A HIST Ol!' THB UNITED STATES FROM 1492 TO THE PRESENT TIME. ~~ /(2~ :_~: ,::,~...


Ol!' THB


FROM 1492 TO THE PRESENT TIME. ~~ /(2~ :_~:\t,::,~
FOR TIrE USE OF SCIIOOL~:'". ,~". ,~,





17 North Seventh Street.


Jfirst District of Penneylvania..

Pldladelphia, July 12, 1866.
At a meeting of the Controllera oC Pu]¡lic Sebool., }'irst Diotriet o(

Pennsylvania., held at the Controllera' ChamlJer, July 10,1866, the fol·
lowing resoIution wa8 adopted:

"Resol'Ved, That 'l\1artindale'a IIistory of the United State.' be intro-
duced to be used in the Public Schools of this District."

From tlJe Minutes:
JI. W. JIALLIWELL, Secretarg.

~~---------~~--------~A~ ~ Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the yenr 1866, ll1 )J<{$

In tb. Clerk'. Office of the District Court of the Unit.d Stat •• (n
and for the EH.Btern District of P(·IlDsylvania. ~ '«~

--.: ~



IN preparing this IIistory of the Unitcd States,
the author has cndcavorcd to mcct the wants of
our Common Schoo1s as cxprcssed to him by
many of the prominent cducators in this country,
and as suggested by his own experience as a

Sorne teachcrs instruct their pupils, when pre-
paring a history lesson for recitation, not to com-
mit the whole of the text to memory, but to
extract thc meaning fram it and to express that
mcaning in Bcntellces of their own. vVhen this
is done, the pupils, except it be in sorne of the
higher classcs of our Academies and Universi-
ties, often neglect the events which are important
and study those which are unimportant. They
also frequently express what they do learn in
ungrammatical sentences, or in sentences giving
a vcry imperfect idca of the meaning intcndcd.
In order to obviate these difficulties, most teachers
require their pupils to commit the text to mem-
1>ry, knowing, from experience, that the only



way to tea eh chiJdren succcssfully is to require
them to be exact in an their answers. vVhen
this is done, much of the detai1 that is usually
found in our schoo1 histories may, wj~h advan-
tage, be omitted. The author has therefore aimed
at presenting the important events of the history
of our country in a clear, concise style, unadorned
by the vivid des~riptions and imaginings which
make our histories pleasing as reading-books,
but which, experience teaches the practical in-
structor, are not at all suited to the wants of the

The Chronologieal Table contains almost every
event mentioned in this llistory, and will be
found a useful adjunct if used in eonncction with
the texto

This little work is intended for the Common
8chools of our eountry, and, as sueh, is submitted
to the pu blíc.

J. C. M.


In compliance with suggestíons from numeron!! cdncators,
the author has prepared a series of "Review Questions."
(See page 174.) It is behevcd that a careful study of thes~
que~tlOns will enable a student to undergo, satisfactorily, any
r¡¡asonable examination lU the History of the United States.

J. O. M.







DISCOVERIES (1492-1607).
1. IN 1492, tbe New World, comprising the conti.

ncnts of North and South Amcrica, was discovered
by Christopher ColumLus, a nativc of Gcnoa..

2. In l-!97,.J ohu Cabot, with his son Scbastian, sailed
from Ellglaud, and discovcrcd Labrador and N ewfound-

3. In 1498, Scbastian Cabot made a second voyage
to Amcrica, and cxplorcd thc coast from Labrador to

4. In 1490, Amcricus Vcspucius made a voyagc to
tbe New WorId, and succecded in baving it named arter

5. In 1512, Juan Ponee de I,eon sailed from Porto
Rico, and on Easter Sunday, ealled by the Rpaniards Pas-
cua Florida, he discovered a country which, on aceount

QUESTIONS. -1. 'Vhen und by whom was A merica discovered?
2. What discovcries were made in 1497? _3. In 1498? 4. What i.
Baid of Americus Vespucius? 5. Give an account of the disoovel'1
of Florida.



of its blooming appearance and the day when first secn,
was called Florida.

6. In 1524, John Verrazani sailed from Franee on n
voyage of discovery, and reached the continent in the
latitude of Wilmington, N o1'th Carolina. He then ex·
plol'ed the whole eoast northward as far as Nova Scotia.

7. In 1534, James Cartier sailed from :France, and
in twenty days reached N ewfoundland. He discovered
and named the Gulf and Rivel' of Sto Lawrcnce, and
took possession of the country in the name of the French

8. In 1535, while on a second voyage, Cartier sailed
up the river Sto Lawrence to l'I1ontreal. He rcturned to
the Isle of Orleans, where he passed the winter, and in
the spring sailed for France.

9. In 1539, Ferdinand de Soto, a Spaniard, landad
on the coast of Florida with the design of conquering
that count1'Y' He marched westward, and, in 1541,
discovered the Mississippi Rive1'.

10. In 1542, when about to descend the Mississippi
River, De Soto died, and his body was sunk in tha
depths of the stream he had discovered. The remnant
of his followers afte1'wa1'ds found their way to a Spanish
settlement in Mexico.

