were native Americans.
This outrage caused the President to order al! Briti~h
armed vcssels to leave the harbors of the United States.

6. Row did the Europeun wars alfect the United States? 7. Whal
right did Great Britain clairn? Díd the Amcricalls graot it r 8. De.
scribe th. attaek 00 the Chcsapeake 7


9. In November, 1807, the llritish governme::lt issued
the "Oruers in Counell" prohibiting al! trade with
FraIlee 01' her allies, and, in December, Napoleon in
retaJiation issued the "Milan Deerce" forbidding aH
trade with EngJand or her coJonies.

10. In consequence of these dccrees Congress, in D~
cember, 1807, luid an embargo which prevented Amer-
ican vessels leaving their ports. This put an end to the
commeree wit,h foreign nations. As the embargo failed
ti> accomplish the desired objeet, it was repealed by Con-
grúss, in 1809, and an act prohibiting all iutercourse
with France and England substituted for it. Thomus
Jefferson retired from office on the 4th of }Iarch, 180\:1,
when James l\Iadison beeame President and George
Clinton Viee-President of the United States.

l. "\Yhen Mr. Madison beeame President, he found

the affairs of the nation much disturbed by the hostiJe
conduct of England and France. In April, Mr. Ers-
kine, the British ministcr, assurcd the Prcsidcnt that
the offensive orders should be repealed, but Great Bri-
tain refused to sanetion the arrangement.

11. Whllt decrees were issued by the British and French in 1807
tOo Whllt did CongreBa do in consequence of the decrees? What
\Vas done with Ihe embargo? Who became President and Vice-Presi-
dent in 1809? •

1. Whatis saidofthe Dationalalfairs when MadisoD became Presi.


2. In lRl1, the EngliRh sent armed ships to the
United States coast to seize American vessels as prizc~.
On the 11th of May, 1811, the llritish sloop·of·war
Little Belt was hailed by the frigate President, Captain
Rogers, when she replied by firing a gun. Rogers
returned the tire and after killing or wounding thirty-
two men received a civil reply.

3. The Indians northwest of the Ohio became so hos-
tile that General !Iarrison marched againEt them in
1811. As he approached one of their towns on the
Tippccanoe, he was met 'by the chiefs who proposed
terillS of peace and requested him to encamp for tha
night. Before daylight next morning they attacked his
camp but were finally defeated.

4. In 1812, Louisiána was admitted into the Uníon
as a State. It was settled at IbervilIe, by the Frcnch,
in 1699. The conduct of the British had becoille so
grievous that Congress dcclarcd war against that nation,
on the 18th of June, 1812.

5. Preparations were now made by Congrcss for
raísing a large army, and General Dearborne was ap-
pointed commander-in-chief. On the 12th of J uly,
1812, General H ulI crossed the river Detroit into Canada,
with two thou&'lnd meno On the 17th of J uly, the British
surprised and captured the fort at l\1ackinaw. The 108B
of this post, the defeat of a small force under Major Van
lIorne, and the appearance of the British at l\Ialden,

2. What did tbe English do in 1811? Describe tpe affair with the
Little Belt. 3. Describe Harrison's expe<lition against the Indians.
4. What is said of Louisiana? Of tbe conduct of tbe British? 5. For
what did Congress prepare? Descrii>e Hull's expedition t) Cannda.


¡nduced IIull ta rcturn to Detroit. General Brock,
with a force oi' British and Indians, now marched
against Detroit which was surrendered along with tho
w hole territory oi' l\Jiehigan without any defence.

6. A second army, undel' General Van Rensselaer.
crüssed the Niagara Hiver into Cauada, on the 13th 01'
Oetober, 11:)12, and captured the British i'ort at Quccns-
town. The cnemy under General Brock attempted to
retake the heights but were repulsed and their general
slain. The British soon afterwards made a seeond attack
when the Amerieans were obliged to surrender.

7. While failures attended the army oi' the Amer-
icana, their navy was very succcssi'ul. In August, 1812,
the Esscx, Captain Porter, capturcd the British sloop
Alcrt; and the Constitution, Captain Hull, captured the
British fÍ'igate G llerricrc. In October, tllO sloop-oi'-war
Wasp, Captajn J ones, captllrcd the British urig Frolic.
800D after the battle both vessels were taken by the
British ship Poictiers. On the 25th oi' Oetober, the
frigatc United 8tates, Captain Decatur, captured the
British i'rigate l\Iacedonian, and in December the Con-
stitution, Commodore Bainbridge, eapturcd the Java. e

8. At the next election, MI'. Madison was reelected
President of the U nited 8tates, and Elbridge Gerry wa9
eh osen Viec-President in the place oi' George Clinton
who died, April 20, 18] 2.

f. Describo Van Rensse)"er'" expedition into Canada. 7. What
na",l hattles occurred in August? In Octobcr and Deccmbcr1
~. How díd tbe next elcetion resu1t?




9. Tlree armies were raised for the eampaign of
1813; ene was under tbe eommand of General Harri-
son, one under General Dearborne, and tbe other under
General Hamptou. General Harrison's army, amount-
ing to about eight thousand meu, was stationed at .Mau-
mee Rapids. Eight hundred of bis troops under General
Winehester were sent to Preuehtown, where, on the
22d of January, 1813, they were attacked and defeated
by a body of Britillh and Indians under Colonel Proctor.
The next morning the Indians brutally murdered all the
sick and wounded Americans.

10. General Harrison now built a f.·rt at l\Iaumee
Rapids, whieh he ealled Fort Meigs. Here he was
besieged, on the lst of ~Iay, by Colonel Proetol' with
two thousand British troops. General Clay with twelve
hundred men eame to the assistanee of the Amerieans,
and, on the 9th of 1\1 ay, 1813, the encmy abandoned
tbe siegc and returncd to Malden.

11. On the 21st of ,Tuly, Proctor again attaeked Fol't
Meigs, but it was so vigorously defended that he with-
drew his forees. On tIte 1st of August, he attacked
Fort Stephenson, but was repulsed by the garrison under
Major Croghau, and soon afterwal'ds returned to nfaltlen.

12. During the summer, a fleet of nine vessels, earry-

9. What armies were raised for the campaign of 1813? What is
6aid of the attack on Frenchtown? 10. Describe lhe siege of Forl
Meiga. n. What io "!lid of lhe secon,l attaclr on Fort Meigs? Of
the attack on Fcrt Stephonson? 12. Describo lhe naval battle OD
Lake Bria.

CAMPAIGN OF 1813. 85

ing fifty-four guns, was eCJuipped at Erie und placed
uuder Commodore Peuy. 1'0 oppose this, the British had
a fleet of six vessels, cnrrying sixty-threc guns, under
Commodore Barclay. Tlle two fleets met at the westcrn
extremity of Lakc Erie, on the 10th of September, 1813
The battle lasted three hours, when the whole British
fleet surrcndercd.

13. Commodore Pcrry now convcycd Harrison's troops
!lcross J,akc Erie to l\laldcn, which they found descrted.
The Americans pursued the rctreating British to the
Moravian towns, on the rivcr Thames, whel'e a seyere
oattle was fought, on the 5th of Üetober, 1813, and
Proctor's army completely brokcn up. General Cass
ovas now left in command of Detroit, and Harrison went
to the assistance of General Dcarbol'lle.

14: In April, 1813, General Dearborne was stationed
at Sackett's Harbor. \Vhile here he sent out seventeen
hundreu men under General Pike to attack York (now
Toronto), in Upper Canada. They crossed Lake Ontario,
in Commodorc Chauncey's fleet, and, on the 2ith of
A pril, captured the place. As the British retreated
thcy blew up their mag¡¡zine, lllortally wounding General
Pike and killing or wounding two hundred of his meno

15. General Dcarborne, having b('en recnforced,
marchcd a¡.;ainst Fort George, at the mouth of tite
Niagam rivcr. This place was abandoned by the
Rritish, who retreated towards the bead of Lake On.
tario. Gcnerals Chandler and Windcr were sent in

13. What was done hy lIarri;on's trnors? 14. Desorihe th.
attack on York. 15. What is said of Fort George? Of tha ]¡atUe
at Stony Creek 7


pur8uit, but, on tbo night of tIte 6th of June, they
were attaeked at Stony Creek aml both Generals made
prisoners. The Rriti~h, howe'l'er, were defcated.

16. 00 thc 20th of May, 1813, th~ British attacked
Sackett's Harbor, but were repulsed by General Brown,
and hastily retreated to their ships. In the following
Kovember, the enerny attaeked Fort George. '1'he
Amerieans blew up this fort and fled to Niagara, where
they were soon afterwanls captured by tbe Briti~h. The
latter now erossed the Niagara river and burned eeveral
towns on the American side.

17. General Wilkinson sueceeded Dearborne in eom-
mand of tba Americans. He wcnt down the Sto Law-
rellee to cooperate with Gcneral Hampton in an expe-
dition against :\Iontrcal, but the cnterpl'ilie was aftcl'wards

18. During this ycar (1813), thc Crack and Seminole
IndlaTl8 eommcnccd a W'lr against the whites in Georgia
and Alabama. On the 14th of August, 1813, they cap-
tured Fort l\1imms and massaercd three hundrcd of ita
inmates. G cneral J ad son marched against them with
three thousand five hv ndred meno The Indians were
defcated in a numbe: of battles, the last of which was
at Tohopeka, where more than eight hundred of them
were slain.

19. Several naval engagcments occurred in 1813. 0:1
lhe 2-!th of February, the ~loop-of-war Hornet, Captain

16. What i" sai,l of the a!tu,·k on SnckeU's Harbor? What did
tbe Briti.h do in Km'omber? 17. What did Wilkinson now do 7
18. Wbat ¡. ~a¡d of the Creek and Seminole Indians 7 Wbat 'Iras
.ione by General J ackeon? 19. Describe tbe oapturllúf the Peacock.

CA?lIPAIGNS OF 1814 AND 1815. 87

Lawrence, captured tJw British brig Peacuck. The
latter sunk soon after the battJe with thirteen of the
British and four of the American seamen.

20. Lawrencc was now appointcd to the command of
the Chesapeake, amI, on the 1st of June, 1813, he wa¡:
attacked and captured by the Rritish frigate Shannon,
Captain Hroke. Lawrence with forty-eight of his crcw
was killed, and nincty-eight of them were wounded.

21. On the 14th of August, the brig Argus, Captain
Allen, was captured by the British sloop-of-war Pelican,
an-d on the 5th of September, the Enterprise, Captain
Burrows, captured the British brig Boxer.

22. In the spring of 1813, a British squadron entered
Chesapeake Hay and destroyed Fronchtown, George-
town, Havre-de-Grace, and Frederick. Theyattempted
to capture N orfolk, but were repulsed with a 10SR of two
hundred meno After committing the most shocking
brutaJities at Harupton, they sailed for the West Indies

CA~IP AIGNS OF 1814 AND 1815.

23. On the 3d of July, 1814, General Browll, assisted
by Generals 8eott and B.ipley, crosscd the Niagara river
and captured Fort Erie. They thon proceeded against
Chippewa, where they defeated the cnellly under General
Ríal! on the 5th of J uly. Tite Briti6h retreated to
Lake Ontario, where they were reenf"oreed by General
Drulllmond, who assurucd the chief cOlllll1and.

20. Wh,tt became of Lllwrencc? 21. Wh"t nand !JaUlc, occurr·_'J
~n AUgu5t and Septembcr? 22. "That atrocitics were cUlllIllitted in
Chesap."ke bay? 2.3. What is said uf tho capture of Furt Ericl
tlf Ch1ppewa? WhllT9 did the British uow go?


24. Druunllond advanced IIg:únst tbe Americana and
was met by General Brown at J~undy's I.Jane, on the 25th
of .J uly, 1814. Botb armies claimed the victory, but
the Americans retained possession of the ficId. Each
army lost over eight hundred meno General Riall was
wounded and captured, and Gcncrals 13rown and Scott
were wounded.

25. The Americans witbdrew to Fort Eric, wbcro
they were besieged, on tbe 4tb of August., by Drum-
mond with five thousand meno On the 15th of August,
1814, the British assaulted tbe fort, hut were repulsed
with the loss of one thousand meno Tbe siege was
eontinued, and, on the 17th of September, General
I3rown sent out a strong force which drove the enemy
from their intrenchmcnts aud compelIed them to give
up the siege.

26. General Izard soon after arrived with four thousand
men from Plattsburg, and took command of the Ameri-
canso On the 5th of Noveruber, 1814, he destroyed
1<'ort Eríe and then retired aeross the Niagara River,
where he wcnt into winter-quarters.

27. Plattshurg was left with a garrison of fifteen
hundred men, under General Macomb. In the harbor
was Commodore McDonough with a Heet carrying
eighty-six guns. General Prevost determined to attack
the flect and army at the same time. He arrived with
twelve thousand men on the 6th, and his fleet, carrying
niuety-five guns, uuder Captain Dowuie, arrived on the

24. Describe (he batlle of Lundy's Lane. 25. Describe the sieg.
uf Fvrt Erio. 26. What <lid G cneral bard do? 27. Describe the
.. tt .. ok on PlaUsburg, and the !leet oC MoDonollgh.

CAMPAIONS OF 1814 AND 1815. 89

11th of September, 1814. The battle betwoen the fleetl!
lasted two hours, whcn the whole British squadron sur-
rendcred. The attack on land was also unsuccessful,
and Prevost during the night retreated iu confusion,
leaving his wounded and stores in the hands of the

28. A British Heet under Admiral Cochrane sailed
up the Chcsapeake Bay, and, on the 18th of August,
1814, five thousand troops under General Ross landed
at Renedict and commeneed thcir march towards Wash-
ington. On the 24th of August, thcy attacked and
defeat.ed General Wiuder at B1adensburg, and on the
same day reached Washington where they hurned all
the pnblic bnildings.

20. The British returned immediately to Benedict
and procecdcd up t.he Ches:.peake to attnck Baltimore.
The troops undel' Roos Jandcd at N orth Point, on the
12th of Scptembcr, and marched towards the city. The
Americans, nnder General Stricker, met the enemy Beven
miles from Raltimore, whcre a skirmish ensued in which
Ross was killcd and the Americans driven back. In
the meantime the Bl'itish Heet made an unRuccessful
attack on Fort MeHcnry, which eommanded the en-
trance to the eity, after which tIte army recmbarked
nnd soou after lcft the bay.

30. 'l'he" Hartford Couvcntion," composed of twenty-
six deleg'ates ffom the New England States, met Oll the
15th of Dcccmber, 1814. They deliberatcd with closed

28. Descrille Ross's expcdition agaimt "'asbington. 29. Describe
tbe expcdition agains! llaltimore. 30. Wbat is said of Ihe Hartford
Cf):~v(·nt¡')n ?

,; .


doora for twenty days, proposed sorne amcndrnents to the
Constitution, and sent a committee to confer with the
governlllent at 'Vashington.

31. In 1\-larch, 18U, the Essex, Cornmodore Porter\
was capturcd by two British vessels, the Phmbe and
Cherub. In April, the Frolic, Captain llainbridge, was
captured by the British fl'igate Orpheus, and the Peacock,
Captain Warrington, capturad the British brig Epcrvicr.
The Wasp, Captain Blakely, captured the Rritish brig
Reindeer in June, and the Avon in September.

32. On the 16th of January, 1815, the frigate Presi-
dent, Commodore Decatur, was captured by a British
squadron. In February, the Constitution, Commodore
Stewart, captured the British vessels Cpne and Levanh
and, in l\1arch, thc IIornet, Captain Biddle, captured the
British brig Penguin.

33. The Spanish Governor of Florida permitted n.e
Rritish to land troops at Pensacola and arm the Creek
Indians. General J ackson, thcrefore, attackcd that town,
on the 7th of November, 1814, and compelled the English
to leave the harbor. N ews was now received that a
British Heet was about to invade Louisiana, and Jackson
hastened to New Orlcan8.

34. The British Heet entered the l\Iississippi, in De-
cember, 1814, and landed twclve thousand troops under
General Paáenham. They were attacked by J ackson,
on the 23d of December, and four hundrcd of their

31. What naval battles occurred in 1814? 32. What naval baltles
occurred in 1815? 33. What did Jackson do at Pensacola? Wha!
news did J ackson receive? 34. Describe the expedition against
N_ Orleane.

OAlI1PAIGNS OF 1814 AND 1815. 91

number killcd or woundcd. Jackson now intrenched
his army near thc city, wIlerc he was attacked, on the
8th of January, 1815, by the British. After asevere
battJe, in which Packcnhl m was killcd, the cncmy ficd
in confusion, Jeaving more than two thousand dead or
wounded on the fieJd. The Americans lost but six
killed and seven woundcd.

35. A treaty of peace bctween Grcat Britain and
thc U nited Statcs was signcd at G hent, on the 25th of
December,1814. It was ratificd by the United States,
on the 17th of February, 1815, and put an end to aH

36. Durillg the war with Grcat Britain, the Dey of
AIgiers had committcd deprcdations on the American
commerce. To check thcse, Dccatur was sent with a
fieet into thc Mediterranean. He captured two of their
largest vesseJs, and compclled the Dey to sign a trcaty
by which he releascd al! American prisoncrs, made in-
demnity for captures, and reJinquished aH cIaim to
tribute in the future.

37. In December, 1816, Indiana Was admitted into
the Union as a Statc. It was settJcd at Vincennes, by
the French, about the year 1690. At the next eJection
James l\Ionroe was chosen Prcsidcnt, and Daniel D.
Tompkins Vice-Presidcnt of the United States.

35. When \Vas the trenty of peaee signed, und when ratifica?
36. How did the Dey of AIgiers ftct during the \Var? Where was
Deeatur sent, and what did he 'tcoom]llish? 37. What is said
of the admission nnd settlcment 01 India.na? What was the result
oC the next election ?


1. James ~Ionroe was inaugurated President of thc

United Statcs, on the 4th of ~Iarch, 1817. During
this year l\1ississippi was admitted into the U nion as a
8tate. It was :6rst settled, in 1699, at the Bay of
lliloxi by the French.

2. Towards thc close of 1817, tlle 8cminole and
C1'eek Indians commcnced hostilities against the in-
ha ¡Jitants of Georgia. They were eucouraged by tha
Spanish authorities of Florida. General J ackson was
sent against thern, and, in 1818, capturcd the town of
Sto Mark's. Armbrister and Arbuthnot, two British
subjects found thcrc, wcrc convictcd of inciting the
Indians to war, and were put to death. Jackson then
eaptured Pcosacola, which eoded all hostilities.

8. In Dcccmbcr, 1818, Illinois was adlllitted into tha
TI o ion as a 8tatc. It was :6r8t settled by the 11'1'eoch, at
Kaskaskia, about the year 1686. In 1819, Alabama
was admittcd as a Statc. It was first scttlcd by the
French at l\1 obile, in 1702.