11. In 1541, Cartiar sailed on a third voyage to tha
Sto Lawrence. He built a fort near the present sitc of

6. Of the voyage of Verrazani to Ameríe... 7. What is s .. id of Cnr-
tier's first voyage to Amerien? 8. What of his second voyage?
9. What i. sail of De Soto'. expeditinn to Americ,,? 10. What
became of him and hi, followers? 11. What is Baid "" CartiQr'g
third voyage 7


Qucbee, where he passed the winter; but bis eom.
panions were diRsatisfied, and he returned to Franee
tbe fol!owing spring.

12. In 1562, Admiral Coligny of France sent an
expedition under Ribault to Florida. He explored tbe
coast from Sto J obn's River to Port Royal entrance, where
he planted a colon y which was afterwards abandoned.

13. In 1564, Coligny sent out another expedition to
Florida, un del' the commund of Luudonnier, who made
a scttlement ou the River Sto John's. In 1565, Ribault
arrived with additional emigrants und supplies.

14. The Spaniurds sent out l\Ielendez with un expe-
dition to destroy the French colony in Florida. He
arrived in Septelllher, 1565, and laid the foundation of
St .. Augustine, after which he capturcd thc French fort
and ruurdered a\l its inmates.

15. In 1565, De Gourges, u French soldier, sent out
an cxpcdition which destl'oyed some of the Spunish forts
in Florida and put their garrisons to dcath.

16. In 1583, Sir I1umphrcy Gilbcrt, having obtained
a patent from Elizabcth, Queen of England, set saíl for
Ncwfoundland. A series of disasters indnced hím to
return to England, when the vessel in which he sailed
was lost, and al! on boanl perished.

17. In 1584, Sir Walter Raleigh, brother-in-law of
uilbert, sent out two ve~scls under the command of

12. "'hat is 8ni,] of the cxpcrlition scut out unaer Rihall1tl
13. What of tbe expedition under Lnudonnier? When did Ribault
arrive? 14. What was done by Melandez? 15. IIow did tbe French
fetaliate? 16. What is .aid of Gilbert's expedition? 17. What is
laid of lhe expedition under Amida. and narlow?

Amidas und Barlow. Tllcy explorcd tlle Albemarlc and
Pamlico souDds, ana named tIlO coulltry Virginia, ir:
honor of I~lizaboth, tilo ·Vir¡.;in QUCOll.

18. In 1585, Haleigh scnt out anothcr flect undor Sir
Richard Gronvillc, who Icft a colony on Hoanoke Island
under the control of Halph I"ane. Thcy became dis·
couraged, and, carly the next year, al! returned to Eng.
land with Sir Francis Drake.

19. In 1587, Raleigh scnt out unot1ler company of'
emigrants to Roanoke Island, ullller J ohn ·White. He
was sent to England for supplies, but on his return,
throc ycars afterwards, no trace of the colony remained.

20. In 1602, llartholol1lew Gosnold sailed frolll Eng-
land to the eoast of "'Iassaehu~otts. Ho di~eovorcd und
named Cape Cod, amI the islands of Nantucket and
1\1artha' s Vineyard.

21. In HiOG, the King of England granted the coun-
1ry from tho 34th to tho 38th dogreo of north latitude
to tho London Company, and that from tho 41st to the
45th degroo to tho l'lymouth Company, for the purpose
of establishing colonies.

18. What of lhe one under Richarn Grenville? 19. Whal is
Baid of the seltlement on Roanoke r.land under J ohn Wh ite ¡
20. What díd Gosnold do? 21. What grants werc made by the
King oC England?



1. IN 1607, Captain Newport, with one hundred and

five persons, was scnt out by the Lonuon Company to
establish a colony in Virginia. He suileu up theJames
River und luiu the foulldation of J alllcstown.

2. Thc early colonists sllffcreu grcatly from the 11Os-
tility of thc T ndians, anu from lJUugcr, cald, and disease.
lIIany of thcir numbcr dicd, and thcy wcre about to
abandon thc colony, when Captain J Ollll Smith assumed
thc command and indueed thcm to remain.

3. While on a voyage up the Chiekahominy, Smith
was capturad by tha Indians and takcn to Powhatan,
who eondemned him to die. Bis life was spared through
the intereessions of Pocahontas, the daughter of Pow-
hatan, and he was permitted to return to J amestown .

4. New settlers arrived, and the colony continued in
a state of prosperity until Smith was compelled to return
to England, in 1610, when order and industry ceased,
und all was again confusion.

1. What waB done by Captain Newport? 2. What was the con.
ditiotl of the early settlers? 3. What happened to Smith while on
his voyage? IIow was his Jife ""ved? 4. What is Raid of the colen;)'
befo re and a.rter Smith'a departure to England?



5 The colonists now prcparcd a sccond time to aban-
don thc colony, but the arrival of Lord Dclaware, with
ships and supplies, preventcd their departure.

6. The colony was governcd by martial law until
1619, whcn the first Legislativc Asscmbly in AmeriM
mot at J amestown.

7. In 1620, African slavery was introduced into the
colony by the Dutch. During tho same year nin!1SY
young women were sent to the settlement, as wives for
the planters.

8. In 1622, the Indians fornicd a plan for destroying
the English. The plot was revealed by a friendly
Indian, and some of tho larger settlements were saved,
but those on the outskirts of the colony were entirely
destroyed. The number of the plantations was thus
reduced from eighty to eight.