4. Iu 1819, the American and British commissioncrs
agrecd on the 49th parallel of north latitudc, from the
1.ake of the \Voods to the llocky l\Iountail1s, as the
houndary line between the U nited States and British
America. In 1820, l\Iaine was admittcd into the Unioll

1. "'hcn was :'.fonroe inallgllr"te'¡? What is sahl of the .. dmis-
~ion .. nd seltlement of Missis.ippi? 2. De.'cribe the Seminole War
in Georgia.. 3. 'Vhat is saitl of the ndmission and settlcment of
lllinois? Of Ala.b'lU1n? 4. What lJoul1llary lino was settlcd iD
IRIQ? "'hat i~ sa.id of tll(~ a¡lmií'¡;¡ion ::¡,no Ret.tlcment of Maioc7


13 a State, It was first scttlcd by the French, on Mount
Desert Island, in 1613.

5. In 1821, l\Iissouri was admitted into the Union as
R State. At thc time of its admission a violent debate
arose as to w hether it should be admittcd as a free or a
slave State, This was finally settled by the " l\Iis~ouri
Compromise," which admitted :t as a s)ave State, but
prohibited slavery in an tcrritorywest of the )Iississippi
and north of thirty-six degrees thirty minutes north

6. Prcsidcnt Mouroe and Viee-President Tompkins
entercd on their seeond tcrms of offiee, in Mareh, 1821.
During theil' administration the United States recog-
nized the in dependen ce ofthe SouthAmerican republics.
00 that occasion the Presídcnt proclaimcd the " Monroe
Doctrine," whieh is, that the American contincnts " are
not to be considcred as subject fol' future colonization
by any European Power."

7. In 1821, a treaty betwcen Spain and the United
States was ratificd. By it, Florida and the adjacent
islands were ceded to the U nited States. In 1824,
General Lafaycttc arrived in America, where he re-
mained for upwards of a year. He visited every state
in the Un ion, and was reccivcd with marks of affection
and gratitude. At the next election J ohn Quincy

5. What is said of the admi,sion of l\fi,souri? 6. Whcn did
Monroe's second term of offiee commence? What occnrred during
his admini~tration? 7. What is said of the treaty with Spain?
IYhat is ."id of Lafayette's visit to the United States? Who
becllrne tte next Presitlent and the ncxt Vice-Presidont, and when
were they inau¡¡;lIl'Rted?


Adams was chosen President, und J ohn C. Calhoun
Vice-Prcsidcnt of thc United States. They were in-
augurated on the 4th of March, 1825.


1. The 4th of J uly, 1826, was the fiftieth anniversary
of American independence. On that day Thoma3
Jcffcrson died, at l'IIonticcllo, in Virginia, in his cighty-
fourth year, and John AdamB, at Quincy, Massachusctts,
in his nincty-first ycar.

2. Adams's administration was lloted for the peaco
which existed at home and abroad. The whole eountry
enjoyed uninterrupted prosperity, and the arts and
scienecs flouri~hed. The Union now consisted of
twenty-four States, and eontained ten millions of people.
In 1828, Andrew Jackson was elected President and
J ohn C. Calhoun was reelected Vice-President of tha
United States


1. General Jackson was inauguratcd on the 4th of
March, 1829. On the 4th of July, 1801, James
l\lonroe the fifth President of the United States dicd,
in his sevcnty.third year. He had beell a soldier in

1. \vh"t happened on lhe 4th of July, 1826? 2. Wh"t was (he
~ondition of the country during AclamH's auwinistratiou? Wha!
was the result of tbe next electiou ?

1. When WaS .Tackson inaugurated? What is said of James


Washington's army, and was wounded at the battle of

2. In 1832, the western Indian tribes, led by Blnck
IIawk, commenced a war upon thc inhabitants of
llJinois. General Atkinson was sent against them.
On thc banks of the )lississippi thc Indians were
defeated, and nIack Hawk takcn prisoncr. General
8cott was aftcrwards scnt to superscdc Atkinson. He
arrived after the battle, and remained until treaties
were made with the Indian tribes, by which nearly tho
whole of Iowa and Wisconsin was ceded to the United

3. In 1832, Congress passed a tariff bill imposing
additional dntics upon forcign goods, which met witn
much opposition. A convention in 80nth Carolina
nullitied or foruio. tIte operation of the tariff laws in
that State. This caused the President to issue a
proclamation warning the N ullifiers t}¡a.t the laws of
the United States would be enforced. The difficulty
was settled by a compromise, which provided for the
gradual rednction of the duties.

4. At the clection, in 1832, J ackson was reeIected
Presidcnt and Martin Van Buren was clected Vice.
President of thc United States. In 1833, intense
excitement was produ( ed by the removal of the govern-
ment funds from the Unitcd States Bank to the state

2. De,cri)," tI,e war with the Indians under B1ack Hawk 7
3. '\"hat was <l"ue hy Congress in 1832? What diffieulties arose
in Suuth f)urolina. amI h'JW wCl'e they settIed? 4. What was the
result of the next e1.etion 1 What was done in 1833 ?


5. In 1835, the 8eminole Indians in Florida, in·
fluenced by their chief Oseeola, commenced a war
against the Vnited 8tateB. ThcJ' had a¡;\·c('.~l bJ' ttcat~
to remove to the Indian Territory, but, heeoming dis-
satisfied, they refused to go, and began to pIunder and
murder the whites.

6. Major Dade, with one hundred and scventeen
men, was sent to reenforee General Clinch at Port King.
On the 28th of December, 1885, he was attaeked by
the Indians, and al! his men exccpt four \Vere killed.
On the 31st, the sanges \Vere dcfcatcd by General
Clineh on the Withlaeoochee riyer.

7. On the 29th ol'Febl'uary, 183G, General Gaines was
attaekod by the Indians, 1ut the 1;attle \Vas in,lecisivc.
General 8cott \Vas no\V sent to take the eornmand ol' the
troops. By his managernent ¡mny of t11e Indians wel'e
sent west ol' the Mississippi l'iver.

8. In July, 1836, the Treasury Department issued
the " 8pecie Circular" which rec¡uired the payment of
gold and silver fol' the public lands. In 1830, Congresa
passed the "Distribution Act" which pl'ovided that al!
money in t1le U nited States treasury, on tIle ] 8t of Jan-
uary, 1837, should be distributed arnong t1le States in
proportion to their population.

9. In 1830, Arkansas was lldrnitted ¡nto the Un ion as

5. What is said of tbe Scminole Inrlians, in 1 8:l5? To what had
theyagreed by tTenly? 6. What happened to Major Dade? By
.. hom were the In,lians defeated? 7. What is ,,,ir! oí' the ·!ttack on
General Grtines? ""'ho wn.s now sent ng-ainst tho Intlians, anu wbat
did he accomplish? 8. Whu! i, ,ai,1 oí' the Specic Circular? Of tbe
Distriuution Act? 9. Wh"t is s.id of the admission and settlemen!
oC Arkansas 1 What .. as the result of tbo next eleetion?


a State. It was first settled, at Arkansas Post, in 11)85.
In 1837, Michigan was admitted into the Union. It
was first settled, at Sault Sto Marie, in 1G68. At the
next election :Martin Van Buren was eh osen Prcsident
and Richard M. Johnson Vice-Presidcnt of the United
Sta tes.


l. Martín Van Buren was inauguratcd on the 4th of
1\larch, 1837. In Muy, the bunks suspcnded spccic pay-
mento This was followed by mercantile failures all
over the country, so that business was prostrated and
eonfidence destroyed. An extra session of Congresa
met in September and passed several bills, among which
was one for issuing treusury notes to the umount of ten
millio!l dolIars.

2. 'fhe Seminole W ur was still going on. In 1837,
several of the chiefs came to General J essup's camp and
signed a treaty agreeing to remove to the Indian Terri.
tory. This trcaty was soon broken by Osceola. In
October, he, with seventy others, came to the American
camp under a flag of truce when he was seized and
imprisoned by General J essup.

3. In Deccmber, Colonel Zachury TayIor dcfcatcd the
Indians at Lake Okeechobee. After this battle the
savages retreated to the swamps, where the U nitcd

1. When was Van Duren inaugurated? What wns the eondition
of the country? \Vhnt <lid e mgrcss do? 2. What did lhe Seminol.
ebiars do in 1837? 3. Whcre did Taylor dcreal the Indian.? How
long did the war continuc?


States troops could not follow, and continued the "al
unCil 1842, when peace was firmly established.

4. In 1837, a rebellion broke out in Canada whieh
enlisted the sympathies of many of the American people,
some of which crossed the line to give assistanee to the
"patriots." In order to check this the President issucd
a proclamation declaring that those who invaded th6
British possessions wouhl forfeit the protection of their
government. At the next election General \Villiam
H enry Harrison was chosen President, and .J ohn Ty ler
Viee-President of the U nited States.

(1841-1845) .

1. General Harrison was inaugurated on the 4th of
Mareh, 1841. DeRiring a change in the polie] of tl1e
governrnent, he iSBued a prochmation for an extra ses-
sion of Congress, to mect on the 31st of ~lay. On the
4th of April, one month after his inanguration, Harri-
son died and .J ohn Tyler became Prcsident of the U nited

2. The extra session of Congress eommcnced on the
3] st of l\Iaj. Two separate bilis werc passed f(lr
rechartcring the United States Bank, but both were
vetoed by the President.

3. The bonndary line of l\Iaine, which !lad caused

4. What is .aid of tbe rebellion in Canada? Give the result of
t,he next elcctlun.

l. Whcn WIIS lIarri"on inaugurateel, and wbat di,! he d07 What
occurred on the 4th of April? 2. Whnt was do"o by Congre"B?
3. What i. "aid of tbe bllundary line of Maine?


mueh eontroversy between the United States and Great
Britain, was settlcd in 1842, by the eommissioners
Daniel IV cbster and Lord Ashburton.

4. In 1843, serious diffieulties occurred in Rhode
Island. They grew out of the efforts to exchange the
old charter granted by Charles n., in 1663, for a State
constitution. Two parties were formed, and the quarrel
between them became so bitter that the State was on the
brink of civil war, and the President thought it neces-
sary to send troops to keep the peace. Their eonstitu-
tion was adopted the same year.

5. In 1845, J!'lorida was admitted into the Union as a
S tate. It was first settled at Sto A ugustine, by the Span-
¡ards, in 1565. At the next election, James K. Polk
was chosen President, and George M. DalIas Viee-Presi-
dent of the United States.

1. James K. Polk was inaugurated on the 4th of

March, 1845. In January, of this year, Congresa
passed a 1ilI for the annexation of Texas. That repub-
lie approved the bill, on the 4th of July, 1845, and
thus beeame a State of the American Union. The
people of Texas dec1ared their independence in Mareh.
1836, and, in tlle same year, totally defeated the Mex

~. Describe the difficulties in Rbode hlund originating from a
change in the government. 5. What is said of the admission and
¡ettlement of morid a ? What was the result of the next election 1

l. When was Polk inaugurated? What is said of the annexation
of Texas 7 Of tbe independenoe of Texas?



icans at the b~ttle of San Jacinto. Their indepenJence
was aftcrwards acknowleuged by France, England, und
the United States.

2. 11exi00, however, claimed Texas as a parto of her
rerritory and made preparations for defending her pos-
sessions. Tbe American government sent General Tay-
101' with fifteen hundred troops to Corpus Christi, and
Commodore Conner with a fleet to the Gulf of l\lexico,
to oppose tbe movements of the Mexicana.

3. In 1846, the boundary line of Oregon was settled
by the American and British commissioncrs, James Bu-
chanan and Richard Packenbam. They agreed upon
the forty-ninth degree of north latitud e, and the Strait
of Juan de Fuca to separate lJritish America f'rom the
United States. In 1846, Iowa was adrnitted into tha
Union as a State. It was first settled at Burlington, in

4. In March, 1846, General Taylor moved f'rom Cor-
pus Christi to Point Isabel, which he fortified. He then
proceeded to the Rio Grande opposite Matamoras, whera
he erected Fort Brown. The Mexicans cornmenced
hostilities in April, by killing Colonel Cross, Lieutenant
Porter, and thrce other persons. TayJor now left tha
fort in charge of Major Brown and moved back to Point

2. What did Mcxico da? Wbat did tbe American governmcnt
do? 3. Wbcn "nd bow wa8 the boundary line of Oregon sottled?
What i8 s"id of the admission and settlement of lowa? 4. What
Nas done by General TayJor? Haw were ha.tilitie. caIDmcnoe'l?
When did TayJar naw go?


5. Soon. after this the 1\lexicans attacked Fort Brown,
and Taylor with two thousand three hundred men
roarched to the assistance of the garrison. On the 8th
of )lay, 1846, he met and defeated General Arista with
six thousand 1\Iexieans, at Palo Alto.

6. On the following day, 1\1ay 9th, Taylor attacked
aud defeated the Mexicans at Resaca de la Palma. In
this battle they lost one thousand men, while the Amer-
icans only lost one hundred. On the 11th of May, Con-
gress formally declared that war existed between the
United States and .Mexico. They authoriz.ed the Presi-
dont to raise fifty thousand volunteers, and made an
appropriation for carrying on the war.

7. On the 18th of 1\1 ay, General Taylor crossed the
Rio Grande and took possession of l\latamoras. During
the summer he was recnforced, and, on the 19th of' Sep-
tember, he arrived at 1\Ionterey with six thousand meno
This place was defended by General Ampudia and nine
thousand Mexicans. Taylor at once commenced the
siege which was conducted with so much vigor that
Ampudia surrendered the town on the 24th of Septem-
ber, 1846. The loss of the Americans was abont five
hundred men, while the Mexicans lost over one thonsand.

8. During this year, 1846, Colonel Fremont, aided
by Commodores Sloat and Stockton, captured California,

5. Whnt is said of tbe attaek on Fort Brown? What occurred 00
tbo 8th of lIf:ty? 6. Whnt on the 9th? What was done by Con.
gre." 7 7. When did Taylor get posses.ion of Matailloras? De·
Boribe tbe siege of Monterey. 8. What othor captures werc made
tn 18461


General K€lrney captured New i\Iexico, and Colonel
Doniphan captured Chihuahua.

9. General Scott was sent to ~Iexico wllCre he arrivcd,
early in 1847, and took the ahief comlUand of 1.he Amer.
ican forces. He ordered a large part of Taylor's army
to join him in the attack upon Vera Cruz. This 10ft
General Taylor witb. only five thousand ruen to opposo
twenty thousand Mexicans at San Luis Potosi under
General Santa Anna.

10. The latter attacked Taylor's army at Buena Vista,
on the 23d of February, 1847, but was repulsed and
driven in confusion from the fieJd. Tho American9
were now in possession of al! the northern part of l\1ex·
ico. Taylor reruained with the arllly at Buena Vista.
until Septeruber, when he gave the cOlllll1and to General
W 001 and returned to the U nited States.

n. On the 9th of' March, General Scott landed near
Vera Cruz and at once besieged the place. This was
continued until the 26th of i\I arch, 1847, wben tbe city
and the castJe of San Juan de DUoa were surrendered
to tbe American forces. Gener,,1 \Vorth was now ap-
pointed governor of Vera Cruz, and Scott with about
cight thousand men marched towards the city of Mexico.

12. Santa Anna stationed his army of fifteen thou-
Iland men at the mountain-pass of Cerro Gordo which
was strongly fortified. Here he was attacked and totally

9. 'Vhat ls said of General 8cott? "rhat WfU5 Tnylor's !'ituation?
10. '''''"hat i~ 8nid of the hattle nf nncnrr Vista? HoW' long' did T:lylrr
remain at Buena Vista? 11. 'Yhat i~ srrid of the Sil'~~'C (lf Vera Cruz 7
Wherc lid Scott now go? 12. What is said of tilo batUe of Cerro
Gordo 7


routed ~ y General Scott, on the 18th of April, 1847.
In the b:ütlc thc Amcricans lost about four hundrcu
men, while the IIIcxicans lost fou1' thousand in killcd,
wounded, and pl'isollcrs.

13. On thc 22d 01' April, Scott took possession 01' tlle
furtressofPerote. On the 15thofl\Iay, 18-p, theAmer-
icans entered the city of La Puebla, where they remained
ulltil August. In tlle mean time the U nited 8tates sent
1\1 r. Trist to olfcr an honorable peace to the l\1exiculls,
but the olfer was refused. General 8cott, having been
recnforced, left La Puebla early in August with ten
thousand men.

H. On the 20th of August, 1847, the Americans
cap tu red Contreras,ttwhich was defended by eight thou-
sand 1\lcxicans. On the same day they proceeded te
Churubusco, whcl'c they met Santa Anna with two
thousund seven hundl'ed meno After a battJe of thrce
hours the l\1exicans were defeated and fled in confusion
to the city of Mexico.

15. An armistice was now agreed upon, but was soon
after violated by Santa Anna. On the 7th of 8eptem-
ber, Scott declared the armistiee at an end. On the
8th, he captured El Molino del Rey; on the 13th the
strong position of ChapuJtepee was taken; and on the

13. When did Seott tnke the forlress of Perole? What eity did
lhe American. enter in May, and how long did they remaín there?
Whal was aceomplished by Mr. Trist's uffcr of peaee? When díd
ScoU leuve La Puebla? H. What ís soid oflhe e.pture uf Con treTaS í
What of the battle uf Cherubusco? 15. What is •• id of the armi ...
tice agreed upon? Describe the battles leading t~ the capture of
tbe city of Mexi~o.


14th of September, 18-17, the Americans triumphantl,
entercd the capital of' ::\lexico. .

16. This ellded the war, ano, on tIJe 2d of February,
] 848, a treaty of peace betwecn the two countrics was
concluded at Ouadalupe Hidalgo. By it New::\lexico
and Californi~ were ceded to the Ullited States, and, in
rctnrn, the Mcxican government was to reccivc fifteen
millions of dollars for the ceded territory.

17. In J'llay, 1848, Wisconsin was adlllitted into the
Union as a State. It was first settled at Oreen Bay by
thc French, in IGDO. At the next election General
Zachary Taylor was chosen Presidcnt, and Millard
Fillmore Vice-Prebident of the U nited States.

(184g-1853 l.

1. General Zachary Taylor was inaugurated on the
5th of l\1arch, 1849. The gold fonnd in California
indnced many persons to go there from al! other sections
of the conntry. lIaving forme o a State constitution
which prohibited slavery, the inhabitants of that State
asked to be admitted into the Uníon as a Statc. This
was violently opposed by the friellds of slavcry who
threatened to withdraw from the Union.

2. To settle the diffienlty, lIenry Clay introdnced

16. When was a treaty of peace conclu<led, and what were ita
I'rovisions? 17. What is s!lid uf the admission and selUement of
Wi"consin? "\Vhat W!lS the result of the nexl e16ction ?

1. ,,'hen was Taylor inanguraled? What is said of California 1
"llat did Ihe friends of Blavery threaten to do 7 2. How was the
diftlculty Bettlad ?

into Congress a compromise biU which provided, 1st,
That California should be admitted as a free State,
and should embrace the territory from Oregon to tho
1I1exican posscssions j 2d. 'l'hat the territory of Utah
should be ereeted without mention of sIavery j 3d.
That the territory of New Mexico should be formed
without mentiou of slavery, and that ten millions of
doUars should be paid to Texas in purehase of her
elaims; 4th. That the slave trade in the Distriet of
Columbia should be abolished; 5th. That a law should
be passed for the arrest and return of fugitive slaves.