9. In 1624, the London Company was dissolved, Viro
ginia became a royal province, and its governors were
appointcd by the king.

10. In 1639, Sir "\Villiam Berkeley was appointed
governor. He ruled with moderation, and continued in
office for thirty-seven years.

11. In 1644, a second Indian massacre occurred. It
Was followed by a war which lasted two years, and ended
in the submission of the Indians to the English.

5. What prevented the colony being abandoned? 6. What change
was made in lhe govcrnment of the colony? 7. "'hat was brought
lnto the colon y in 1620? 8. Whal is 8aid (lf lhe m""srrcre in 16221
9. Wbat was done in 1624? 10. Wh"t is saitI of Sir WiIlia:n Berke-
ley? 11. What of the second IntIian massacre?


12. In 1663, Parliament euforced the Navigation
Act, which prohibited the colonists from importing or
exporting gooJs except in British vessels.

13. In 1676, Nathaniel Bacon headed a party and
compelled Governor Bcrkeley to submit to his authority.
Soon after this Bacon suddenly died and tlle rebellion
was suppressed.

14. In 1677, Culpepper became governor, but he was
deprived of his office in 1584. Virginia again became a
royal province, and was so continued until the Revo.


1. In 1509, Henry Hudson, who was lO tbe service
of the Dutch East India Company, discovered the Hud.
son River, which he ascended as far as Albany. In
eonsequence of this the Dutch claimed the eountryand
named it New Netherlands.

2. In 1614, theDutch ereeted a few rude hovels on
Manhattan Island. The settlement was called New

3. In 1614, a settlemellt was made at Fort Orange
(Albany). During the same year New Netherlands was
captured by the English under Argall, who retained
posscssion of it until the next summer.

12. What is said of the N avigation Act 7 13. What is said of
Bacon'g rebellion r 14. What changes wero made in the govern.
ment of Virginia 7

l. What discovery did Hudson make? Who claimed the country,
and why? 2. What is said of the settlement at New Amsterdam2
3. When was Albany setUed 7 What is saiu of the capture of New
Netherlands by the English?


:1. In 1645, tho Dutch commencod a war with the
AIgoUf¡uin Indians, which lastcd two years and ended
in the defeat of tho savagos at Strickland Plains.

5. In 1664, tho King of England grantod tho Torri.
tory of Now Netherlands to tho Duke of York. Tha
latter sent out a squadron under Co10no1 Niohols, which
captured the settlement at New Amsterdam and ohanged
its name to New York.

6. In 1673, New York was recaptured by the Dutch,
through thc trcachery of Sir J ohn Manning, but it was
resto red to the Engli~h tI,e next year.

7. In 1674, Sir Edmund Andross commcnced his
tyrannical administration as governor of New York.
He eontinucd in oflice until 1682.

8. In 1683, a legislative assembly met at New York
and established a " Charter of Libcrties."

9. In 1688, Andross again became governor and
eontinued his administration until 1689, when William,
Prince of Orango, ascended the throne of England,
and the colonists were rid of their opprcssors.

10. In 1691, King William appointed Colonel
Sloughtcr governor ot' N cw York. He was succeeded
by Fletcher, in 1692, whose acta caused him to be
despised by the people.

n. In 1698, the Earl of Bellamont became governor.
He was succeeded by Lord Cornbury, in 1702, whose

4. What is said of tbe war with tbe Indians? 5. What was donij
in 1664? 6. What in 1673? 7. Wbat is said of the administration
of Andross? 8. What was done in 1683? 9. What io said of the
Becond administration oC Andros!? 10. Wbat changes were made
In the governon in 1691 Ilnd 1692? 11. Whllt in H\98 and 17021


opprcssive meusures caused great dissatisfuctioIl among
the inhabitants.


1. In 1607, thc Plymouth Company sent a hundred
emigrants under George Pophum to N ew England.
They commenced a settlement near the Kennebeo
River, but it was abandoned tbe following spring.

2. In IGl.!, Captain John Smith explored the coast
of Ncw England. In 1615, he attempted to plant a
colon y therc, but was unsucccssful.

3. The first permanent scttlemcnt in l\Iassachusetts
was made at Plyrnouth, by the Puritans, on the 20th
of December, 1G:!0. They had been driven from Eng-
land by rcligious persecution, and they sought an asy-
lum in the wilds of America.

4. On their arrival they e1ectcd J ohn Carver governor.
He made a treaty with l\Iassasoit, the great Indian
chief of the country, which was kept unbroken for
fifty years. They suff'ered greatly from disease, hungcr,
and cold, and many of their number perished.

5. In 1628, John Endicott and three hundred emi-
grants made a settlemcnt at Salcm. In 1630, Governor
Winthrop scttled Boston. Charlestown, Dorehester,
and Cambridge were settled about the same time.

1. What settlement was nttempted by the Plyrnouth Company in
1607? 2. Whnt wns done by Captain .r"hn Smith 7 3. What is
said of the settlement at PlyIllouth? 4. Who was e1ected govcrnor,
and what did he do 7 From what did they suffer? fío What place
wa.s settled in 1628? What in 1630?


6. In 1635, Roger Williams, minister of Salcm, was
banished from the colony for advancing doctrincs in
opposition to those held by his brethren. During this
year a large number 01' emigrants al'rived, among whom
was GoveI'nor Yane.