3. On tbe 9th of July, 1850, General Taylor died,
and, on tbe next day, :M:r. Fillmore took the oath of
office as President of the United States. In September,
1850, the compromise bill was adopted by Congress,
and California was admitted jnto the Union as a State.
It was first settled by the Spaniards at Los Angelos, in

4. On the 29th of June, 1852, llenry Clay of Ken-
tucky died in Washington, and, on the 24th of October
f'Jllowing, Daniel Webster died at his residen ce in
lHassachusett~. At the next elcction Franklin Pierce
wns choscn Prcsidcnt, and William R. King Vice-
President of the United States.

3. Wben did Taylor die, and who succecded him? What is said
of lhe admission and settlement of California? 4. What dis-
tinguishod person; dicd in 1852? Wbat was tbe reenlt of the next



] Franklin Pierce was inaugurated on the 4th 01
March, 1853. On the 18th of April, Vice-President
King died at his residencc in Alabama. During this
year a treaty was made with l\Iexico by which the
United States acquired the territory of Arizona, and in
return agreed to pay twenty miHions of doHars to the
Mexican government.

2. In March, 1854, Commodore Perry made a treaty
with J apan, by which commcrcial intcrcourse was
established between the United States and that nation.
During this year Congress passed a bill for organizing
the territories of Kansas and N ebraska, giving the
inhabitants the privilege of being admitted into the
Union either as free or slave States.

3. The most strenuous efforts were now made by the
two sections, the North and the Soutb, to obtain control
of the affairs of Kansas. Each party sent settlcrs to
the territory, and a civil war ensned, which lasted
for more than ayear. At the next election, James
Bucbanun was chosen Prcsident, and John C. llreckin-
ridge Vice-Presidcnt of the United Statcs.

l. When waS Pieree inaugurated? When did Vicc-Pre$ident
King die? What is said of the treaty with Mexico? 2. What is
nid of the treaty with J apan ? What did Congress do with Kansas
and N ebraska? 3. What efrect waS produced upon Ransas? What
wa.s the result of the next el.ction?


l. James Buchanan was ínaugurated on the 4th 01
March, 1857. The Mormons at Salt Lake Cíty, under
Brigham Y oung, refused obedience to the laws of the
United States, and a military force was sent against
them, which arrived, in 1858, and amicably settled the

2. In 1858, Ruchanan recommended to Congress the
admission of Kansas into the U nion as a slave State,
with the constitution adopted at Lecompton. This
was opposed by the friends of frecdom in and out of
Congress, and Kansas was finally admitted, in J anuary,
1860, as a free State.

3. In 1858, Minnesota was admitted into the Uníon
as a State. It was first scttled at Sto Paul, in 1846, by
emigrants from the Eastern States. In 1859, Oregon
was admitted as a State. It was first settled at Astoria,
in 1811, by emigrants from New England.

4. On the 16th of October, 1859, John Brown with
twenty-two other pers()ns seized the arsenal at Harpcr's
Ferry, with the intention of liberating the slavcs of
Virginia. They were soon overpowered and captured
by the State and N ational troops, and, on the 2d of
December, John Brown was hung.

1. When was Buchanan inaugurated? Whnt difficuIties ar()ie
with the Mormons, and hOlV lVere tlley settled? 2. What is .!Lid
of the admission of Kan,as into the Unian? 3. What is said of
the admission and scttlement of MinneBota? Of Orcgon? 4. Whal
iI 8'lid of John Brown'. "ttempl lo libera te th. slaves of Virginia?

(107 )


5. At the election, in 1800, Abraham Lincoln was
chosen President, and Hannibal Hamlin Vice-President
of the U nited States. The politicians of the Sou~b
were dissatisfied with the election, and, on the 20th of
Decembcr, South Carolina se ceded from the U nion.

6. At this time the ga;:rison of Fort l\Ioultrie was
commandcd by ItIajor Robcrt Anderson. He withdrew
to Fort Sumter, and Fort Moultrie was taken and
oeellpied by the troops of South Carolina. The steamer
" Star of the 'Yest," sent with provisíons to Fort Sum
ter, was fired ¡nto, on the 9th of J alluary, 1861, by
the South Carolina troops and compelled to return.

7. By the 1st of February, 1861, Mississippi, Florida,
Alabama, Georgia, Louisialla, and Texas had followed the
example of South Carolina. Virginia, Al'kansas, North
Carolina, and Tennessee afterwards scceded, making
eleven States in all They seized the forts, arsenals,
and other property belonging to the United States, and
made preparations for establishing a government.

8. Delegates from six of the seceded States met, on
tIle 4th of February, 1861, and formed the so-called
., Southern Confederacy" with the title of" Confederate
States of America." They chose J efferson Davis Pres-
idcnt, and Alexander n. Stephens Vice-Presídent of
the " Confederation."

5. What wns the re.ult of the election in 1860? What was don"
by South Carolina? 6. ,,'hat was done by General Anderson 1
What is suid of the st.amer Star of Ihe West? 7. "'uat State.
aeceded by the 1st of February, 1861? What Sta te. afterwards
aeoeded? What di<l the seceders do? 8. What waf done by the
delegates from the secedod States?


1. Abraha1l1 Lincoln was il1ilugurated, on t1w 4th
;:¡f ~larch, lSG1, and at once prepareJ to maintain tl:e
authority of the National Government. 011 the 11th
of April following, a fleet was sent to relie,"e Fort
I"lllllter. On tl1e 12th of April, before its arrival, the
Confederatcs uttacked tIle fort und compelled Anderson
to e,'aClla te it.

2. On the 15th of April, 1861, the Presiuent issued
a proclalllution calling for seventy-five thousand men to
serve for three months, and for an extra session of
Congress to mcct on the 4th of J uly. TIle troops wcre
quickly rai~cu and seut tu protect the city of 'IYashing-
ton frolll thc threatCllcd attack of the Confederates.

3. On the 18th of A pril, 1861, five hundrcd Penn-
sylvania volunteers arrived at the capital. On the 19th,
as a rcgiment of troops from J\Iassacnusetts was passing
through Baltimore, it was attacked by a mob, and, on
thc same day, a body of unarllled troops froro Penn-
sylvania was attacked und compelled to returo to Phila-
dclph Ía.

4. The troops at Ilarper'a Ferry destroyed tIle public
buildings and retreated to Washington. The navy yard
at N orfülk and the yessels in the harbor were destroyed

1. When was Lincoln inaugumted. nnd what did he do? Whal
Was done with Fort Sumtc)"? 2. What was the Presiden!', pro-
clulllati"n? What was done wilh lhe troops? 3, Who "rrived at
the capital on the 18th of April? What oceurrcd at Baltimore r
;l.. What was done al lIarper'. Ferry? At Norfolk?

(109 )


by the U nion troops to prevent their falling ido th,
hands of the enemy.

5. On the 3d of ~Iay, the PmlÍdent ealled rOl' sixty
four thousand volunteers for the arrny, and eighteen
thousund for the nuvy. General Butler now occupied
llaltimore with a large body of troops und restored quiet
to the city.

6. On the 10th of J une, General Butler sent u force
against the encrny at Great I3ethel. In the darkness
of the night two of the regiments, mistaking ca eh other
for the encmy, commcnced firing when one mun was
killed and several wounded. In the attack next morn-
ing the Union forces were defeated and eompclled to
retreat. Lientenant Greble and Major Winthrop were
killed in this engagement.

7. Congress met, on the 4th of July, 1861, aod
authorized the raising of fiye hundrcd thousnnd meo
and appropriated five hundred millions of dollars to
carry on the war. 00 thc 11th of J u1y, the Confed-
erates under Colonel Pegram, at Rieh l\1ountain, in
Virginia, were defeated by General Roseerans. The
U nion forces obtained a large amonnt of eannon and
military stores and six hundrcd prisoners.

8. At Sto George, Virginia, the Confederates under
General Garnett were ronted by the Union forees nnder
General l\1cClellan. Two hundrcd of their number,

5. Wbnt dia the President do on lbe :ld of ~hy 7 Wbat is .aid
of RlltIer? 6. Wha,t is Baid of tbe battle af Groat nethell
'1'. What was alltborized by Congres.? Wbat was done at Rich
l!rIauntain? 8. What is said of lhe battle at SI. George?


including G cueral Garnett, were killed, and one thousand
takcn prisuners.

9. On thc 18th of J uly, thc Union forces under GQlleral
l\1cDowell attaeked and repulsed thc enemy at Centre-
ville. On the 21st of July, 1861, they attaeked tha
Confedcrates under General Beauregard at Bull Run.
The enemy was at first repulsed, but having been reen-
foreed, he ehargcd upon thc Union forees, which fled
in great eonfusion towards Washingtou with the 1088 of
over three thousand mcn and a large quantity of artillery
and baggage.

10. On the 22d of July, 1861, General MeClellan was
appointed to the command of the Army of the Potomac.
He spent the autumn and thc following winter in pre-
paring for an advanee against Richmond, the Confed-
eratc capital.

11. A nayal expedition under Commodore Stringham
and General Butlcr was sent against the forts at Hatteras
lnlet, North Carolina, and, on tIle 29th of August, 1861,
they were captured with seven hundred and fifty men
and a large amount of stores. None of the Union forces
were injured. Of the Confedcrates only eight were
killed and fifteen wounded.

12. Early in September, 1861, General Roseerans
attackcd and defeated the Confederates under Q eneral

9. When Iltld by whom WIlS tbe enerny defentcd at Centreville?
What is ~"id of the batt!e of Bal1 Run? 10. When was McClel1an
apl'0inted to the cornmand of lhe arrny, "nd wh,tt did he do?
11. What is .aid of the expedition against the forts at Hatleras
Inlet? 12. What happened ncar Summerville? What was dODe
d Harper'e Ferry?


Floyd, near Summerville, Virginia. Floyd crosscd the
Gauley river in the night ana escapea. On the Htb
of October, the UnÍon t;)rccs under Colonel Geary were
attacked at Harper's Ferry by the Confederates, but tha
assailan ts were foreed to retreat.

13. On the 21st of October, 1861, the Union forces,
nurubering about sevcnteen hundrcd mcn, under General
Stone, were attaeked and defeated by thrce thousand
fiye hundred Confcderates under GencralEvans. During
their rctrcat acr088 the Potomac one oi' the boat8 sunk
and severa! were drowned. Colonel Baker was slaill,
and about six hundred and for!y of the Union troops
were killed, wounded, or missing.

14. In the latter part oi' October, 186] , General 8cott
resigned his commission as commander-in-chief of the
army, und General l\IcClellan was appointed to succeed
him. In October, a naval expcdition was sent out under
Admiral Dupont, which captured llilton llead and tha
town of Beaufort, South Carolina, on the 7th of ti ovem-
ber, 1861.

15. On the saine day (November 7th), Captain
'Vilke8 took the Confcderate commissioners, Mason and
81idell, from the English mail steulller Trent, and 8ent
them to Fort Warren at BOllton. The British govern-
llll:lllt ul:lm¡mueo. their surrender anO. they were set at
liberty, J anuary 1st, 1862.

16. On the 10th of May, 1861, General Lyon
13. What happcncd to the nrrny under {Jener,,] Stone? 14. W],,'u

did General Scott resign, nnd who succecdcd him? \\rha.t is said
of the naval expedition under Dupont? 15. What was done with
Mason and Slidell? 16. What did General Lyon 8ccompli~h al
Bo01l ville 7 What \. said of the engagement at Carlhaga?

EVENTS 01' B62. 113

capturad a Confederate eamp at Boonville, Missouri,
and took possession of a large amount of military storúg
in the arsenal. On the 5th of J nIy, a seyere engage-
ment oecurred near Carthage, l\1issouri, between tht
U nion troops under General Sigel and the Confederates
under J ackson, when the latter were repulscd.

17. The Union fort at J~exington, .Missouri, wa~
attacked by the Confederates under General Price.
'fhe assailants wcre at first repulsed with heavy loss,
but afterwards rencwed the attack, and, on tl1e 20th of
Septembcr, 1861, the fort with the garrison was sur-
rendered to the enemy. It was rceaptured by .Major
White and a party of Union cavalry,on tho 16th of

18. On the 18th of Deeember, 1861, Colonel J elforson
C. Davis defeated tho Confcdcratcs near l\lilford, Mis-
souri, took thirteen hundred prisoners, one thousand
horses, and a large amount of arms and ammunition.


1. On the 19th of January, 1862, the Confederatcs
under Generals Crittenden aud Zolliekoffer attaeked
General Thomus ncar Somersct, Kentueky, but thcy
were repulsed and General Zollickoffer slain. On tho
16th of February, 1862, tho Union forees uuder Gen-

17. What occurrcd 11t the fort, at Loxington, }fissouri? 18. What
was done by Colonel Davis at l\lilford?

1. What is s"id of the attn.ck on General Thomas noar SOIn6t8eU
Wbat la enid 01' the capture of Fort DondsoD ?


eral Grant captured Fort Donclson, on tlw Cumberland
River. Grant's arrny :unounted to fifteen thousand
meno '1'he Confederates numbered eighteen thousand,
and were eommanded by Generals Floyd and Pillow.
Floyd eseaped with five thousand men, but the remain.
ing thirteen thou~and, with three thousand horses,
sixty-two cannon, and twenty thousand arms, were sur-

2. On the 8th of March, 1862, the Union forces
numbering twenty thousand men, under General Curtis,
after tluee days' fighting, defeated thirty thousand
Confederates under G enerals Van Dorn and Price, at
Pea Ridge, in Arkansas, and captured a large amount
of military stores.

3. In :March, General Grant, with thirty-eight thou-
sand men, commenced to ascend the Tcnnessee River.
On the 6th of April, 1862, he was attacked at Shiloh
by about sixty thousand Confederates under Generals
Beauregard and A. S. J ohnston. The battle lasted all
day, and in the evening, Grant was reenforced by
General Buell with twenty thousand meno At day-
break the next ,morning he attacked the enemy and
drove him from the neId towards Corinth. Generala
Wallace of the U nion and J ohnston of tIle Confederate
army were among·the killed in t11ia battle.

4. On tIle 7th of April, 1862, Commodore Foote
witIl a Heet of gunbo:lts captured Island No. 10, in the
i\1ississippi River. He was assisted by a body of U nion

2. What is said of the batl!e of Pca Ridge? 3. W':tcre did Gen-
~ral Grant go in March? Describo tbe batt!o of Shik b. i. Wha.t
lB I&itl of tbe capturé of Is!aud No. lO?

EVENTS OF 1862. 115

troops under General Pope who eut oH "he encmy's
retreat. Seven thousand Confederate officers and 801-
diers, and a large amollnt of military stores, were sur-
rendered along with the Island.

5. General MitchelI, after a rupid mari!h through
Kentuckyand Tennessee, captllred H untwille, in Ala-
bama, on the 11th of April, 1862, and secured two
hundred prisoners with a large amount of military
stores. The next d~y he scnt an expcdition to Stevcns's
Station which capturcd two thousand of the enemy.

6. Comrnodores Farragut and Porter, with a fleet of
gunboats, passed up the Mississippi to capture New
Orleans. Forts Jackson and Sto l'hilip obstructed their
passage, and, on thc 18th of April, they commenced to
bombard them. 'l'his was continllcd until the 28th of
April, when the forts wcre snrrendered. On the 23d
of April, a part of the fleet pasiied the forts and ap-
proached New Orleans, which was abandoned by the
Confederate army under General Lovdl. On the 28th
of April, 1862, the city was surrendered, and General
Butler's army took military possesslOn of it.

7. In August, General Bragg, with over twenty-ftvl:
thousand Confederate troops, invaded Kentucky ana
proceeded nearly to Louisville. JI is intentions welL'
foiled by General Bnell, at the hcad of eighteell thou-
sano Union troops, and after a BCyerC battle near Pony_
ville, on the 8th of October, 1862, he was compelled
to retreat into 'I'cllnessee.

5. 'Vhat was done by ncncral :\1itehcll in ApriI? 6. fJI:,-cribll
the capture of New )rlealls. 7. W'h<lt is i:];JÍ 1 vI' llr¡lgg-'s iu\'u",ioD
Df Keilfu'eky? H


8. On the 3d of October, 1862, forty thousand oí
the eDemy, commanded by Van Dorn, attacked the
Union troops under Uosecrans, at Corinth, l\lississippi.
After two days' fighting, the Confederates were repulsed
with a heavy loss. By this victory the Union troopa
gained possession of 'Vest Tenncssee.

9. On the 29th of Dccember, 1862, General Sher-
man, with fifty thousand Union troops, attacked Vicks-
burg on the I1lississippi. Aftcr asevere battle he was
repulsed. On the 31st, about sixty-five thousand Con-
federates attacked the Union forces and compelled them
to recmbark and lcave the place.

10. In J anuary, 1862, a land and naval expedition
under General Burnside and Corulllodore Goldsborough
1eft Fortress l\lonroe for Korth Carolina. On the 8th
of February, they captured Roanoke Island and three
thousand Confederates, with forty can non and three
thousand sruall arrus.

11. On the 8th of Mareh, 1862, the Confederate
iron-clad stearuer l\lerrimae, Captain Buchanan, snnk
the frigates Cumberland and Congrcss near the mouth
of thc James River. In the night the Union iron-clad
8t~alller Monitor, Lieutenant 'V orden, arrivcd, and the
next morning attacked and disabled the l\lerrimac and
Jrove her back to Norfolk.

U. On the 22d of February, 1862, the Army of the

8. What is said of the attack upon Corinth? 9. What is .ah! of
3herman's attack on Vicl\sburg? 10. 'Yhat was done by Burnside
.n,j Gul,lsborough? 11. What W,," done by lhe iron-clad Merri-
Olac? "-hat hy the Monitor? 12. What was done by lIlcClella.n f
What by General Shields in March?


Potomac 'Joder McOlcllan ac1vanced towards Richmond1
and, on the 10th of March, took Manassas und Centre-
ville. On the :)Sc1 of :\1arch, seven thousand UniolJ
troops under General Shiclc1s defeated eleven thousand
Confederates undcr Longstreet and J ackson near 'Vin-
c1wstcr, Virginia.

13. On the 14th of March, 18ü2, General Burnsila
captured Newbern, North Carolina, taking three hun-
dred prisoncrs anJ a large supply of guns and ammu-
nítion. An expcc1ítíon \Vas now sent against Beaufort,
which \Vas evacuated on the approach of the Un ion

14. On the 11th of April, 1862, Fort Pulaski, at tha
mouth of the Savannah river, was captured by General
Gillmore, and, on the 26th of April, Fort Macon, North
Carolina, was surrcndered to the U nion forces under
Commodore Goldsborough.