7. In 1636, Ann Hutchinson and Rev. John 1Yheel-
wright caused much trouble by their opposition to the
clergy, and were finally compclled to leave the colony.

8. In 1643, Plymouth, l\lassachusetts, Conneeticut,
and New Haven WCl'e united for mutual protection
under the title of the "U nited Colonies of N ew Eng-
land." This union bsted for more than forty years.

9. In 1656, a law was passed banishing aH Quakers
from the colony, and imposing the penalty of death on
those who remained. Four persons were executed
undel' this law.

10. In 1675, a war broke out bctwecn the whites
and the N arragansett and 1Vampanoag Indians undel'
King Philip. Troops from Plymouth and lVIassachu-
setts went against them and destroyed both the tribes.
Philip was shot by a faithleHs Indian, in 1676, and hia
wife and children were captured and enslaved by the

11. In 1684, the charter of Massachusetts was de-
clared invalid, and, in 1686, the King appointed Sir
Edmund Andross governor of all N ew England.

6. When and why was Roger Williams banísbed? Wbo arríved in
1635? 7. Who were hanished in 1636? 8. What uníon was farmed in
1643? 9. What is said of the law ¡¡.gainst the Ql1akers? 10. Wha.l
is said oí King Philip's W&r? 11. What W&I done in 1684 &ud
1686 ?


12 The people were much opposed to Andros~, ando
in 1689, during the revolution in England, they seized
and imprisoned him, and restored the old form of

13. During King William's War the colonists suffered
much from the hostility of the Indians and Canadians.
1<Jxpeditions were sent against them, but they were
generally unsuccessful.

14. At the close of the ""Yar, King William granted
a new Charter to J\lassaehusetts, which enlarged her
territories and gave her many privilcges; but in it he
reserved the right of appointing the governors.

15. In 1 iO-!, the French and Indians attaeked and
burned Deerfield, in Massachusetts, killed many of too
inhabitants, and earried the remainder to Canada.


1. In 1622, the Plymouth Company granted
territory of New Hampshire to Ferdinand Gorges
J ohn Mason.



2. In 16:23, they sent over two eompanies of emi-
grants to make settlements on the Piseataqua River.
One of the places settled was called Dover. In 1638,
Exetcr was settlcd by the Rev. J ohn Wheelwright.

12. What was done with Andross in 1689? 13. What effect had
King W¡'¡liam's WUf on Ihe coloni,!s? 14. What is said of the
new Charter gronted by King William? 15. What is said of the
attack on Deerficld ?

1. When .nd lo whom was Ncw Hamp,hire grnnl.d? 2. 'Vhat
tiettlemen's were made in 1623? When und by whom was Exeter
eettled 7



3. The 8ettler8 suffered so much from the hostility
of the Indians that they placed thcmsclves under the
protection of l\Iassachusetts, in 1641. In 1679, thcy
were again separated, and N ew Hampshire became a
royal provincc.

4. A legislative assembly met at Portsmouth, in 1680,
hut the king disregarded its acts and appointed
Edward Cranficld govcrnor. By a course of injustice
and opprcssion he became odious to the people, and
was forced to leave the country.

5. In 1690, Samuel AlIen, who had purchased
Mason's claim to New Hampshire, was appointed
governor. Betwecn him and the people lawsuits about
the land continued for roany years. They were finally
settled in favor of the eoloni~ts.

6. Previous to 1746, K ew IIaropshire sufiered grcatly
froro the lndian wars. Dover and other towns were
plundered and bUrIlcd, and many of the inhabitants
killed or carried prisoners to Canada.


1. The first settlement in N ew Jersey was made at
Bergen, by the Dutch, in 1624.

2. In 166.!, Elizabethtown was settlcd by a company

3. When waa New IIampshire placed under the protection of
M'S3I1chusetta? Whcn 8epamted frOlll it "gain? 4. What was done
in 1680? What is said of Cranlleld's admiuistmtion? 5. Wbat of
AlIen'a administration? 6. What is said of the lndían wars pre-
viona to 1746?

1. When and where was Ncw Jeraey first settled? 2. What W8.l!
done in 1664?


jf English under Berkeley and Sir George Oarter6t.
Philip Carteret was appointed the first goverr,or.

3. The colony was flourishing until1670, when the pay-
mcnt of quit-rents was demanded by the proprietors. So
great was the opposition to this measure that the Bettlers
rose in rebellion in l67Z, and appointed another governor.

4. In ]674, Lord Berkcley sold his share of New
Jersey to Edward Byllinge. The Jatter sold out to the
Friends, or Quakers, in 1676. In 1677, the province
was divided, Carteret taking East Jersey, and t11e Friends
West Jersey.

5. In 168Z, William Penn, wit11 eleven other Friends,
purchased East Jersey of the heirs of Carteret and
appointed Robert Barclay governor.

6. In 1088, the Duke of York made Andross gov,
ernor of .Tersey. Great confusion prevailed from this
time until 170Z, when East amI West Jersey were
united under the name of N ew Jersey, and placed undel
the government of Lord Cornbury of New York.