15. On tIle 4th of April, ]862, General McClellan
landed at Fortress 31onroe, and proceec1ed with his army
towards Yorktowu. On the 3d of May, the Confedero
ates evacuated the place and fied towards Richmond
On the 5th, the Union forces camc up with the enemy
at Williamsburg, and, after asevere battle, drove him
from the fieId.

16. On the 10th of May, 1862, General W 001, with
fiye thousanc1 men, captured Norfolk, and the following

H. Whul is saitl of lbe capturo of Ncwbrrn? Of Boaufort1
14. What is S:1irl of the 'capture of Fort Pulnski and Fort Macan?
Vi. What is s"id of M "Clellan'. advance? What of the battle oC
Wílliamsburg? 16. What was done on the 10th and 11tb ~f Mllyl
What waB dono hy t.he ¡ron·c1ad gunboat.?


morning the Confederates destroyed the iron-clad lHerri.
mae. 800n after this the iron-clad gunboats proceeded
up the James river towards Richmond, but were pre-
vented from reaching the city by the obstructions in tho

17. l\IcClelIan moved eareful1y on towurds Riehmond
and, on the 22d of May, erosscd the Chickahomin:r
river. On the 31st of Muy, 11)62, und the day follow-
ing, severe buttles were fought at Fair Oaks, but neither
party gained any advantage.

18. On the 24th of J une, 1862, MeClellan began to
change his base so as to reeeive his supplies from the
James river. The enemy took this opportunity to attaek
the Union army. A series of severe und bloody buttles
followed, during the ncxt seven days, attended with great
]088 of Jife; but the Confedcraies wcre foilcd in every
attempt to capture or destroy the Union army.

19. About fifteen tllOusand Confcdcrate troops under
Ewcll aud J ackson attacked General Banks's divisiou
of four thousand men, ucar ·Winchcstcr, on thc 25th of'
May, 1862. The U nion troops rctreated aeross the Po-
tomac at Williamsport. The enemy now withdrew his
forces, and General Frcmont startecl from the Shenan-
doah valley in pursuit. On the 8th of June, 1862, at
Cross Keya, a battlc was foug-ht which resulted in the
defeat of the Confederate troops und their retreat acroSE
the BIue Riclgc towurcls Richmond.

17. Whnt is said of McClellnn's movements? W"bot ofthe battl.
of Fnir Oak8? 18. Whot is 83.i,1 of lIIcClelhl"s ch"n~e of hase?
19. Whut is $uid of the battle of Winohester? "\"fhat of the batU.
at CtrsB Ke,s?

EVENTS OF 1862. 119

20 On tho %th of June, 1862, the forees nnder Fre-
mont, Banks, and McDowell were consolídated and plaeed
nnder the ~omlUand of General Pope. President Lin·
coln, on the ] st of J uly, called for three hundred thou-
sand more troops for the army.

21. On the 11th of J uly, 1862, General Halleck was
llppoillted commandor-in-ehief of the Uníon forees. On
the 17th of July, Congress adjourned. During the ses-
sion, an aet was passed confisc:.Lting the property of per-
son S in arms against the United States government, also
an aet abolishing slavery in t1e Distriet of Columbia.

22. Soon after the " seven days' fight" the Confeder-
ates began to move towards 'f ashíngton. The danger
to that eity bccame so grcat, that l\lcClellan was ordercd
to withdraw frorn t10 Península and hastcn to the aid
of General Pope.

23. On the Gth of August, 1862, thc Union forees
under General Banks were attacked at Cedar Mountain
by General J ackson. In the evening General Pope
arríved with additional Un ion troops, and the enemy.
on thc 11th, hastily retreated across the Rapídan.

24. General J ackson nowattcmptcd to destroy Popc'a
army befi)re McClellan eould recnforcc it, and the Uníon
forccH were compclled to fall baek towards l\1anassas.

20. What wns done with tbe rorces under Fremont, Banks, and
MeDowell? What was done by the President on the 1st of July?
21. Whcn ",as IJallcek n.ppointed commander·in-chicf? Wben did
Congress a<1journ, :ln(l what was done during thc scsslon? 22. 'Vhat
<lill Ihe COllfedcratcs <lo after lhe sc"en days' fight? What \VQS
McClellan ordcred to do? 23. What is said 01' the hattJo of Cedar
Mountain? 24. Wbllt is s"irl of Pope'. IlrmO'? Whllt is sai<l of the
.eoond l"ütl~ at Dull It\ln?


On the 28th of August, 1862, they "ere attacked neal
tbe old battle-field of Bull Hun and finally compelled ro
retreat to Centreville, and afterwards to the fortifica-
tions around Washington.

25. General nlcClellan arrived on the 1st of Septem
ber, and took command of all tbe forces for the defenee
of tbe Capital. ~rbe Confcdcratcs under General Lee
now crossed tbe Potomae into nIaryland. Tbey were
followed by MeClellan, and, on the 14th of September,
1862, asevere battle was fougbt at Soutb l\lountain,
Maryland, wben tbe enemy was defeatcd.

26. On tbe 15tb of Septcmber, 1862, Colonell\:1iles
surrendered Harper's Ferry, with eleven tbousand five
hundred r nion troops and a large arnount of stores, tD
Generals .J ackson und Hill who commanded thirty-five
thousand meno

27. On the 17th of Septembcr, 1862, the great battle
of Antietam was fought, on Antietam creek, in Maryland.
The Confederates, numbering ninety-seven thousand
men, under General Lee, were defeated by McClcllan
and, during the night, croRsed the Potomac into Virginia.

28. Early in October, 1862, a body of Confederate
cavalry, under Generals Stuart and Hampton, made a
raid into Pennsylvania, captured Mercersburg and
Chambersburg, and escaped into Virginia witb on~
thousand hor8es besides otber plunder.

25. When did McClellan arrive, and what did he do? What wal
no'" done by the two armies? 26. Wbat is s"id (lf the surrcndcr of
Harper's Ferry? 27. Wbat is S!Lid of the battle of Antietam J
28. Wha.t is said of the T',id ioto Pennsylvania by Stuazt .. nd

EVENTS OF 1863. 121

29. McClellan followed Lee's retreating arrny througb
Virginia, and, on the 5th of November, he was super-
seded in eOll1llland by Eurusido. On the 17th I)f No-
vembor, the Union forces encamped opposite Predor-
icksburg whore thcy went into.winter-quarters. Bllrnside
crossod the Rnppahannock river, and, on the 13th of
Deeember, 18()2, attacked Lee's troops at Frodericks-
burg, but he was defcatod and oompolled to retreat aeross
the ri\'er with thc loss of over eight thollsand me]l.

30. Tho pIOSpocts of the eountry at the close of 1862,
were indeed gloomy. The Confoderntes had still 11 very
large army in the ficld and were vigorously preparing
for the ncxt campaign. The U Ilion armies numbcred
about eight hundrod thousand men, but with all thia
force they had sccmingly accolllplished but littlo towards
ending the war.

EVE~TS OF 1863.

1. On thc 1st of .January, 1863, President·Lincoln
issul:d a proclamation freeing the slaycs in Arkansas,
Texas, J,ouisiana, Missis~ippi, Alabama, Goorgia, Flur-
ida. Sonth Carolina, N orth Carolina, and Virginia. On
the 11th of .Janunry, the Union forees under General
McClernand and Admiral Porter capturcd Arkansas

29. When nnd by whom wns McClcJla,. succeeded? Where <lid
the Union forceR go into winter.quarters? What is saiel of the hattle
of Frcdericbburg? 30. What was Ihe condition of the country I!.I
the clo,e of 1862?

1. \\That was done by the President on the 1st of Jaliunry, 1863.
What ia said of tho olLptur~ of Arkansas Post 7


Post and four thousand seven hundred Confederates
under Churchill.

2. On thc 5th of March, 1863, the Union forccs
under Coburn were defeated at Spring Hill, by Van
Dorn, with the loss of twolve hundred prisoners. On
the ith of April, seventecn hundrcd Union cavalry,
undcr Gencral Dodgc, wcrc capturcd at Ccdar Bluff by
the Confederates under 1<'0I"re8t.

3. On thc 10th of April, 1863, Van Dorn with fifteen
thousand Confederates attacked General Grauger, at
Franklin, Tennessee, but he was repulsed. In April.
Colonel Grierson made a cavalry raid through Georgia
and Alabama, capturing fiye hundred Confcderates,
cutting an the railroads, and doing mueh other damage.

4. On the 1st of May, 18G3, General Grant totally
routed eleven thousand Confedera tes ut Boulinsbllrg,
nIississippi. On the same dt1y Port Gibson wus cap-
tured by the U nion forces under l\IcClcrnand.

5. On the 16th of May, 1863, Grant defeated the
Confed~rat.es under Pemberton at Champion Hills. On
the next day Grant again defeated the enemy, compclling
I,im to retreat to Vicksburg.

6. On the 18th, Grant, aided by Admiral Porter,

2. What of the defeat of tbe Un ion forces at Spring IIill? What
hnppened to General Dodge at Cedar Blutf? 3. What is said of the
attack upon General Granger at Franklin? What of Grierson',
cav,.¡ry raid through Georgia and AlaLama? 4. What i. saiJ of
tl,e ¡'"ttle of Boulinsburg? Of the capture of Port Gib"'n?
5. 'Vbat was done by General Grant on t.he 16th of May? On
lhe 17tb of Jlfuy? 6. De"cribe lhe siege and capture of Vicksburg.
What was lhe 10S8 of each army in the battles leading to the capture
of Vick.burg 7

EVENTS OF 1863. 123

eommenced the sjege of Vicksburg. Hc made several
atterupts to carry ~he works by assault, but was repulsed
with heavy 10s8. General Johnston with a large Con-
federate force threatened the rear of the Union army;
hut, afte! a severe ~truggIe, General Pemberton, on the
4th of J uIy, 1863, surrendered the place with thirty-one _
thousand men and an irumense amount of 8tores to
General Grant. In the battIes leadjng to the capture
ofVicksburg, the Confederates 108t nearIy fifty thousand
men, whj1e the 1088 of the Unjon forces díd not exceed
ten thousand.

7. Port H udson on the Mississippi was invested by
General Banks, in May. Several assaults were made,
but the Union troops were repulsed. The siege was
vigorousIy continued until the 9th of .Tuly, 1863, when
the town and five thousand five hundrüd men were sur-
rendered by General Gardner to the Unjon army.

8. On the 8th of July, General John Morgan with
five thousand Confederates made a raid into Indiana,
where they plundered and dcstroyed mueh valuable
property. The inhabitants volunteered in such num-
bers to oppose the enemy, that Morgan retreated into
Ohio with considerable loss. He was closely pursued,
and, on the 26th of .T uly, 1863, he and the remnant of
his army were captured near New Lisbon, Ohio.

9. On thc 19th of Scptcmber, 1863, the Confederates
under Brag:g and Longstreet attacked General Rosecrans
at Chickaruauga, G eorgia. After two days' hard fighting

7. Wbat is said of tbe Bie~~e rrnLl SlHrender of l'ort lIudson 1
8. Wbat of .Morgan's raid into Indiana? 9. Wbnt of tbe battla
of Chiebmnug .. ?


they withdrew their forces and the Union al'my feIl back
to the fortifications at Chattanooga.

10. In October, Wheeler's Confedcrate cavalry made
a raid into Tennessee, but were finally defeated at Farm-
ington's Farm by General Crook. '1'hey lost during the
raid over two thousand meno On the 20th of the same
mont,h, seven hundred Union troops were eaptured at
Philadelphia, 'rennessee, by the Confederate cavalr)
nnder l\1orrison.

11. On the 4th of November, the Union f()l'ces under
Eurbridge were defeated at Bayou Coteau, Louisiana,
with a loss of seyen hundred meno On the 23d of
Novelllber, 1863, the battle oI' Chattanooga commenced.
It continued for tluee days, when the Coufederates under
Brap:g were routed aud forced to retreat iuto Georgia
with the loss oI' six thousand prisoners.

12. On the 30th of November, 180g, the Coufederatea
under Longstreet made an assault upan Fort Sanders at
Kuoxville, Tenuessee, but were rcpulsed. The enemy
retreated to Beans's Station where he was attacked by
General Shackelford. In the battle which followed the
U nion troops were defeated, but Longstreet eontinued
his retreat until he joined Lec's army in Virginia.

13. On the 26th of J anuary, ] 863, General JIooker
was appointrd cOlimauder of the Army of the Potamac

10. What of Wbeeler's cavulry mid in~o Tenne""c? What was
done by lbe Confederatc cnvalry under l\Inrrison? 11. What is
.aid ,,[ tbe batt.1e of Bayou Coteau? Of the battle of Chat.tanooga?
12. "'hat is s,lid of the aE~"ult "pon Fort S:ondcrs? Of the \'attl.
at Beans's Station? 13. When was Iluoker appuinted ""mm"nder
oC tbe Army of tbe Potomac? Wben was We.t Virginia admittoo
a. a Sta.te 7

EVENTS OF 1863. 125

in place of I3urnside who resigned. On the 21st oí
April, West Virginia was adruitted into tho Union u& a

14. During the session of Congress which ended in
March, the "Conscription Aet" becarue a law. Under
this Act the President ordered a draft for three hundred
thousand meno This Jed to a ríot in New York city
(July 13th, 1863), by which one hundred and fifty lives
were Jost and two ruillions of doHars worth of property

15. Near the end of April, General Hooker, with the
Army of the Potomas. erossed the Rappahallnock, and,
ou the 2d of May, 1863, met the Confederates under
General Lee at Chancellorsvillc, Virginia. A battle
ensued whieh lasted until the night of the 4th, when
the Uníon forcos retreated across the Rappahannock.

16. General Stoneman with a large Union force made
a raid through Virginia, passíng within two miles of
Richmond. After having captured five hundred prison-
ers and destroycd a large amount of property, he joincd
Hooker's army, on thc 8th of May, 1863.

17. About the middle of June, Loc crossed the
Potomae into Maryland and thenee into Pennsylvania.
He was followcd by Hooker who was relicved of his
cOlllllland, on the 27th of Juno, and suececdcd hy
General Meade. On tho 1st of July, 1863, the arlll~es

14. What is s"id of the Conscription Act? Whut of the draft
ortlered by tho Prcsitlcnt? 15. What of tho bnttlc 01' Chancdlors-
ville? 16. Whllt 01" Stoncman's raid through Virginia? 17. Where
did Lee go in Juno? What is sal<.l uf Huokor? What oí the bl1ttle
of Gettysb.urg?


met at Gettysburg, where asevere struggle com-
menced whieh Iasted for tlu'ee days, when the Confed.
erate army was badIy dcfeated and fied back to the

18. On the 18th of J uly, 1863, Fort --;v agner, in
CharIeston harbor, wus attacked by the iron-clad fiect
and the Union forces under General Gilmore. An
assauIt was made on the works, but the assailants were
repulsed. The sicge was continued during the remainder
of the year.

19. There was much skirmishing between the Union
forees under Meade and the Confcderates under Lee, on
the Rappahannoek, but no very seyere battle occurred
until the next year. At the elose of 1863, the Un ion
forces held possession of the l\lississippi river, of the
States of lIlissouri, Arkansas, Kelltucky, and Tennessee,
and of a Iarge portion of l\lississippi, Louisiana, and
Florida, a11 of which had been wrested from the Con·


1. On the 1st of February, 1864, President Lincolu
ordered u draft for five hundred thousand meu to sup-
pIy the army and navy. Ou the 3d of February,

18. What of Gilmorc's altnck on Fort \Yagner? 19. \Yhat was
Jone by the two nrmies on the Rappahannock? What was lh.
stale of "lfairs nt the close of 1 S63 ?

l. What WaS done by lhe PresiJcnt in February, 18647 What ia
eaid of Sherman's raid?

EVENTS OF 1864. 121

General Sherman left Vicksburg, with twenty-six thou-
Band men, and made an extensive raid through Mis-
sissippi. He destroyed an immense amount of Con.
federate property and liberated about five thousand

2. A large body of Union troops, under General A.
J. Smith, made a raid through l\lississippi with the
intention of joining General Sherman, but was pre-
vented by the enemy. He arrived at l'rIemphis, on
the 25th of February, 1864, after having destroyed
much property, taken three hundred prisoners, and
libcrated two thousand slaves.

3. On the 25th of l\1arch, 1864, six thousand five
hundred Confederates under General Forrest attacked
Paducah, Kentucky, but were finally repulsed with tlle
loss of fiftecn hundred meno Ou the 8th of A pril, the
Un ion troops under General Banks were defeated by
the Confederates under General Kirby Smith, at ]',fans-
field, Louisiana.

4. During the night General Banks withdrew to
Pleasant Hill where he was roenforced by General A.
J. Bmith. On tho next day CApril 9th), the Con-
federates again attacked him, but were repulsed with
the loss of over oue thousand meno

5. On the 12th of A pril, 1864, Forrcst with six
thousand Confederate troops captured Fort Pillow
below Paducah, Kentucky, which was under the com-
mand of .Major Booth. Over four hundred of the

2. What of Smith's mid? 3. What of the rebe! attack on Pa.
dncnh? What of the dcfent of Bnnks at l\hnsfield? 4. What iE
SlP.id of hb .ret'r\lltt r 5. What of the cap1uril of Fort PilTh,..?


garrison wcrc cruclly massaercd after thcy had sur-

6. On the 1st of .T une, 1864, General Sturgis left
l\lemphis on an expcdition against the Confederatea
under Forrest. On the 10th, he was attaeked at Gun-
tOWll, Tenllcssee, by the encmy and dcfeated, after
whieh he retreated to Riplp.y.

i. General John n. Morgan, with a body of Con-
federa tes, made a raid into Kentueky. After eapturing
a number of places and destroying much property, he
was defeated at Cynthiana, Kentueky, on the 13th of
J une, 1864, by General Burbridge. Burbridge also
recapturcd fifteen hundred U nion prisoners which had
previously becn taken by ~1:organ.

8. On the 20th of July, 1804, the Confederates
nttacked Sherman's army, at Dccatur, G eorgia, hut
were repulsed and driven to Atlanta, where they were
attacked and again defeatcd by Sherman, on the 22d
of July.

9. On the 5th of August, Admiral Farragut with a.
flcet of thirty-two vcssels defeated tlle Confcdcrate Hect
in 1Iobilc Bay, capturing two vcs~els and two llUndrcd
and thirty meno On the 8th, Fort Gaines with over
eight hundred Confüderates waS captured, and, on the
2¿{d of August, 1864, Fort Morgan with six hundred
pl'isoncrs was surrcndcred by General Pagc to Admira!
Farragut and General Granger.

6. What is said of the expedition under General Sturgis? 7. What
of Mor!';an's raid iuto Kentucky? 8. What of Ihe battle, at Decatlll
~nd Atlunta? 9. Wbat was accompli,hc,l lIy Farragllt in ]\folJile

EVENTS OF 1864. 129

10. On the 31st of August, 1864, Shcrman's army
was attuckcd at J onc8bo1'o, Gcorgia, by Lec and Hardee.
l'hc battle wus 1'encwcd the ncxt morning, whcn the
Cunfcderates were defeuted with thc 10s8 of three thou-
sand men.

11. Late in Scptcmber, 1864, Hood with a large
Confedcrate force commenced opel'ating on the roal' of
8herman's arllly. A portion of tlle enemy under Gen-
erH ¡ French uttacked General Corse at Allatoona, Georgia,
hut werc dcfcated.

12. Hood now marched into Tennossee with an al'my
of fol'ty thousand men. General Thomas cornrnanding
the Union tl'oops l'eireated to Fl'anklin, whel'c he was
attack~d by lIood, on the 30th of Novembel'. The
Confederates were l'epulsed, but Thomas continued bis
retl'eat to Nashville whel'e he was bcsicged by lIood.

13. On the 15th of Deccmbcr, 1864, Thomas attacked
the bcsiegers in ffont of Nashvillc. After two days'
hard fighting, Hood's army was routcd and forced to
retrcat into Alabama.

14. On the 12th of November, Sherman commenced
his march from Atlanta to Savannah. He captured
l\lilledgeville and soveral other towns, desiroyed an
irnmeuRe amount of Confcderate property, and finally
took possession of Savannah, on the 21st of December,
186-1, aftor it had been evaouated by the Confcderates
un del' Hardce.

10. What is said of the Iltt,tCk 00 Sherman's nTroy at Jones-
büro? 11. What wa. done by HOOU'8 Confedemte force in Georgia?
12. Whnt in Tcnne~see? 13. What is said of the siego of Na.h-
vil le ? 14. Wbat of Sherman'a march from Atln,n!.a to Savanna.h P


15. On tlle 12th of March, 1864, General Grant was
assigned the command of tho armies of the U nited
States. On the 20th of April, thc Confederates under
General Hoke captured Plymouth, North Carolina,
along with the commander General 'Vessels and sixteen
hundred meno

16. On the 4th of May, 1864, the Army of tha
Potoruae under Grant crossed the Rapidan, and moveq
towards Richruond. On the 5th, they ruet the Con-
federate arruy nnder General Lee, and eOlIlmenced the
battle of the Wilderness, whieh, after two days' fight-
ing, resulted in favor of the Union arroyo The Union
108s in these battles was about twelve thousand, while
that of the enemy was still greater.

17. On the 10th of }Iay, 1864, Grant attacked Lee's
troops at SpoUsylvania Court.-House, Virginia, and aftel'
three days' severe fighting drove thero from the fieJd.
Grant continued to advanee, and, by the 1st of June,
Lee's whole army had retreated to the defences of

18. On the 5th of May, 1864, General Eutler with
a large force landed at Berruuda H undred, near the
mouth of the Appomattox River, in order to eheck the
reenforccments under Beau.egard which had bcen sent
to Lee. General Grant now crossed the Jllmes niver
and eommeneed the siege of Petersburg. He sent out

15. Whcn díd General Grant take c0illill,md of al1 the Union
armies? Wbat is .aid of tbe capture of Pl.vwouth? 16. Wllat wa8
done by Grant in May? What is snid of the hattle of the Wilder-
ness? 17. Wbat oí the battl. of Sr'Jtt'ylvani" Conrt-Hou~l
lB. Whflt waS done by Butler, in May? Wbn.t hy (Jrant?

EVENTS 01 1864. 131

three cxpeditions under Huntcr, Wilson, aL d. Sheridan\
which dcstroyed the railway communicatio!}~ bctweeu
Lee's afmy and Riehmond.

19. On the 16th of May, 1864, General Butler's
forces were surprised and defeated at Port Walthal,
Virginia, by Beaurcgard. On the 21st, the Con-
federates made a night attaek upon Eutler, at Bermuda
Hundred, but were repulsed.

20. On the 19th of June, 1864, the pirate Alabamn,
Captain Semmes, was sunk on the coast of France by
the Kearsarge, Captain Winslow An English vesscl
picked up Semmes and a portion of the crew before
they could be secured by Winslow, and carried them to

21. On the 6th of J uly, 1864, fifteen thousand Con-
federate soldiers under General l~arly invaded Maryland
by way of the Shenandoah. They met and defeated
GenerallVallace at :Jlonocacy, compelling him to retreat
towards IVashing"on .. After securing a large amount oi'
plunder thcy retreated to Winchester, Virginia, where
they were badly defeated by General A verill.

22. The Confc¡Jcrates were aft·erwards recnforced,
when they made another raid into l\1aryland and Penn-
sylvania, and, on the 30th of July, 1864, burned Cham-
bersburg. They soon retreated to Virginia, but not until
they had secured an immense amount oi' plunder and
destroyed much valuable property.

19. Wh"t is sai,l of the att!1cks upen Buller's forces? 20. Whot
oC the sinking of tbe pirate Alabama? 21. What is said ot
Early's invasion of Maryland? 22. What (f the raid into Peno •
• ylvania? i


23. The siege of Petersburg was continued by Grant,
and many advantages were guined by the Union forces,
in J une and J uly. The WeIdon railway was seized, on
the 18th of August, and tho supplics for Lce's army
out off. Several desperate attempts were made by the
Confederates to retake it, but they were repulsed with
heavy loss.

24. On the 18th of September, General Sheridan
totally defeated the Confederates under Early at Ope-
quan, Virginia. On the 19th of October, Early was
again defeated by Sheridan, at Cedar Creek, and com-
pelled to retreat with heavy 10S8.

25. At the elcction, in November, 186.!, Abraham
Lincoln was reelected President, and Andrew J ohnson
was elected Vice-President of the United States.


1. A military and naval expedition lcft FortreRs "Mon-
roe, under Admiral !)orter assistcd by General ButJer,
to capture Wilmington. On the 15th of .J anuary, 1865,
Fort Fisher was captured by a part of the l:md forces
under General 'l'eÍ'ry assisted by the fIeet under Portero
Tho siege was continued, and, on the 21st of Fcbruary,
1865, Wilmington was captured.

2. On the 20th of January, 1865, Sherman Icft

23. What of the siega of Petersburg? 2-1. What of Sheridan's
~ttacks upon the Confederates? 25. What was the result of the
election in N ovem ber?

1. What is said of the expedition to cap! ure Wilmington 1
a. What l:i said of Sherman's march from Suvnnnah lo Goldsboro?

EVENTS OF 1865. 133

Savannan and cOlllmenced his campaign in South Caro-
lina. On the 17th oI' February, they captured Colum.
bia, and on the following day (Fehrmtry 18, 1865) they
took possession of Charleston. Sherman marehed on,
capturing several places, until he arrived at Goldsboro,
North Carolina, where he was joined, on the 22d of
March, by Terry from vVilmingtou and Schofield frolll
N ewbern. Throughout this cxpeditíon of five hunrlred
miles the Confec1eratEos were unable to check Sherman's
progress, and thousands abandoned their sinking c~,use
and joined the Uníon army.

3. Un the 27th of February, General Sheridan left
Winchester, Virginia, on a cavalry expedition into the
Shenandoah Valwy. After defeating the Confederate
army under Early and destroying the cornrnuuications
with Richrnond by which Lee's supplies were cut off,
he joined Grant's army on the .J aIlles river.

4. Un the 29th of March, Grant and Meade com-
menced vigorous operations against Petersburg which
were continued until the uight oI' the 2d of April, 1865,
when the Confcderatcs evaeuatcd it and retreated west-
ward. Thoy were so elosely followed by the Union
army that, on the 9th of April, 1865, General Lee
surrendered the remnant of his forees to General Grant.
On the 26th of A pril, General J oseph E. J ohnston sur-
rendered the Confederate army under his eommand to
General Sherman. This was the only rernaining army
of any size in opposition to the governmcnt.

3. Wbat of Sbcridan's expedition into tbe Sbenandol1b VlllJey I
4. What of the operations against Petersburg? Wbat o: the sur.
render of Lee'. army? What 01 Jehnston's army r

• 5. 'l'he surrender of Lee's army caused foelings of

great joy throughout the count¡·y, but thoy were soon
changed into those of sadllc~s. On the 14th of April,
1865, Abraham l.inooln, Prcsident of the U nitcd States,
was assassinated at Fard's Theatre, in the oity of "\Vash-
ington, by .J ohn Wilkes Booth, and died on the following
day. An attempt was also made at the same time to
take the life of Secretary Seward, but it did not suceeed.

6. On the 15th of April, 1865, Andrew Johnson
took the oath of oflice as Presidcut of the Unitcd States.
He appointed the 25th of 1\lay as a day of publio
mourning throughout the oountry on account of the
death of Abraham l,inc01n.

7. A reward of one hundred thousalld dolbrs was now
offered for the capture of J efforson Davis, the President
of the so-caIled " Confederacy," who was trying to escape
from the country. He was captured near Irwinsville,
Georgia, on the 10th of May, by Colonel Pritchard.

8. On the 29th of May, 1865, President J ohnson
offcred pardon to aH persons ellga¡z:cd in the rcbcllion,
excepting those in the army who ranked aboye a Colon el
and in the navy above a Lieutenant, and excepting a
few other persons, providing they wou1d take the outh
of allegiance and keep it. Thousando availed themselves
of the offer.

9. On the 23d of Junc, 1865, the President declared

5. 'Vbat effect ha<l lbe surrenuer of Lee'. nrlOy? Wbal .a,1 aet
ebanged tbe feelings of thc natjOTI 1 6. Who now bcearnc Pre,j·
ient? "'bol day WflS a¡)1ointed for public tIlourning? 7. Wba!
18 .aid ol" tbe capture of JelTerson Davis 1 8. Whut panlon was
o!l'ered by the President? 9. What waS dono ou tbe 23d ~f Junel

EVEl'I"T& OF 1865. 186

~bat the ports in tIle United Statcs should be no longer
"¡cckaded, and that aH ports should be open for C0ID-
Jlcrce on and after the 1st of J nly.

10. On the 18th of Augu5t, a military commi~sion
was appointcd to try Captuin Wirz for barbarous treat-
ment of the Union prisoners at Andersonville prison,
Georgia. He was found guilty of the most inhuman
conduct and was afterwards hanged.

11. The ordinances of sccession were repealed by
most of the Southcrn Statcs befare the close of the
year 1865, and several of them passed rcsolutions pro-
hibiting shvery within their limits.

12. It has heen estimated that. during the war, nearly
three hundred thousand men pcrished in the Union
army. l\Iany ofthese were killed in hattle, hut a greater
number died from wounds and disease. The loss of life
was probably as great on the Confederate side.

13. The national debt at the close of the war was
$3,000,000,000. Although the annual interest on this
sum is nearly $180,000,000, yet the resources of the
government are sufficient for paying this interest, and
al so for the gradual extinguishment of the debt.

14. Early in 1865, Congress proposed an Amendment
to the Constitution abolishing slavery in the United
S tates. Three-fourths of the States having ratified this
Amcndment, slavery was declared aholished in Dooem-
ber of the same year.

10. What waS done with Captain \Virz? 11. What is ,aid of the
repeal of the sccession ordinancos? 12. What is said of the los8 oC
life during the war? 13. What is said of the debt? 14. What
Amendment to the Conititution was proposed?


15. In 1865, the Freedman's Bureau was organizC'd
under an Act of Congress, its object being to give r~'r
tection and assistance to the f'reedmcn. It was plactd
under the charge of General Oliver O. Howard.

16. In 1866, the first Atlantic cable was successfully
laid from Ireland to Newfoundland, thus cstablishing
telegraphic cOll1municatioll between Europe and All1erica.
It is 186.! miles in length, :Llld its succcssful completion
i8 chiefiy due to Cyrus W. Ficld, oi" N ew York.

17. In March, 1867, Congres8 pa~sed a llccOllstruc-
tion Act, prescribing the conditions fol' reconstl'ucting
the seceded States, and subjectillg them to military au-
thority ti11 they complicd with the conditions. Under
this Act, most of the State~ were restored to the U nion
before the close of 18W.

18. In Mal'ch, 18(57, Co;¡gress passed the Tenure of
Oflice Hill, deelaring that those persons who had bcclI
appointed to eivil ofliees, with the advice and cOllsent 01'
the Senate, could not be removed by the President with-
out the permission of (he Senate.

19. In 1867, ~ebraska was admitted into tlte Union
as a State. lt was organized as a Territory in 1854.

20. In 1867, the Territory of H,ussian America was
purchased 1'r0111 Russia for $7,200,000, in gold. Since
coming into the possession of the United States, its name
has bcen changed to Alaska.

15. 'Vhat is said of the Freedmau's Bureau? 16. Wh,tt of tbe At-
lantic cable? 17. What of the Rcconstruction Act? 18. Wh,11 of
the Tenure of Oflice Bill? 1U. When was Ncbrasl[[1 admitted into
¡he ('nion? 20. What is said of the territorial purchase in 1867

E V E N T S O F 1 869. 13'1

21. In February, 1868, tbe House of Representativcs
impe:whed Andrew Johllson, President of the Ullited
Statcs, charging him with violation of the Tenure of
Oflice Bill, and with other offeuces. He was tried by
the Senate, but was acquitted, the yote for conviction
being one 1ess than two thirds of the members presento

22. In 1868, an embassy from China visited the
U nited S tates. -While here, a treaty was made between
the United States and China, which guarantees liberty
of cOllscience to Americans in China, and grants to the
United States commercial privi1eges of gTeat value.
~8. Soon after the o1o::;e of the Civil 'N ar, a general

amnesty to aU conncctcd thercwith was grantcd. Since
thcn, thc bittcr feeling's of partisans have mostly died
away, ~lld the poople have engagcd in the peaeeful pur-
suits of cstahlifihing schoolH, rebuildillg railroads, and
de\'elopillg thc resonrees of the conntry.

2J. At the c1cction in 18G8, General Ulysses S. Grant,
of Illinois, was ehoscn President, and Sehuyler Colfax,
of Indiana, Vice-President of the United States.

1. General U. S. Grant was inaugurated President

on the 4th of J\Iarch, 1869.
2. During the year 1869 the Paeific Railroad was

finished. It is 1800 miles long, and completes the rail.
road connection between the Atlantie and Pacific oceans.

21. What is saicl of the impet1chment of the President? 22. \Vhat
is snid of lhe trcaty with China? 23. What of the condition of th ..
country? 24. Wllat was the result of the electian in 1868 ?

1. When was General Grant inauguraled? 2. What is said of th,
Pacific Railroad ?


3. In February, 18(9) Congross proposod tbc Fifteentb
Amendment to the Constitution, whieh dcclurcs that" the
right of cit.izens of the U !lited Statcs to voto shall no!
be denied 01' abridged on accoulIt of raee, color, or pre-
vioua condition of servitude." Three-fourths of the
States having ratified this Amendment, in 1\larch,1870,
it was declarod to be part of the Constitution.

4. During the war an :English vessel, the Alabama,
committod many depredations on tho commcrce of tho
Unitcd States. As tho English goyernmcnt refused to
settle for the damages, mnch hostile fcoling towards that
country was prodllced.

5. In arder that this and othcr mltional difficulties
might be aettled, a Righ .T oint COllllllission ni' distin-
guished sbttesll1en of the two countries Illet at IVashing-
ton in 1871, ana agroea upnn tbc basis of a trcaty be-
t..,«~~\', \\,,~ 13"~\,,,~ ~\ . .\\\O;; ~),1í'" 'D-Tca't y,út~ún.

6. ~Wishing to try tho eifect ofkind treatmellt towards
the Indians, President Grant, in lS69, placed a few of
the tribes under the care of' difl'erent religious societies,
giving thcm thcentire charge oi' the Indian appropriations
to those tri bes.

7. This plan has wOl'ked well, and tho condition of
thcso Indiaml has heen much improved. They now re-
ceivo what is just]y their due, and, in returIl, entertain
kindly feeling~ towards tho general Govcrnment. Somo
ofthe othcr tribcs, however, are diHsatisfied, ana threatcll
to ruako war agaiust the white settlers.

3. What of the Fiftecnth Amcndrn,,,¡¡? 4. What of tllO Ahbama
elaims? 5.Ho,,, W)l'e thc diffienllics settletl? G, 7. What i. said
<lf President Grant's policy tow'1nls the Indiltns?



1492. America díscovered by ColumllUs. (S.} *
14g7. 'l'he Cabots discovered Labrador. (E.)
1498. Scbastian Cabot explored the cnast of N. America. (E.)
1499. Vespueius visited the New World. (S.)
1512: Ponee de Leon discovered Florida. (S.)
1524. Verrazani explored the coast of NOl'th Ameriea. (F.)
1534. Cartíer disco ve red the Gulf and River of Sto Law-

rence. (F.)
1535. Cartíer sailed up the Sto Lawrence to Montreal.
1539. De Soto invaded Florida. (S.)
1541. De Soto discovered the Mississippi River.

Cartier tuilt a fort near Quebec.
1542. De Soto died.
1562. Settlementat POl't Royal, S. Carolina, by Ribault. (F.)
15G4. Settlement at Sto John's river by Laudonnier .. (F.)
1565. Sto Augustíne settled by the Spaniards. (S.)
1583. Gilbert's voyage to Newfoundland. (E.)
1584. Raleigh Bent out an expedition nnder Amidas and

Barlow. (E.)
Virginia named.

1585. Settlcmcnt made at Roanoke by Grenville. (E.)
1587. Second colon y sent to Roanoke underJ ohn White. (E.)

• The nation. scnding out the expeditions' S. (Spanish), E.
(Bnglish), and F. (French).

(189 )


1602., Gosnold discovercd Cape Cod. (E.)
1606. London and Plymouth Cumpanies reeeived grants in


1607. Jamestown settled by the Engliah.

Captain Smith taken by the Indiana.
1610. Smith returned to England.

Lord Delaware arrived at Jamestown.
1619. First Legislative Assembly met at Jamestown.
1620. African slavery introduced into Virginia.
1622. Indians attempted to massaere the English.
1624. Virginia became a royal province.
1639. Berkeley appointed governor.
1644. Second attempt of the Indiana to masaaere t,be

1663. Navigation Act enforced.
1676. Bacan'a Rebellion.
1677. Culpepper bocama governor.

1609. Hudson rivcr discovered.
1614. New York (New Amsterdam) settled by the Dutob
1645. War with AIgonquin Indians.
1664. New York captured by the English.
1674. Androsa made governor of New York.
1683. A Charter of Liberties established.
1688. Andross again became governor.
1691. Colonel Slougbter apl'0inted governor.

lU07. Sett1ement commenced on the Kennebec river.
L614. Captain Smith explored the coast of New England


• 620. Plymouth settled hy the Puritana.
1G28. Salem s"ttled hy John Endicott.
lG30. Boston settleu by Winthrop.
1635. Roger WilIiams uanished.


1636. Ann IIutchinson and Rev. John Wheelw tight ban

1639. First printing-presr in Amorica ostabli~hed.
1643. Union of the New England colonios.
1656. Quakers banished from the coIony.
1675. King Philip's War broke out.
1084. The Charter declared invalido
16~6. Andross appointed governor of N ew England.
1G89. Andross imprisonod by the peopIo.
1704. Deerfield destroyed by the Indians.