7. In 1738, t110 governmcnt oi' New Jersey waH sepa,.
rated from that of New York, and Lcwis "Morris was
appointed t11e first governor.


l. In 1629, the Swedes and Finns purehased the
tiOrritoryextending frorn Cape Henlopen northward for

3. What tronbles nroso in 1670? 4. Whot chonges were moña in
thu owne"hip 01" New .Tersey? When flOr! how was New Jersey
divi,led? 5. \Vhen un,l by whom was East Jersey pmchased!
8, When llid A nuro8s becolIle governor? What waB done in 1702!
i. Wh"t in 1738? .

1. Wh .. t was done hy the Swed .... nd Fillns in 16297


OVe! thirty miles. They made a settlement near Cap6
Henlopen, which '\Vas, ho'\Vever, afterwards broken up.

2. In 1638, a body of Swedes uuder Pe ter ~Iinuet.'!
settled near the lllouth of Christian a Creek, and ealled
the place N ew Sweden.

3. In 1651, the Dutch built a fort nt New Castle.
The Swedes under Hising visited them under pretence
of fricndship, and succecued in obtailliug posscssion of
the fort.

4. In 1655, the Dutúh ¡:!;overnor of N ew York, witb
a fleet of sevcn ships, entered the Dclaware and took
possession of al! the Swedish settlements.

5. In 16(3.1, the English subdued the Dut,ch, anO.
Delaware became u depenuency of New York.

6. In 1682, the territory of Delaware, called tbe
" Three Lower Counties," was ¡:!;ranted to William Penn,
who landed at New Castle in October of that year.

7. Delaware increased rapidly in population and pros-
perity, and remained annexed to Pennsylvallia until
1G91, when the two States were separated and Dclaware
was placed under the control of Colonel :11arkham.

8. J n 16Ü3, the two colonies were aguin united by
Colon el Fletcher of New York; but, in H02, they were
finally separated, und Dclaware had a distinct legis-
lature, aJthough both coJonies remained under the same

2. What settlemcnt wns ma,le in 1638? 3. W!-at is .uid of the fort
at ~¿w Castle? 4. WllAt was done hy the Duteh in 1655? 5. What
w&s done in 1664? 6. What in 1682? 7. What was done in 16911
8. What in 1693 and in 1702?



1 In 1632, William Clayborne, a surveyul' employed
by the London Corupany, built several traLling houses
on Kent Island.

2. In 1632, George Calvert, r~ord Baltimore, obtained
a charter for the colooy which was called lHarylaod in
honor of Queen Maria. Before the charter passcd the
royal seal, George Calvert died, and the territory WaJ!
granted to his son Cecil.

3. In 1633, Leonard Calvert was appointed governor
of the colony. In 1634, he, witb two hundred crui-
grants, ruostly Catbolics, purchased an Indian village on
the Sto Mary's River, where they formed a settleruent.

4. U nder the wise government of Lord Baltímore, aH
Christian denominations were welcomed to the colony,
and all wcre protected from pcrsccution. The Indians
were friendly and thc Boil and climatc inviting. These
things causcd the colony to increaRe rapidly in wealth
and population.

5. The peacc of the colony was disturbcd hy Clay-
borne, who refuscd to submit to Lord Baltimore. In
1635, be took up urms against the government, but was
defcated and forced to leave the colony.

6. In 1642, a general Indian war broke out, which

1. Wh",t was done hy Claybomc in 1 r,~2? 2. What is SRí,l uf the
"harler granterl to Lon! Baltimore? 3. What was done by Leonard
Calvert in 1 r,:l4? 4. What is said of the colony uuder Lord Dalti-
more? 5 What is ~aid of Claybu>Jlc's rebollion? 6. What occurrod
in 1642? What in 1645?


lastcd two years. In 1645, Clayborne returned te
l\Iaryland and exeited another rebell::m, which lasted
for more than ayear.

7. In 1652, during Cromwell's reign, Lord Baltimore
was deprived of the government. A civil war ensued
in ] 655, and it was not until 1660 that Calvert's
authority was fully recognized and harmony restored in
tite colony.

8. In 16i6, Cecil Calvert died. He was distinguished
for wisdom, benevolence, and liberality of sentiment.
At his death his son Charles succeeded to his title and
cstato, and was govcrnor of the colon y during the next
fourteen years.

9. In 1691, King '\Villiam made a royal province of
Maryland. Religious freedolll was abolished, and the
Church of England was cstablished as tho religion of
the State to be supported by taxation.

10. In 1715, the government was again restored to
the heirs of Lord Baltimore, with whom it remained
until the Revolution.


1. In 1630, tho soil of Connecticut was granted oy
the Plymouth Corupany to the .Earl of Warwick, and
in the following year he granted it to Lord Say and
Seal, Lord Brooke, aud others.

7. \Vha! is "aid of Maryland during Crolliwcll'. reign? 8. \Vhen
díd Caivert die, and fur what \Vas he di5tingui.hcd? Who succeedcd
lIim? 9. What WaS done in 1691? 10. \Vhat in 17151

1. To whom "'aS Connecticut granted ?


2. In 1633, the Dutch built a fort at Har/ford
During tbe same year the English erecwd a trading-
house at Windsor.

3. In ] 635, emigrants from Massachusetts made Ret-
tlements at Windsor and Weathersfield. In 1636, thc
Rev. 'l'homas Hooker, with one hundred cmigrants, left
Massacbuietts and laid the foundation of Hartford.