1622. New IIampshire granted to Gorges and Mason.
1620. N ew I1alllpshire first scttled at Dovel'.
163~. Exeter settled.
1011. Xew Hampshiro placed under ]\fassachusetts.
lG79. N ew Hall1pshirc scparated fl'om Massachusetts.
~680. EdWRrd CranfioId appointed govcrnor.
1GaO. Sall1uel Allen appointcd govel'nor.


1 G24. N ew J ~rsey first settled at Bergen.
lüü4. Elizabethtown settled.
lü70. The payment of quit-rents demanded.
IG72. The settlers rebelled against the payment of quit

1 GiG. A part of N ew Jersey 801d to the QuakerR.
1677. TIle provincc divided into East and West Jersey.
lG82. East Jersey purcha~ed by Willia U1 Penn.


1688. Andross uppointed governor of Nevr Jersey.
1702. East and W e~~ Jersey uuitcd.
1738. New Jersey sepurated from New York.

1629. The Swedcs und Finns bought the territory of DelawDJP
1638. Swedes settled at mouth of Christiana Creck.
1651. Dutch built a fort at New Castle.
1655. Delaware captured by the Dutch.
1664. Delaware captured by the English.
1682. Delaware granted to William Penn.
1691. Dcla\vare placed under a sepamte governor.
1702. Delaware finally separated froru Peunsylvania.


1632. Cluyborne built truding-houses on Kent lsland.
Lord Bultimore obtained charter for Maryland.

1634. Sto Mury settled by Calvert.
1635. Clayborne's rebellion.
1642. lndian war broke out.
1645. Clayborne's second rebellion.
1652. Lord BaJtimore deprived of the government oí

1676. Lord Baltimore died.
1691. Maryland became a royal province.
1715. The government restored to the heirs of Baltimore.


1630. Connecticnt granted to the Earl of Warwick.
1633. The Dutch built a fort at llartford.

The English built a truding-honse at Windsor.
1635. Settlements mude at Windsor und Weuthersfield.
1636. Hartford Bettlcd by Thomas Hooker.


1637. Per¡uod wal' commenced.
1638. New IIaven founded by Eaton and Davenrort.
1650. The Dutch rclinqnished their elaim to Conneeticut.
1662. Charter granted by Charles n.
1687. Andross appointed governor of aU N ew England.

The Charter secreted in the " Charter-Oak."
1692. Fletcher appointed eommander of the Connecticu



1636. Rhode Island setUed at Providenee by Roger Wil·

1638. Portsmouth BetUed.
1639. N ewport settled.
1644. Charter granteu to Roger Williams.
1647. Delegatp.s met at Portsmouth.
1663. Second charter granted to Rhode Island by Charles n.


1663. Scttlement made on Albemarle Sound.
1665. Emigru.nts settled on Cape Fear River.
1683. Seth Sothel became governor.
1G95. John Archdale became governor.
1707. French Prot.estants settled on Trent River.
lill. Wal' with Tuscarora and Coree Indians.
1729. North and South Carolina separated.

1670. South Carolina scttled at Old Charleston.
1680. The present city of Charleston settled.
1690. 8eth Sothol became goYernol'.
1695. Jobn Archdale became governor.
1702. Moore's expedition against Sto Augustine.


1706. A French and Spanish Hcct attacked Charleston
1715. War with the Yamasee Indians.

1643. l'he Swedes built a fort on Tinicum Island.
lGSI. Pennsylvania granted to William Penn.

Emigrants arrived at Chester.
1682. Philadelphia founded by Penn.

The first Assembly met at Chester.
1884. Penn returned to England.
1692. Penn deprived of the government until 1694.
1701. Penn granted a new Charter to the inhabitants.
1718. Penn died in London.
1761. Mason and Dixon's line fixed.

1732. Georgia grantcd to a company of gcntlemell.
1733. Savannah settled by OglethOl'pe.
17 3S, George Whitcficld visited Georgia.
1739. Oglethorpe made an expedition against Florida.
1742. Georgia. invaded by the Spaniards.
1752. Georgia became a royal province.

16S9, King William's War cornmenced.
1690. The town of Seheneetady destroyed.

Expedition again~t Quebec under Phipp~.
1697. The war ended by Treaty of Ryswick.
1702. Queen Anne's 'War cOlllmcnced.
liO.!. Deerfield burned.
1710. Port Royal capturen oy the English.
1711. Expedition against Canada under Admiral Walker.
1713. Tho war ended by the Treaty of Utrecht.
1744. King George's War oommenced,


1745. Louisburg captured by the English.
1748. The war ended by Treaty of Aix-la-Chapolle.


1753. English traders seized by the Freneh.


'Vashington sent with a lctter to the French governur
1754. Washington surrendered Fort Necessity.

Delegates from aeven colonies met at Albany.
1755. General Braddock appointed eommander-in-chief of

the English forces in America.
Nova Scotia captured by Winslow and Monckton.
Braddock's expedition against Fort Dllquesne.
Unsuceessful expedition against Niagara under

Unsuceessful expedition against Crown Point undel

1756. England declared war against France.

Oswego captllred by the French under Montcalm.
1757. Fort William Henry capturad by the Freuch.

William Pitt became Prime Minister oí England.
1758. Louisburg captured by the English.

English defeated at Ticonderoga.
English captured Fort Frontenac.
Fort Dllquesne taken by the English undcr Forbes.

1759. Fart Niagara captured by the English.
Ticonderoga captured by thc English.
Quebec captured by the English under Wolfe.

1760. Montreal surrendered to the English.
1763. War ended by the Treaty at Paris.


1764. Parliament bid a tllX on sugar, etc.
1765. Stamp-Act passed.


1765. First Colonial Congress mot at New York.
17G6. Stamp-Act repealeJ.
liG7. Tux imposed on tea, glass, etc.
17G8. l\Iassachusetts sent circular to the other colonies.

Troops under General Gage arri"ed in Boston.
1770. Boston l\Iassacre oecurred.

Duties repealed on all articles except tea.
1773. Te:. de~troyed in Boston harbor.
1774. Bust()n Port Bill passed by Purliament.

First Continental Congress met at Philadelphia.
General Gage appointed military governor uf l\Iassa


1715. Battle of Lexington, April 19th.

Ticonderoga und Crown Point captured by the

Continental Congress again met in Pbiladelphia.
'Vashington eIocted commander-in-chief.
British reenforeed by Clinton, IIowe, and Burgoyne
Prescott sent to fortify Bunker's Hill.
Buttle of Bllnkcr's Hil!.
'Vashington took command of the army at Boston.
Invasion of Cann,da by the Americans.
l\1ontreal captured.
ArnolJ marehcd through the wiIderness of Maine.
Quebec nssauIted. Americans repulsed.
Lord Dunmore seized the powder in Virginia.

t776. Norfolk burned.
Americans evncunted Canada.
British enwuatcd Boston.
British attacked Charkston.
Declaration of Independence at Philadelphia..
British took pO~StlSSiOll of Staten Island.


1776. Battle of Long Island.
British defeated at IIarlem Plains.
Battle of White Plains.
Fort Lee abandoned by the Americans.
'Vashington retreated across New Jersey.
Battle of Trenton.

1 i77. Battle of Pl'inceton.
American winter-quarters at :\Iorristown.
Congress solicita aid of France.
Lafayett.c arrived in America.
Danbury burned by Tryon.


Burgoyne invl1ded the United States from Canada.
Port Edward evacuated by the Americans.
Fort 8chuyler besieged by the British.
General Sehuyler superseded by Gates.
Battle of Bennington.
Battles of Stillwater.
Surrendcr of Burgüyne.
British Heet sailed up the Chesapeake.
Battle of Brundywine.
Wayne surprised at Paoli.
Con gres a adjourned from Philadelphia to LanelUlter
British ente red Philadelphia (September 26th).
Battle of Germantown.
Attack on Furt Mercer.
'Vashington's winter-quarters at Valley Forge.

\778. France acknowledged tlle Independence ofthe Unted

Clinton suceeeded Howe in the command ol thft

Philadelphia eva')uated (June 18th).
Battle of M011lJ1outh.
Exppdit.ion to recapture Rhode Jsland.
Ma!f8acres at W yamina: Itnd Cherry Valley.



1778. Savannah cl'ptured by the British.
1779. Sunbury captured by the Bl'itish.

Tories defeated at Kettle Creek.
Americans defeated at Brier Creek.
Lincoln repulsed at Stono Ferry.
Savannah bt"sieged by Liucoln and D'Estaing.
N orfolk and Portsmouth plundered.
Capture of Stony Point ond Verplank's Poinl b,

the British.
Stony Point recaptured by Wayne.
Sullivan sent against the Indians.
Paul Jones captured two English shipa.

1780. Charleston surrendered to the British.
General Gates took command uf Americana at tbe

Buttle at Sander's Creek.
Battle of King's Mountain.
Green superseded Gates.
Arnold's treason. Execution of André.
England declared war against Holland.

1781. Revolt of the Pennsylvania Line at Morristown.
Arnold invaded Virginia.
Battle of the Cowpens.
Americana pursued by Cornwallis.
Battle of Guilford Court-House.
Battle of I1obkirk'g HiU.
Forts Watson, Granby, and Motte captured.
Battle of Eutaw Springs.
Cornwallis fort.ified Yorktown.
Arnold burned New London.
Cornwallis surrendered at Yorktown.

1182. Commissioners appointed to conclule peace.
1783. Treaty of Peace signed at Paria.

Washington resigned his commis8Íon.


1786. Shay's Insurrection.
1787. The Convcntion at Philadelpbia adopted tho Federal

1789. First Congress rnet at New York.

Washington inaugurated the first President.
1790. General lIarmer sent against the IndianB.

CongreRs rnet in Pbiladelpbia.
1791. Sto Clair sent against tbe Indiana.

Vermont admitted.
Bank of tbe United States establisbed.

1792. Kentuckyadmitted.
Washingtqn reelected.

1793. The French Minister Genet landed at Charleston
1794. The Whiskey Insurrection.

Wayne defeated the Indiana.
1795. Wayne's treuty with the Indians.

Jay's treuty with Great Britain.
'l'reaties with Spain and Algiers.

1796. Tenncssee admitted.
'Vashington's Farewell Address.

1797. Jobn Adams's Administration.
Difficulties with France.

1798. Congresa autborized tbe raising of an army.
French vessel L'Insurgent captured.
Alien and Sedition laws passed.

1799. Death of Washington.
1800. Treaty of Pence with France.

Seat of Government removed to Washington.
1801. Jefferson's Administration.

War with Tripoli.
1802. Ohio admitted.
1803. Louisiana. purchased from France.

'l'he frigate Philadelpbia captured.
1804. The Philadelphia destroyed by Decatur.


1804. Tripoli blockaded.
Hamilton killed in a duel by Aaron Burr.

1805. Eaton captured Derne.
Treaty with Trípoli.
J efferson reelected.

1806. Great Britain and Franee blockaded.
1807. Burr tried for trenson.

The Chesapeake attacked by the British ship

Orders in Couneil and Milan Dccree issued.
Embargo laid on American vesselR.

1809. Intercourse with Frnnce and England prohibited.
Madison's Administration.

1811. The frignte President fired into the British sloop
Little Belt.

Harrison sent againat the Indiana.
Bnttle of Tippecanoe.

1812. Louisiana admitted.
War declare<l against Great Britain (June 18th).
General Hull crossed into Canada.
Michigan stlR'rendered to the British.
Battle of Queenstown.
Essex captured the British sloop Alert.
Constitution captured the British frigate Guerriere.
Wasp capturcd the British brig Frolic.
United States captured the British frigate Mace-

Constitution captured British frigate Java.
Madison reelected President.

l813 Battle at Frenchtown.
Siege of Fort Meiga.
British repulsed at Fort Stephenson.
Perry's victory on Lake Erie.
Malden naculI.tei by the British.


1813. Battle at the Moravian towns.
Americans captured York.
British abandoned Fort George.
Battle at Stony Creek.
British repulsed at Sackett's Harbor.
War with the Creek and Seminole Indi<lJlB
Massacre at Fort Mimms.
Indians defcated at 'l'ohopeka.


Hornet captured thc British brig Peacock.
Chesapeake captured by the British frigate Shannon,
Argus cap tu red by the British sloop Pelicano
Thc British brig Boxer captured by the Enterprise
British squadron entered the Chesapeake Bay.

1814. Fort Erie captured by Scott and Ripley.
British defeated at Chippewa.
Battle at Lundy's Lane.
Siege of Fort Eríe.
Battle of PlattRburg and defeat of the British OD /

Lake ChampIain.
British captured Washington.
Attempt to capture Bttltimore.
lIartford Convention.
Essex crLptured by the British vessels Phoobe and

Frolic capturcd by Britísh frigate Orpheus.
Peacock captured the British Epervier.
Wasp captured the Bri tiah vessels Reindeer and A von.
British Heet invaded Louisiana.
Treaty of peace signed at Ghent.

1815. Frigate President captured by a British sqlladron.
Constitution captured the Cyane and Levant.
IIornet captured the British brig Penguin.
Attack on N ew Orleans.
Decatur sent to the IIfediterranean.


1816. Indiana admitted.
1817. James Monroc maugurated.

Mississippi admitted.
Seminole War in Georgia.

1818. Illinois admitted.
1819. Alabama admitted.

Part of the northern boundary of the Unitc-i Statea
aettled by treaty.

1820. Maine admitted.
1821. Missouri admitted. "Missouri Compromise" adopted.

Monroe Doctrine proclaimed.
Treaty between Spain and the United States.

1824. Lafayette visited the United States.
1825. John Quincy Adams inaugurated.
1826. John Adams and Thomas Jefferson died.
1829. Jackson inaugurated Presidentofthe United Statee.
1831. James ~Ionroe died.
1832. Black Hawk War.

South Carolina passed the Nllllification Act.
1833. Removal of government funds to state banks.
1835. Seminole War commcnced by Osceola.

Major Dade defeated.
1836. "Specie Circular" issned.

" Distribution Act J' passed.
Arkansas admitted.

1837. Miehigan admitted. Van Bnren inaugurated.
Osoeola imprisoned by General Jessup.
Rebellion broke out in Canada.

1841. I1arrison inaugurated.
I1arrison died (April 4).
Bills fol' rechartering the United Statea Blnk votclOO.

1842. Treaty with Seminole Indiana.
Difficulties in Rhode Island.
Webster and AshburtoD treaty.

1845. Fbrida admitt.ed.


1845. James K. Polk inaugurated.
Anne:mtiol. of Texas.
General Taylor sent to Corpus Christi.

1846. Oregon houndary line settled.
Iowa admitted.
IIostilities commenced by the Mexicana.
Fort Bl'own attacked by tbe Mexicana.
Mexicans defcated at Palo Alto.
llattJe of Re~aca de la Palma.
Taylor took p08session of Matamoras.
Monterey captured by TayJor.


California, New l\1exico, alld Chihuahua captured.
1847. General Seott took command of the army in l\1exico.

Santa Anna defeated at Buena Vista.
Vera Crull surrendered to General Scott.
Santa Anna defeated at Cerro Gordo.
Scott took possession of La Puebla.
Contreras Illld ChuruJmsco captured by Scott.
El Molillos del Rey alld Chapultepec captured.
Scott enters the City of Mexico.

1848. '1'l'caty of Peace at Guadalupe lIidalgo.
Wisconsin admitted into the Union.

184\l. Taylol' inaugurated President.
IIenry CIay's compromise bill introduced into Con

1850. President TayJor died.

California admitted ¡nto the Union.
185::!. Death of CIay and Webster.
1852. Franklin Pierce inaugurated President.

Death of Vicc-Prcsident King.
Treaty with Mexico.

1854. Commodore Perry's treaty with Japan.
Territories of Kansas and Nebraska organized.

\857. James B·~chanl1n inauguratcd.


1857. A military force sent against the Mol'ID:>nll.
1858. Minnesota admitteu as a State.
1859. Ol'egon admitteu as a State.

John Brown seized IIarper's Ferry.
1860. Kansas admitted as a free State.

Abraham Lincoln elected Pl'esident.
South Carolina aeceded from the Un ion.
The Star of the West fired into by the South Carolina

tl'oops (Janual'Y 9).
186l. Othel' Stutes aeceded froID the Union.

The so-called "Southern Confederacy" formed..
Abraham Lincoln inaugurated.
General Anderson evacuated Fort Sumter (ApriI12).
The Pl'esident called fol' seventy-five thousand meno
Union troops attackeu while passing thl'ough Balti·


The public property at Harper's Fel'l'Y and Norfolk

Cal! for volunteel's fol' the army and navy.
Battle ofGreat Bethe! (June 10).
Confedel'ates defeated at Rich Mountain, Virginia.
Battle at Sto George, Virginia.
Battle of Bull Run (July 21).
General McClellan appointed commander ofthearmy.
The forts at Hatteras Inlet captured by the Un ion

1¡¡ .,leral Rosecrana defeuted the Confederates at Sumo

General Scott resigned as commander-in-chief.
Ililton IIead antI Beaufol't capturcd (November 7).
Captain Wilkes captured Masan and Slidell.
Battle near Carthage, Mi~souri.
Fort Lexington, Missouri. captured by the Confedero



1861. Confederates defeated at Milford, M:is¡;~uri.
1862. Battle ncar Somcrsct, Kentucky.


Fort Donelson captured by General Grant, (Feb 16)
Confedera tes defeated at Pea Ridge, Arkansas.
Battle of Shiloh, 'rennessee.
Capture of )aland No. 10 by the Union troopa.
Capture of IIuntsville by General Mitchell.
Surrender of New OrIeana to the Union army.
Invasion of Kentucky by General Bragg.
Attack upon Corinth, M:is~is8ippi.
Sherman defeated at Vicksburg.
Capture of Roanoke Jsland.
The frigates Cumberland and Congresa sunk by the

The l\lerrimac defeated by the Monitor.
Army of the Potomac advanced towards Richmond

(February 22).
Burnside captured Newbern.
Forts PuIaski and Macon captured.
McClelIan Ianded at Fortress Monroe.
Battle of Williamsburg.
Norfolk captured.
BattIe of Fair Oaks.
Scven duys' fighting before Richmond.
Banks attacked at Winchester.
Confederates defeated at Crosa Keya.
'rhe troops under Fremont, Bunks, and MeDowell

Three hundred thousand more troops called by tile

HalIe;lk appointed commander-in-chief.
Confiseation Act passed.
Washin¡¡:ton threatened.
Battle of Ced!1r Mountain.


1862. Attem pt to deskoy Pope's army.
Battle of South Mountain.
Harper's Ferry surrendered.
Battle of Antietam.
Cavalry raid into Pennsylvania.
McClellan superseded by BurnBid~.
Battle of Frederieksburg.

U63. Slaves freed in the Southern Statea (January 1).
Arkansaa Post captured by Porter.
Union forces defeated at Spring Hill ana Cedal

Confederates defeated at Champion I1ills.
Capture of VicksLurg by Grant.
Capture of Port I1udson lIy Banks.
Morgan's raid into Indiana.
Battle at Chi!Jlm¡aug;a.
'Vheeler's raid into 'l'ennessee.
Burbridge defeated at Bayou Coteau.
Battle of Chattanooga.
Longstreet's army defeated.
Hooker appointed commander of the Army of the

West Virginia admitted as a State.
A draft for three hundred thousand men ordered.
Riot in N ew York.
Battle of Chancellorsville.
Stoneman's raid through Virginia.
Battle of Gettysburg.
Siege of Fort Wagncr commenced in July.

LSe4 Draft for five hundred thousand men ordered.
Sherman's raid through Mississippi.
Smith's raid through Mississippi.
Confederates repulsed at Paducah, Ky.
Banks defeated at Mansfield, La.


L864. Confederates captured Fort Pillow.
Union forces defeated at Gnntown, Tennessee.
Morgan's raid into Kentucky.
Morgan defeated by Burbridge.


Confederates defeated by Sherman at Decatur and

Confederate Heet defeated by Farragut in Mobile

Fort Gaines and Fort Morgan captured.
Confederates defeated at Jonesboro.
General French defeated at Altoona.
General Thomas retreated to Nashville.
Hood's army defeated at Nashville.
Sherman's march from Atlanta to Savannah.
The eommand of the Union armies assigned to

Plymouth captured by the Confederates.
Army of the Potomac moved towards Richmond

(May 4).
Battle of the Wilderne8s.
Battle of Spottsylvania Court-House.
Butler landed at Bcrmuda Hundred.
Grant commenced the siega of Petersburg.
Butler attacked by Beauregard.
The pirata AJabama captured.
General EarJy invaded May·yJand.
Chambersburg burned (July 30).
Sheridan defeated the Confederates at Opequan,

Abraham Lineoln reelected President.

t865 Wilmington captured by the Union troops
Sherman's campaign through South Carolina.
Sheridan's raid into the Shenandoah Valley.
Vi~orous operations against Petersburg commenced


1865. General Lee's arroy surrendered to Grant.
Johnston's army surrendered to Sherman.
Abraham Lincoln assassinated (April14).
Andrew Johnson inaugurated President.
Jefferson Davis captured.
The President issued a proclamation of pardon.
The United States ports opened for commerce.
Captain Wirz tried and hanged.
Secession ordinances repea ledo
Slavery was abolished.
The Freedman's Bureau established.

1866. The Atlantic cable successfully laido
1867. The Reconstruction Act passed.

The Tenure of Oflice Bill passed.
Nebraska admitted.
Alaska purchased.

1868. Andrew Johnson impeached.
Treaty made with China.

1869. General Grant inaugurated President.
Pacific Railroad completed.

1870. Fifteenth Amendment to Constitution adoptecL
1871. Treaty with Great Rritaiu.


In 1637, a war was commenced betwecn tha Pequod

Indians and the Connecticut settlers. It ended the sama
year in the destruction of the tri be.

In 1642, a war was commenced between the lndian
and the Maryland 8ettler8. It ended in 1644.

In 1644, a war waa commenced beiween the Virginia
¡¡ettlera und the Indians. It cnded in 1646, by the savages
submitting to the English.

In 1645, the Dutch acttlera of New York commenced a
war with the AIgonquin Indiana. It ended in 1647, in tho
defeat of tbe savuges at Strickland Plains.

In 1675, the Narragansett and 'Vampanoag Indiana,
under King Philip, commenced a war with the Masaa-
chusetta settlers. It ended in 1676, in the destruction of
both the Indian tribes.

In 1680, King William's War was commenced between
England and France. It ended in 1697, by the Treaty of

In 1702, Queen Anne's War was commenced between
England on tha one side, and France and Spain on th6
other. It ended in 1713, by the Treaty of Utrecht.

In 1711, the Tuscarora and Coree Indians commenced a
war with the settlers of North and 80uth Carolina. H
cnded the same ycar in the defeat of the Indiana.

In 1715, a ",ar was commenced between the Yamasee
Indians and the 8ettler8 of 80utb Carolina. It endeJ the
same year in the defeat of the Indians.

In 1740, during the war between England and Spain,
the English setUers of Georgia commenced a war with the
Spaniards of Florida. It lasted until 1742.

In 1744, King George's War commenced between Fr&nce


and Ellgland. It ended in 1748, by tbe 'l'reaty of Aix·la-
Chapelle, by which all places captured were restored to
the French.

In 175.Jc, the French and Indinn War commenced between
England on the one side, and the French and Indiana on
the otber. It ended in 1763, by a treaty at Paria, by
which al! the French territory in the northern parta of
America east of the Mississippi was ceded to Great

In 1775, the Revolutionary·W ar commenced between
ElIgland and the American Colonies. It ended in 1783,
by a treaty at Paris, by which the Independence of the
United Statcs was acknowledgcd.

In 1790, during ·W¡,~hington'8 administration, the
Indians northwest of the Ohio commenced a war against
the United States. It ended in 1705, by Wayne's Treaty
which aecured peace.

In 1801, during Jefferson's administration, Tripoli de-
clared war against the United States. It continuad until
1805, when a treaty, which provideJ ror the liberation of
the American prisoners upon the payment of sixty thou-
Band donara, was made at Algiers.

In 1812, the United States declared ""ar against Great
Britain. It was ended by a treaty of peace which was
signed at Gbent, in Deccmbcr, 1814, and ratified by the
United Sta tes, in February. 1815.

In 1813, the Creek and Seminole IndianA commcnced 11
war against the whites in Georgia and Alabama. It ended
in 1814, in the defeat of tlle Indians at Tohopcka.

In 1815, the Unitcd States declared war against Algiers.
Jt was ended the Rame year by Commodore DecfLtur's com-
polling the Dey to sign a treaty by which he released a1l
American prisoncrs, made indemnity for captures, and
relinquished an claim to tribute in tha futuro.


In 1b17, t1e Creck and Seminole Indiana, en'louraged
by the Spaniards of Florida, commcnced a war against
the inhabitants of Georgia. It was ended in 1818, by
General Jackson's capturing Pensacola.

In 1832, the ludian tribe~, led by Black Hawk, com-
meneed a war upon the inhabitants of lllinois. It was
ended the same year, when the Indiana by a treaty ceded
nearly the whole of lowa and Wisconsin to the United

In 1835, the Seminole lndians under Osceola commenced
a war against the United States. It continued until 1842,
when peace was finally established.

In 1846, the United Statea declared war against Mexico.
It ended in 1848, by a treaty at Guadalupe Hidalgo, b~
which New Mexico and California were ceded to tbe
United States, and the Mexican govcrnment in return
received fifteen millions of dollars fol' the ceded terri.

In January, 1861, tbe Great Civil War bctween the
Unitcd States Guvernment and the so-called "Southern
Confederaoy" commenced in the southern part of the
United Statea. It ended in April, 18G5, by the Burrender
of the Confederate armies.


In 1620, a treaty was made at Plymouth, between the
Massachusetts aettlera and Massasoit, the great ludian
ohief of the country. It was kept unbr< ken for finy

In 1682, a treaty was made at Philadelphia., between
William Penn and the Indiana, whieh was kept unbroken
ror more than aeventy ycara.


In 1733, treaties were made between James Oglethorpe,
governor of Georgia, and the neighboring Indians, whi0h
secured peace between the partíes fDr mllny years.

In February, 1778, a treaty was made with France, by
wbicb that nation openly acknowledged tbe Indcpendence
oí tbe United States.

In 1705, Jobn Jay, on tbe part of tbe United States,
00nc\"ueu a t.ea\;y -wit:l \C).eat "Bútain, -wnien provio.eo.
that the western posts beld by the Britisb sbould be given
up, and authorized a restrieted trade between tbe United
States and the Britísb West lndies.

In 1795, a treaty was made between the United States
and Spain, which secured to tbe Americans tbe free navi-
gatíon of tbe Míssissippi river.

In 1705, a treaty W:18 made between the United State8
and AIgiers, by whicb the American commerce in tba
Mediterranean was protected.

In September, 1800, a treaty was made between tha
United States and France, which settled the diflieulties
between tbe two nMions.

In 1810, a treaty was made between the United States
and Great Britain. By it the 49tb parallel of north la ti-
tude, from tbe Lake of tbe W ooda to tbe Rocky Mountains,
was made the boundary line between the United Statea
and British America.

In 1821, a treaty was madc betwccn tbe United Statea
and Spain. By it Florida and the adjacent islanda wera
ceded to the United States.

In 1846, tbe boundary line of Oregon was setUed by 1\
treaty between the United States and Great Britain.

In 1854, Commodore Perry, on the part of the United
States, made a treaty with Japan, by which commercial
intercourse was establíshed between the two nations.



1635. Clayborne's first Rebellion in MaryIand.
1645. Clayborne's seeond Rebellion in Maryland.
lGi2. RebeIlion of the settlers in New Jersey.
16i6. Bacon's Rebellion in Virginia.
liEJ. Rebellion of the settlers in South Carolina.
li86. Shay'a Insurrection in Massachuaetts.
li94. Whiskey Insurrection in Pennsylvania.
1842. Insurrection in Rhode laland.
1855. Civil war between the settlers in Kansas.


1859. John Brown's Insurreetion at Harper's Ferry, Va
1861. The Great Rebellion in the Southern Statee.




- -

1. George 'Vashington, Virginia, 1789-1797, 8 years, • John Adams.
2. John Adams, • Massachusetts, • 1797-1801, 4 years, Thomas J efferSOD.

3. Thomus J cfferson, Virginia, • 1801-1809, 8 years,.

Aaron Burr.

o George Clinton.
4- James Madison, • I Virginia, • 1809-1817, 8 years,. George ClintoD. Elbridge Gerry.

5. James Monroe, Virginia., . 1817-1825, 8 years, D. D. Tompkin8.
6. Jobn Qllincy Adams, Massachusetts, • 1825-1829, 4 year., John C. CalboUD.

7. Andrew J aek.on, Tennessee, 1829-1837, 8 years,. { John C. CalbouD. o Martin Van Buren.
8. Martín Van Buren, . New York, 11837-1841, 4 years, R. ]\f. J ahnsan.

9. William H. Harrison, Obio, 1841, 1 month, John Tyler.
10. J ohn Tyler, . • • Virginia, 1841-1845, 3 years, 11 mODths.

11. James K. Polk, Tennessee, 1845-1849, 4 years, George M. DalllUl.
12. Zaehary Tnylor, • Louisiana, 1849-1850. 1 year, 4 months, Millard Fillmoro.
13. Millard Fillmore, New York, .• 18.'>0-1853, 2 years, 8 months,

U. Franklin Pieree, • New Hampshire, 1853-1857, 4 years, William R. King.
15. James Buchanan, Pennsyl-rania, 1857-1861, 4: years,. ••• J. C. Breckinridge.
16. Abraham Lineoln, IlIinois, 1861-1865, 4 years, 1 month, { Hannibal Hamlin. Andrew Johnson.

1'1. Andrew.Tohnson, Tennessee, 1865-1869, 3 years, 11 months,
18. Ulysses S. Grant, Illinois, 1869. Sahuyler Colfax.


--- ---------



By Admit- Admini.t .....
tioos.. Stat ... Where s_ttl_d. whom ted as sottled. Stat ...

Virginia .......... 1607 Jameslown ............. I,nglish
New York ........ 1614 N_w york .............. Dutch .. .
Ma.sl:lachuBcttS... 1620 Plymouth...... ........ English
NPw IIampshirc 16:23 Dover ••.. oo ••••••••••••• l1:nglish
New Jersey...... 1624 Bergen ................. Dutch .. .
Conn_cUcut ..... 16.13 lIartford ................ Dutch .. .
Maryland ......... 1634 Sto Mary. _ ............. English
Rhoutdsland.... 16311 Proyidence ............. Engii¡;h
Delaware......... 1638 New Sweuen ........•.. Swede~.
Nortb Carolina.. 1663 Aluemarle. ............ Eogli¡;h
8011111 Carolina. 1610 Old Charleston ..•••••. EugliHll
l-eullaylvanil'- o.. 168l Cbe~ter .................. Englhil
G""rgia............ 1733 &\vannah ............... EngE,¡h
Vermont. ......... 1125 Fort Dummer ........ English
Kentncky......... 1775 Boon.boro' ........... U.S ..... .
TtlTIl19S800........ 1757 Fort Loudon. ...••..•.. English
Qhio. .............. 1788 Mari.tta ................ U.8. ... ..
Louisiana........ 16Y9 lherviUe ............... French.
Iwliana............ 1690 Vincennes .............. Fl'ench.
MissíssippL...... 1699 Eay of RilaD ......... Frl'Dl:h.
(]linois............ 1686 KHSh:a.tikia. ............. French.
Alahnma.......... IrO:! MolJile ...............••.. lI'rcnch.
Maine........ ...... Hil3 Mt. Desert Island .... French.
Mi!;souri. ........ 1763 Sto Genevieve •......•.. Frf::'llch.
ArkllDsRS.......... 1685 Arkansas Post ......... Prench.
Michigan._....... 1668 Sault Sto MarÍe ........ French.
Florida............ 1565 Sto Augustine ......... Spanish
Texas.............. 1690 Sto Antonia de Bexar Spanish
Iowa ............... 1833 Burlington ............. U. S .... ..
WiscoDsin........ H\90 Green Hay .............. French.
California ........ 1769 Los AngeloB ............ Spanish
Minnesota........ 1846 Sto Paul .................. U. S .... ..
Oregon._.......... 1811 ARtona. ................. , U.8 .... ..
l{ansasoo ............... ~ ........................... , ..... u. S .... ..

~ii~~::~~~?:·: ::::::::.:: .. ::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 18: L:::
* The thirteen original Stale ••



17~1} g~~ Washíngkll"
180~ Jefferson' ••

m~! 'Madison's.
1817 I 1818
1819 ~lonroe' ..
m~ Jackson' ..
1845 TyIer' •• lU5} 1846 Polk's.

m~l :::::::: ..
1860 m! Lincoln' •.
18tH Johnson'A.



When Comroanaers.
fought. Where fought. EngEsh. I Freneh.

1754. Great Mcadows. Washington. J umonville.
Fart N ece"sity. Washington. Villiers.

1755. In N ova Seo tia. { M"nckton.} Winslow.
N r. Ft. Duquesne Braddock.
Ncar L. Goorge. Williams. Dieskau.
Fort Edward. Johnson. Dieskau.

1756. 08we~o. M~rcer. Moutcalm.
1757. Fort Wro. Ueury. ';\lunroe, Moutc:11m:
1758. Louisbnrg. Amherst.

Ticonderoga. Abererombic, Montcalm.
Fort Froutcnac. Brndstreet.

1759. Fort Niagara. Prjucaux.
Quebec. \Volfe. Montcalm.


hen w
fo ught.

1 77;;.



WlIere fough t.


Bunker's Hill.

:I<'ort Moultrie.

Long Island.

White Pbins.
Ft. Washington.
Fur! Sehuyler.


Awerican. I llritish.

Parker. [Smith and

AlIen. IDe Lapluee.
Prescott. Ilowc nnd

Montgomcry. Carlton.
:lloultrie. Clint.on & Sir

Peter Parker.
Putnaro. IIuwc llIHl

McDougnll. Huwe.
Magaw. Howe.
Washington. Rahl.
\Vasldngton. ~l11WhOOtl.
Sto Clair. 1Durgo."yne.

St. 1.eger.
8t.ark. Baum.
\Varner. Brcymn.n.
Washington. HolV ••
Gates. Burgoyne.
Washington. Howe.
Gatef. Burgoyne.


E nglish.
reuch. F

lE F











When Comml1ndcrs. Army
fought. Where fought. American. I British. succes.ful.

1777. Fort Mercer. Col. Greene. Donop. Amerioan.
1778. Monmouth. W'lLshington.' Clinton. American.

Wyoming. Zeb. Butler. J ohn Butler. British.
Rhodo lslnnd. Sullivan. Pigot. American.
Cherry Valley. Brant, IBrilish.
Savannah. Robt. Howe. Campbell. 'British.

1779. Sunbury. Lane. Prevost. British.
Kcttle Creek. Pickens. Boyd. American.
Brier Creek. Ash, Prevost. British.
Stono Ferry. Lincoln. British.
Stony Point. Waylle. Johnson. American.
Paulus Hook. I .. ee. American.
Savannab. Lincoln. Prevost. British.

1780. Monk's Cornero Tarleton. British.
Charleston. Lincoln. Clinton. British.
Sander's Cr"ek. Gates. Cornwl111i5. British.
Fishing Creek. Sumpter. Tarleton. British.
King'a :\lt. Campoel!. Ferguson. American.

1'181. Co\vpens. Morgan. 'farlcton. American.
Gnilford C. H. Grccne. Cornwallis. British.
Hobkirk's Hil!. Greene. Rawdon. British.
Ninety-Six. Greene. British.
Fort Griswold, Ledyard. Arnold. Brítish.
Eutaw Springs, Groene. St"wart. Indecifo:ive.
Yorktown. Washington Cornwallis. American.

.1; De Grasse.


-- -

When American. Briti.h. Vessel
fOLlght. Vessel. I Commander. Vessel. I Commander. .uccessfuL

1807. Frigate Cbesapeake, Barran, Ship Leopard, Humphries, British.
1811. Frigate President, . Rogers, Sloop Little Belt, Bingham, • American. ~812. Frigate Essex, . . . . Porter, • SJoop Alerl,

: J
American •

Frigate Constitution, • Hull, Frigate Gucrricre, • Daeres, American.
Sloop Wasp, • JODes, Brig Frolie, • • • • American.

Frigate U nited States, Decatur, Frigate Macedonian, • Carden, American.
Frigate Constitution, • Bainbri(lge, Frigate Java, • • • Lumbert, • American. 1813. Sloop Hornet, Lawrenco, Rrig Peacock, • • • Peake, • American.

Frigate Chesapeake, Lawrenoe, Frigatc Shannon, Brokc, • British.
Brig Argus, Allen, •• SJuap Pelicnn, Maples, British.
Brig Enterprise, • . • Burrows, Bl'ig Doxer, Blyth, ~ America.n.
Fleet of 54 guns on L. Erie, Perry, • Fleet of 6:3 guns, . • . Barelay, American. 1814. Frigate Essex, Porter, . Fr. Phrebc; Sloop Cherub, Britisb.

Sloop Frolie, . nainl~rid:;e, Frigate Orpheus, Pigot, British.
Sloop Peacoek, 'Varnngtun, Brig Erervier, Wales, • American.
Sloop Wasp, • • • • • Blakely, • Drig Heindeer, Munnefs, • American.
Sloop Wasp, • . • • • Blakely, Sloop AI'OD, .A rbuthnot, Americall.