4. In 1637, a war was eommenced between the Pe-
q und tribe of Indians, numbering about seven hundred
warriors, and the Connecticut settlers. It was wrmi-
natcd the same year by the destruetion of the tribe.

5. In 1638, the Rev. John Davenport and Theophi-
lus Eaton founded N ew Haven. After a day of fasting
and prayer they made a covenant "to be governed in
all things, civil and religious, by the rules and principIes
of the Bible."

6. In 1639, the people of Hartford, '\Vindsor, and
Wcathersficld mct at Hartford and formed a separate
government for themselves. Their constitution was
very liberal, and carefully proteeted the rights of the

7. In 1650, Governor Stuyvesant madc a trcaty with
thc English, by which the Dutch gave up al! claim to
tbc tcrritory of Connectieut.

8. In 1662, John Winthrop was sent to England to
securc a charter for the colony, from Charles n. Ho

2. Whnt WIl' dono in 1633? 3. Wh"t in 1635? What in 1636 (
4. What is saj,l 01' ¡he Pequod War? b. What is ."id of the settle-
rnent of Ncw 1I aven? 6. What w"s done in 1659? 7. What i~
sni<l of the tro.\1y in 1650 1 ~. Whnt ls sftid of the charter obtainod
by Winthrop?


obtained one which was very liberal in its proTi~ionsj
and embraced the New Haven colony within its limits.
That colony, however, refused to be united under the
charter until 1665.

9. In 1675, Andross proceeded with a naval force to
the Connecticut ltiver aud endeavored to extend his
authority over the settlements tbere, but tbe colonists
were firm in their opposition to him, and he was com-
pelled to return to N cw York without having accom-
plished his object.

10. In 1687, King J arues commissioned AndroBs as
governor oi' aH N ew England. He went to Harti'ord,
",he re tbe Assembly was in sesaion, and dcmanded tbeir
cbarter. It was placed on the tableo The discussion
was continued until evening, wben tbe lights were sud-
denly extinguished, and J oseph Wadsworth took the
cbarter and secreted it in a hollow tree, whicb bas ever
since been called the " Charter-Oak."

11. Although Andross fuiled to obtain the charter,
he assumed the control of the government in 1687, and
continued to rule until 1689, when his patron King
James was driven from the throne oi' England.

12. In 1692, Governor Fletcher of New York was
appointed commander oi' the Connecticut mili tia. In
1693, he went to Hartford to take the command, but he
was so resolutely opposed by Wadsworth, their captain,
that be gave up the attempt and returncd to N ew York.

9. What was done by Andross in 1675? 10. What is said of An-
aross'. attempt to ohtain the charter? 11. Wbat did Andros. do
aller failing to obtain the oharter? 12. Wbat was done by Govocnol


R H o DEI S L A N D.

l. In 1636: Rhode Island was settled by Roger Wil.
liams, who hall been banished from Massachusctts the
previous year. The town was called Providenoo, to
express his confidence in the mercies of God.

2. The colony soon became an asylum for the
persecuted in other provincos. In 1638, William
Coddington and sevcral others w ho had been banished
from l\Iassachusetts settled at Portsmouth, on the
island of Rhode Island. In 1639, they commenced
the settlement of Newport.

3. In 16-!4, Roger Williams obtained from the
Parliament of England a free and absolute charter fOI
the government of both the settlements.

4. In 16-1 í, delegates from the several towns met at
Portsmouth and adoptcd a liberal constitution for the
govcrnment of the colony.

5. In 1663, Charles n. granted a charter to Rhodc
Island, which embraced all the principIes of the
previous chartar, and secured to the people the civil
and religious liberty for which they had contended.

6. This charter was dissolved by Andross when he
became govornor of the New EngIand colonios, in 168í,

1. When and by whmn WltS Rhada I.Iand .ettled? What was
the town called? 2. Far whoro did tbe colon y beco me an asyluUll
What was done by William Coddinglon and olhers? 3. What wal
done in 1644? 4. What was done by Ihe delegates al PorteUloulh?
5. Wbat is said of tbe cbarter granted by Charles TI.? 6. Wbat
did Andrass do with Ibis charter, aud how long did it rema;n in


but aft€r his imprisonment it was resumed and COlle
tinued in force until a state constitution was adoptad
in 1842.


1. Between the years 1640 and 1650 a number of
persons from Virginia began a colony north of Albe-
marle Sonnd. In 1661, a number of emigrants from
ilIassachnsctts scttled on Cape Fear River, but tha
settlement was afterwards abandoned.

2. In 1663, a settlement was made on Albemarle
Sound, and 'Villiam Drumlllond was appointed governor.
In 1665, emigrants from the island 01' Barbadoes settled
ou Cape Fear River near the furmer settlemcut.

3. In 1(563, a large extent of territary was granted
to Lord CIaren don and seven associatcs, who gave it tIte
general name of Carolina.

4. In 1665, they employed the celebrated philosopher
J ohn Locke to prepare a constitution for the goveru-
ment of tbe colony. lts provisions were at variance
with the wishes of the people, causing much discord
among the settlcrs, and it was finally abandoned.