Fleet of 86 !!uns on Lake
McDonough, Fleet of 95 guns, . Downie, American •

Stewart, • Cyane; Levant, American.
Biddle, •• Briz Penguin, Dickenson. Ameri(l)lo. p

• I'ought after th. treaty of peace W&8 si~f'd at Uh&nt.



Where fought.

" o

181 2. Queenstown.
181 3. Frenchtown.

Fort Meigs.
Fort George.
Sackett's Harbor.
Fort Stephenson.

181 4. Chippewa.
Lundy's Lane.
Fort Erie.
N orth Poiot.
Fort MelIeory.

181 D. "N ew Orleans.

Commanders .

American. British.

Van Rensse- Brock.

Winchester. Prootor.
Pike. Seheaffe.
Barriaon. Prootor.
Brown. Prevost.
Croghan. Proclor.
Harrison. Proctor.
Browt\oo Riall.
Brown. Drummond.
Ilrown. Drummond.
Winder. Ross.
Maoomb. Prevost.
Strioker. Ross.
Armstead. Coohrnne.
J'1Ckson. Paokenham.




* Fought arter the treaty of peae;' was signed at Ghent.



" .:::




Whcre fought .

Palo Alto.
Resaca de la Palma.
Baena Vista.
Vera Cruz.
Cerro Gordo.
Molino del Rey.

it oí Mexi~o.


Amerioan .


ott Ise


Santa Anna.
Sant.a Anua..
Valencia ..
Santa Anna..
Santa Anna.
Santa Annlt.

w. suooeasr



n. America.

Americ an.
San" U Anna. A menean.



fought. Where fought.


April12. Ft. Snmter, S. C.

July 5. Cl1rtbage, Mo.
11. Rich Mt., Va.
18. Centreville, Va.
21. Bull Run, Va.

Aug. 29. Hatteras Inl., N. C.
Sept. 10. Summcrville, Va.

20. Lexington, ]..10.
Oct. 21. BoJI's Bl\lff, V,..
Nov.7. Port Royal, S. C.

Jan.19. 8omerset, Ky.
Feb. 6. Ft. Hcnry, Tenn.

S. Roanoke Isl., N. C.
16. Ft. Donelson, TenD.

March 8. Pea Ridgc, Ark.
14. Newbern, N. C. •
23. Wincbeslcr, Va.

April 6. Sbilob, Tonn.
7. Island 'So. 10.

11. Ft. Pulaski. Geo.
1l. Huntsville, Ala.
30. Bridgeport, Ala.

May 5. WilJiamsburg, Va.
9. Fnrmington, Tenn.

25. Wincbester, Va.

27. Hanover C, R., Va.
31. Fair Ollks, Va.

June S. Cross Key., Va.
June 24 fight on the

r Sevcn d .. ys' }

July 1. 1 Peninsula, Va.
3. Vicksburg.

Aug.5. Baton Ruuge, La.

9. Cedar Mt., Va.

20.IClar eville \¡


Commandor •• Army

Union. Confederate.

Anderaon. Bel1uregard. Coufed.
Siga!. Jackson. Confed.
Ro!)ecrans. Pegram. Unlon.
McDowell. Beauregard'l Confe,! ..
McDowell. Beauregard. I Confed.
Eutler. IUnion.
Hosecrans. Floyd. Un ion.
Mulligan. Price. Confed.
St.one. Evana. Confod.
Dupont. Union.

Thomas. Zollickoffer. Union.
Foote. Tilghman. Union.
Burnside. Union.
Gmn t. Floyd. Union.
Curtis. Price. UniDn.
Burnside. Brancb. Union.
Sbields. Jackson. Uniun.
Grant. Beauregard. Union.
.l!"oote. M"kall. Un ion.
Gilmore. Olm.tead. Union.
Mitehell. Unioo.
Mitchell. Kirby8mith Unton ...
McClellan. Johnson. Union.,
Pope. Bragg. Confed.
Banks. Ewell and Confed,

Portero Semmes. Unian.
Meelell.». R. E. Lee. Indeeisiva
Fremont. Jaekson. Union.

MeClellan. R. E. Lee. Coníed.

Farragut. Pemberlon. Confed.
Willi"ma. Brcckin- Union.

Banks. Ewell and Un ion.

Mason John50n. Confed.

(Contútll.d. )

Whcn Commanders. Army Where fought. fought.
Union. Confederate.



Aug. 22. Gallatin, Tenn. .Johnson. Morgan. Confed.

27. N ear Manassas, Va. Taylor. Ewell. Confed.
27. Rettle Creek, Va. Hooker. Ewell. Un ion.
29. Bull Run, Va. Pope. .Jaekson. Confed.

Sept. 10. Fayette, West Va. Siber. Loring. Confed.
14. Munfordsville, Ky. Wilder. Duncan. Un ion.
14. South Mt., Md. MeClellan. Longstreet. Union.
15. Ilarper'sFerry, Va. Mi!es. .Jackson. Confed.
17. Antietam, Mu. McClellan. Lee. Ullion~
17. Muufordsville, Ky. Wilder. Bragg. Confed.
19. Iuka, Miss. Roseerans. Price. Union.

Oct. 3. Corinth, Miss. Roseerans. Van Dorn'. Uníon.
8. Perryville, !Cy. Buell. Bragg. Indeoisi\'

18. Lex.ington, !Cy. Morgan. Confed.
22, Maysville, Ark. munt. Uniou.

Dec.7. Prairie Grove, Ark. munt. Hindman. Union.
13. l'rcdericksburg, Va. Burnside. R. E. Lee. Confed.

Vicksburg. Shcrman. Pemberton. Confed.

Jan. l. Murfreesboro. Rosecrans. Rragg. Un ion.
1. Hunt's Cross- Sul!i,'an. Forrest. Union.

Roads, Tenn.
11. Arkansas Post. MoClernand Churchill. Union.

Feb.3. Ft. Done\Ban,Tann. Harding. Wheeler. Unian.
March 5. Spring Hill, Tenn. Caburn. Van Dorn. Confed.

3I. Somer.et, K v. Gilmore. Pegram. Union.
April 7. Cedar Bluf!. Dodge. Forrest. Canfed.

10. Frunklin, Tenn. Granger. Van Dorn. Union.
May 2. Chancellar8ville, Haaker. R. E. Lee. Canfed.

14. J aekson, Miss. Grant. Jobn.ton. Un ion.
16. Champion Hills. Grant. Peroberton. Unian.
18. Vicksbnrg, Miss. Grant. Pemberton. Confed.
27. Port H udBon. Banks. Gardner. Confed.

July 1. Gettysburg, Penn. Meade. R. E. Lea. Un ion.
4. Helena, Ark. Prentias. IPrice. Un ion.
4. Vicksburg. Gran t. I Pero berton. Unian.
9. Port Hudsan, La. Banks. Gardner. Union.

lB'IFt. Wagner, S. C. Gilmore. Beauregard. Confed.
20. Goiger's Creek, O. Shackelford'l Margan. Unian.
23. Manas8aa Gap, Va. 8pinol... Anderson. Unian


( COlltú",.d.)

Wben Commanders. I Army
fougbt. Wbere fougbt.

. suecessful.
Union. Confederate.


July 26. NelV Liabon, O. Shackelford. Morgltn. Union.
Sept. 9. Cumberland Gap, Shackelford. Frazicr. Unian.

19. Chickamauga., Geo. Rosecrans. Bragg. Indecisive.

Oct. H. Bristoe Sta.tion, Va. l>leade. R. E. Lee. Unian.
25. Pine Bluff, Ark. Clayton. l\farooaduke. Union.

Nov. 4. lhyou Coteau, L<t. Burbridge. Walker. Confed.
23. Chattanooga, Tenn. Grn.nt. llragg. Un ion.

Deo. 14. Dea.ns's Station, Shackelfard. Lougstreet. Conf.d.

Feb.20. OJustee, Flor. Seymour. Finnegan. COllred.

Mob.25. Parlucah. Ky. Hicks. Forre,t. Unian.
26. Can e Hivel'. La. A. J. Smitb. ~Iower. Confed.

April 8., Mansfidd, La. Banks. K. Smilh. Confed.
9. Pleasant Hill, La. I Bnnks, K. Sl1lith. Un ion.

12. Ft. Pillow, Ky. Booth. Funest. Confed.
20. Plymoulh, N. C. Wessels. Uoke. Coored.

May 5. \v·ilderness. V:,-. I Grant. Lee. Unian.
10 {SpottSYI vaOla } G t Lee. Unian.

. C. U., Va. ran.
15. N ewooarleet, Va. SigeL Breckin. Confed.

lt1.\port Walthal, Va. < 'Butler. Bea.urega.rd. Canfe.i.
21. BerlDnda IIundred, Butler. Beauregard. Union. I Va.

June 1. Cold Harbor, Va. Grant. Lee. Indecisive.
5. Picdmont, Va. lIunlcr. Jf)nes. Un ion.

10. Guntown, Tenn. Stul'gis. Forrest. Confed.
13. Cynthiana, Ky. Burbridge. i\:forgan. Union.
26. Lafa.yette, Tenn. Watkins. Pillow. Union.
27. Kenesaw, Tenn. Shel'IDun. .Johnston. Confe,l.

July 9. Monocacy, lIfd. Wallaoe. Breckin- Confed.

20. Winobester, Va. ,Averill. Early. Union.
20.1 Docatur, G a. Sherman. Hood Union.
22.¡Atlanta., Ga. Sherman. Hood. Un ion.
24.,Winchester, Va. Averill. Early. Confed.
28.! A ti nnt", Ga. Sherma!:. Union.
30. i Pctersburg, Va. Grant. Lee. Conred.

Aug. 17'IDalton, Ga. Siebold. Wheeler. Unian.


( Contillued.)

When 1 Commanders. I Artny
fought. Where fought. snoeessfuL

Un ion. Confed.rate.

A ug.19. Ream'sStation, Va. 'V"rren. HiIl. Confed.

23. Ft. Margan, Ala. Farragut. Page. Union.
25. Rcam's Station, Va. lIancock. Hil!. Union.
3\. Jonesboro', Ga. Sherman. Lee. Union.

ept. IS. Opequan, Va. Sheridan. Early. Union.
22. Fisher's Hill, Va. Sheridan. Early. Unian.
29. Pilot Knoh, Mo. Ewing. Price. Union.

Oct. 2. Sl1ltville, V u. Burbridge. Brcckan- Canfed.

5. A !lutoona, GBo Corseo French. Un ion.
14. Glasgow, Mo. lIarding. Clark. Confed.
19. Lexington, Mo. Blunt. Pric •• Confed.
19. Cauar Creck, Va. Sheridan. Early. Union.
25. Big Blue, l\tlo. Blunt. Prioe. Union.

Nov. 13. Panther'. Gap, Ky. Gillem. Breckin- Confed.

30. Franklin, Tenn. Thomaa. Hood. Union.
Dec. 15. N ash ville, Tenn. Thoma •• Hood. UnioD_


Ft. Fisher, N. C. Butler. Whiting. Confed.

Jan.15. Ft. Fiaher, N. C. Terr¡. Whiting. Union.
M areh 3. Waynesboro', Va. Sheridan. EaTly. Union.

15. A veryabora'. N. C. Sherman. Hardee. Union.
19. Bentonsville, N. C. Sherman. Johnston. Union.

April l. Petersburg, Va. Grant. Lee. Union.



1. What natíona claímed portíons of Ameríca, and UpOD
what did cach found ita claima? See pages 9, 10, 15.

2. Give an acconnt of the voyagcs for discovery mada
by the English prior to 1607. Pages 9, 11, 12.

3. Of those made by the French. Page 10.
4. Of those made by the Spanish. Pages 9, 10.
5. What settlementa were attempted prior to 16077

Pages la, 11, 12.
6. Give an account of Cartier'a voyages to America.

Page 10.
7. GivE: an account of the attempts of the French to

settle Florida. Page 11.
8. GiVb an account of the attempts to settle Roanoke

Jsland. Page 12.
9. Which of the thirteen original colonies made treaties

of friendship with the Indiana? Pagcs 17, 32, 34.
la. When did Va., N. 11., N. C., S. O., and Ga. becorne

royal provinces? Pages 15, 20, 31, 35.
11. 'Which colonies offered an asylum for pereecuted

Ohristians? Pagea 23, 27, 32, 34.
12. Which of the colonies were scttled by other nations

than the English, and when did each come into the pos-
scsaion of the English? Pages 15, 16, 20, 21, 22.

13. 'When and of what colonies was Andross Govern91'7
Pages 16, 18, 19, 21, 26, 27.

14. When and of what co1onies was Fletcher governor1
Pages 16, 22, 32.

15. When and of what two colonies were Seth SctheJ
and John Archdale governors? Pages 28, 29,30.



16. What colonies were actUed on account of religious
persecution? Pages 17, 27.

17. Which colonies were aettled by religious denomina.-
tiona? Pages 17, 23, 27, 31.

18. Give an account of the "Legislative Assemblie6"
which met in the colonies prior to the Revolution. Pages

19. Give an account of the lndian massacres in the col-
onies prior to the French and lndian War. Pages 14, 19,
20, 29, 35, 3G.

20. In which of the colonies is there no mentíon 01
"lndian troubles" prior to King William's War ? Mass.,
N. J., Del., R. 1., Penn., Ga.

21. State what is ~aid of Capto John Smith in connection
with the colonies. Pages 13, 17.

22. Of Roger Williams. Pages 18, 27.
23. Of Rev. John Wheelwright. Pages 18, 19.
24. Of William Penn. Pages 21, 31, 32, 33.
25. Of Andross. Pages 16, 18, 19,21,26,27.
2G.What is said of the charters of Connecticut 7 Pages

27. 'What is said of the Rhode lsland chartera? Pagel!

28. What lS said of 8eth 8othel? Pages 28, 30.
29. What ia said of John Archdale? Pages 29,30.
30. What is said of James Oglethorpe? Pages 34, 35.
31. Give an account of the expeditions against Quebeo.

Pages 36, 43, 49. '
32. Give an account of the expeditions against Louía-

burgo Pages 37, 41.
33. Give an account of the expeditions against Fort Du-

quesne. Pages 30, 42.
34. Describe tha expeditions against Tioonderoga and

Crown Point. Pages 40, 42, 4B.
35. Who were the oommanders-in-ohief of the Englisb


forces in the French and lndian 'Var, and when was cacb
appointed? Pages RO, 40, 41, 42.

3ü. What is said of the attl'mpts made to form a union
of the colonies prior to the Revolution? Pages 18, 39.

37. What is said of the Stamp Act? Pages 43, 44.
38. State what is said of " tea" in connection wiili the

events leading to the Revolution. Pages 44, 45, 4ü.
39. Describe the invasion of Canada by tbe Americana

in 1775. Pages 49, 50.
40. When did the first Colonial, and when tlle firsí Con·

tillental Congress meet, and what did they do? Pages

41. Describe the siege of Boston. Pages 40, 50.
42. Describe the capture of New York city by the TIrit-

ish. Pages 51, 52.
43. Give a history of the Continental Congrcss. Pages

48, 51, 54, 57, 65, 6ü.
44. Describe the expeditions against Cbarleston. Pages

45. Describe the invasion of the United States by Bur-

goyue. Pages 55, 56.
4ü. Give an acr.ouut of the capture of Philadelphia.

Pages 57, 58.
47. Describe the expeditions against Savannah. Pages

60, 6l.
48. What events occurred ou the 18th of June in dif·

ferent yeara? Pages 50, 59.
49. When were the cíties of New York, Philadelphia,

Sn.vanon.h, and Chn.rJestou taken by the British; and when
were New York and Philadelphia evacuated? Pages 52,
57, 59, ÜO, 63, 70.

50. Who were the commanders of the American army iD
the South during the Revolutiou? Pages 61, 63, ü4.

51. Who were the commauders-íu-chief of the British
army during the Revolution f Paga 59.

52. At what places díd the armyunder Wa¡ hin¡;t:m apend

the winters from 1775 to 1782? Pages 50, 54, 58, 00, 62,

53. At what places did the British a.rmyat the North
Bpend tbe winters from li75 to 1782? Pages 50, 54, 57,
54. Where did tbe Continental Congress hold their meet.

¡nga? At Philadelpbia, exeept when that eity was occu·
pied by the British, when the Congress met at Laneaster
and York.

55. What foreigners served as officers in the American
army during the Revolution? Pages 54, 57, 63.

56. In what expeditions and battlea were tba allied
armies of the United States and ~rance engaged during
the Revolution? Pages 60, 61, 08, 09.

57. Mention two events which oceurred on the 19th of
April in different years. Pages 47, 70.

58. State what is said of ArnoId. Pages 48, 49, 50, 55,
64, 65, 06, 69.

59. Give an account of the evacuation of Philadelphia
by the British, and of their retreat to N ew York. Page 59.

60. Give an aecount of the battles during the Revolution
in which Indians were engaged. Pages 55, 60, 62.

61. Describe the movements of the Southern army while
under the command of General Gates. Pages 63, 04.

62. Describe Arnold's treason. Pages 64, 65.
63. Describe the retreat of the Americans after the

battle of the Cowpens. Page 67.
64. Describe the movements of the Southern army while

uuder the commaud of General Greene. Pagcs 04, 67, 08.
65. State the reasons which led to the adoption of the

Federal COllstitution. Page 71.
66. Who have, at different times, been appointed como

.. The romaining winters were spent at N ew York.

missioners to settle difficulties with Great Britain, and
what did they accompJish? Pages 70, 76, 99, 100.

67. 'Who lmve been appointed envoys to France, and
what díd they accomplish? Page 77.

G8. What cities have, at different times, be en the seat
of government of the United States, and when did Con.
gress meet in eacb city for tbe first time? Pages 73, 74, 78.

69. Describe tbe wars witb the Indians nortbwest of the
Obio. Pages 74, 75, 82.

70. Give the history of the United Sta tes Bank. Pages

71. Give a brief history of Florida. Pages 9, 10, 11
30, 34, 93, 96, 97, 99.

72. Give a history of Louisiana. Pages 79, 82.
73. Name tbe Presidents who died on the anniversary

of the Declaration of Independence, mentioning the year
of each one's death. Page 94.

74. Describe the foIlowing: "Alien and Sedition Laws;"
"The .l\Ionroe Doctrine;" "Specie Circular," and "Día-
tribution Act." Pages 78, 93, 96.

75. Describe the following: "Orders in Council;"
"Milan Decree," and "Nullification Act." Pages 81, 95.

76. Wbat Vice-Presidents bave become Presidents on
account of tbe deatb of tbe President, and when? Pages
98, 105.

77. Describe tbe battJes fougbt on the Lakes during tba
war of 1812. Pages 85, 88.

78. Who have called extra scssions of Congresa? When
and for what purposes? Pages 77, 97, 98.

79. Whcn have compromise bills be en introduced into
Congress? Give the provisions of each. I).ges-9~105.

80. Write a brief account of Georg7::)%\rll.fn:gt.l~ as
found in this history. ¡.. ,:~':'" " "\

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, . '.1

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