5. In 1683, Seth Sothel, one of the proprietors,
arrived as governor of the provincc. He was a,aricious
'Iud col'l'upt, and used his office solely for the aequisition
of wcalth. The people, aftcr bearing his cruel apprcs-
sions fuI' nearly six years, banished him fl"om thc eolony.


L What settlement was mnde between 1640 and 1650? What
in 1661? 2. Wh,ü sctt1cmünt was made in líi6:\? What in 1i\65'
~. Wbat grant was made in 1003? 4. What is said of lbe constItu·
lion preparéd by John ::'ockc? 5. What is mid of Soth Sotbcll


~. In 1695, the amiable Quaker, Archuale, bccume
governor. Under his administration the people were
prosperous and happy.

7. In 1707, a company of French Protestants settled
on the Treut River, and, in 1710, one hundred German
families settled uear the same place.

8. In 1711, tbe Tuscarora aud Coree Indians massa-
cred oue hundred and thirty of these settl(jrs. Troops
fwm South Carolina were sent to their relief. They
dtJfeated the Indians, capturing eight hundred of them,
and driving the remainder to N ew York, where they
joined the confederacy of the Five Nations.

9. North and South Carolina were united under the
same board of proprietors, until 1729, when a distinet
governmc¡¡t was cstablished over each. From this
period until the Rcvolution the colony was peaceful
and prosperous.

s O U T TI e A ROL 1 N A.

l. In 1670, a number of English emigrants undel'
William Saylc entered the harbor of Port Royal.
After a brief sojourn they sailed into Ashley River, on
the south side of which they commeneed the settlement
of Old Charlcston.

2. This place was not suitcd for commerce, and, in

6. ,,'hot is said of Arcbdn!e? 7. Wbat is said of tb. settlement,
on Trent IUver? 8. What is said of the war with the Tascarora
ano Coree Indians? 9. Whnt is said of tbe sepnrntion of North
and Soutb Carolina?

1. What w"s done hy WiIliam SayJo in 1670? 2. What waS don.
¡n 1530? Frdm wha.t ditl tho c"rJy setners suffer?



1680, ,it was deserted for the more eligible one known
as Oyster Point, where the present city of Charleston
was commenced. The early settlers suffcred from the
hostility of the Indians and the tyranny of their

3. In 1690, 8eth 80theI, who had been banished
from North Carolina, carne jnto the province and was
made governor. But peace was not restoreu, and
Sothel, after two years of oppressive rule, was banished
from the colony.

4. In 1693, the "Fundamental Constitution" was
abolished. In 1695, J ohn Archdale became governor.
By a wise and equitable auministration he did much
to restore order in the colony, and establish friendl]
relations with the Indians.

5. In 1702, during the Europcan wars, James Moore,
governor of 80uth Carolina, made an unsuccessful
expedition against the 8panish settlements in Florida.
800n after his return he marched against the Apalach-
ian Indians, who were in alliance with the 8paniards,
captured eight hunurcd of thcir warriors, and took
possession of an their territory.

6. In 1706, a fleet of Freneh and Spanish vessels
from Ravana, attcmpted to capture Charleston, but
was repulsed by the inhabitants.

7. In 1715, a general war broke out with the

3. What ",as done by Soth 8othe!? 4. When W/lS the Fnl\f1a.
mental Con.titution abolished? What is .aid of John Arcb·lrtle1
5. What is said of .Moore's expedition against the 8panish sel(le·
ments in Florida? What of the one against tbe ApalaehiaD
Indians? 6. What was done by the :French and Spanish in 17051
,.. Deseribe the Yamaeee W8!.


Yamasee Indians. They destroyed <.;he frontier settle-
ments, and threatened the whole colon y with ruin.
Uovcrnor Craven, with twelve hundrcd men, defeated
'heir main body, on the banks of the Salkehatchie,
and drove the survivors into Florida.

8. The oppressions of the proprietors continued untíl
1719, when the people rose in rebellion and electcd
James Moore governor of the colony. The tliffic:ulties,
howeyer, were not eotirely settled uotil 17:W, wheo
1\"orth and South Carolina beeame distinet royal prov-


l. lo 1643, the Swedcs erected a fort on Tinicum
Island, where their govcrnor, J oho Printz, built a
handsome residence. Several Swedish settlements were
00 the Schuylkill and the \reat 'side of the Delaware,
as early as 1677. Al! of these were embraeed in
" Uplaod Couoty."

2. In 1681, IVilliam Peno, a member of the Soeiety
of Friends, reeeived a grant of the territo1'y west of
the Delaware Riyer, on aeeount of his father's claim on
the British Government for sixteen thousand pounds
sterling. To this the King gaye the Dame of Penn.

3. In the autumn of 1681, a Iarge company of
8. What i. s"id of the mlcrs of South Carolina? How and when

were the difficultics settlcd?
1. Whl1t sett]cmcnt ,"as made by the Swedes in 1643? Wbat

other Swedish settlements were made as e"rly as 1677? 2. Wbal
grant was made to Wi1lhtlD Penn in 1681? 3. Wben aud by whom
_as Chester .etlled 7 Wha wn8 appointed governor?


emigrants, mostly Quakcrs, left England and scUled at
Chester. They were under the direct,ion of William
Markham, who was appointed dcputy-governor.

4. In 1682, Penn received from the Duke of York
the grant of the present State of Delaware, and, in
October of that year, he, with two thousand colonists,
landed at N ew CastIe.

5. On tIle day after IJis arrival, he addl'essed the
people, explaining the principIes of his government,
and promising to securc them ci\,il and reIigious liberty.

6. Penn next procecded up tbe Delaware niver and
founded Philadelphia. In order to secure tIJe fricnd-
ship of the Indians, he inyitcd thcm to the city, where
a treaty of peaee and fricndship was made which was
kept unbrokcn fol' more than Heycnty )'c:lI's.

7. In Dcccmbcr, 1GR2, thc fin;t AssembIy met at
Chester. In the following year they as~emblcd at l'hi-
Iadclphia and adopted a charter which was of unex-
ampled liberality.

8. In 1684, Penn returned to England, lcaving tIte
government in the hands of five comlllis~ioncrs.

9. Littlc occurred to disturb the peaee of Pennsyl-
vania, untíl 1G92, when King Willialll supposing Peno
to be friendly to James n., the deposed so, creign,
deprived him of the govcrnmcnt of thc pl'ovincc and
conforrcd it upon Colonel l<'lctcher of N ew York.

4. Wbatwas done in 16S2? 5. What did Penn do lhen€xt ,la,?
S. Wb'lC city diu Penn found? IIow ui,l he seClIre the frictld;hil'
~f tbe Indians? 7. What 18 sa.id of the Asselllhly? 8. Wbat <lid
Penn do in 1684? 9. How was tbe peace of PenllHylvania disturbed?


10. The innocence of Penn was Boon established,
and, in 1694, he was restored to his proprietary rights.
In 1699, Penn visited his colony a second time

11. Finding that the inhabitants were dissatisficd
with the govcrnment, Penn granted them a new char-
ter in 1701. This was more liberal than any previous
one, and cunferrcd upon the people aU the polítical
privileges they desired.

12. Sooa after this (1701) Pcnn returned to England
and left Andrew IIamilton as deputy-governor. Under
the government uf Penn the coluny becaIlle an asylum
for the oppressed of every clime, and inereased in
wealtb and population beyond any previuns example.

13. William Penn aiea in Lonaon, in 1718, leaving
his provinee to llis children. It continucd in the Pcnn
family until 1775, whcn thcir daims were pnrchased by
the CcmIllonwcalth for 580,000 dollars.

14. Thc boundary line separating Pennsylvania froro
JHaryland canse a much trouble between Penn and Lord
Baltimore for many years. It was finally settled in
1761, when two snrveyors, Mason and Dixon, fixcd the
present boundary, whieh has sinee been known a~
"Mason and Dixon's Line."

10. What was done in 1694? When did Penn re"isit his colony r
!l. What is said of the new charter granted in nOl? 12. WlHlt i.
soid of Penn's !eturn to England? What is said 01' l'e'JJI$yh·.·.ia
under Penn's government? 13. 'Yhen <lid Pcnn die? lItlw lnn~
ui,¡ the prodnce continua in tbe Penn family? 14. What is mV (Jf
tue ooun,lary line botween Pennsylvania and Marylanil? Huw waB
tbe uifficulty settlcu?



1. In 1732, a company of benevolent gentlemen
ohtallled from George lI. the grant of the territory
now constituting thc State of Georgia. They designcd
it as an asylum for the poor of England and fOl" the
persecuted Protnstants of al! nations.

2. In Novcmber, 1i32, Jam{'s Oglethorpc with one
hundred and twenty emigrants left England for Amer-
iea. He ascended the Savannah River, and, in leeb·
ruary, 1733, commenced a settlement which was called

3. Oglcthorpe made treaties of friendsh:p with th
neighboring Indian tribes, and by his kindness gained
their confidence.

4. Tbe trustees made liberal offers to al! who would
settle in the colony, and hundreus from Germany,
Switzerlaud, and Scotland were induced to emigrare.

5. In 1736, Oglethorpe, who had been to England,
arrived in the colony with three hundred emigrants.
In 1738, G eorge Whitefield, a eelebrated preaeher,
visited the provinee and founded an orphan asylum at

6. In 1739, EngIand declared war against Spain, and
OgIethorpe prepared for an expedition against tl,e set-
dements in Florida. In May, 1740, he attackcd Sto

1. Whn! is said of the grant of Georgia? 2. What of the 8ettle-
ment ('f Snvannah? 3. How did Oglethorpe trent the Inrlians?
4. llow were persons induced to settle in the colony? 5. What waS
done in 17116? In 1735? 6. Whl1t was done in 1739? In l740?


Augustine, but was defeated and obhged to return to

7. In 1742, the Spaniards with 'a Heet of thirty-six
vcssels and three thousand men invaded Georgia, but
thoy were defeated by Oglethorpe and compelled to leave
the coast.

8. In 1743, Oglethorpe returned to England. The
trustecs then appointed a presidcnt and councí! to
manage the afi'airs of the colony. Its prosperity, how-
ever, was not fully estahlished until 1752, when the
trustces gave up thcir chartcr and Georgia became a
royal province.

KING WILLIAM'S W AR (1689-1697).
1. King William's War commcnced between Englanó

and France, in 1689, and Boon extended to thcir colo-
nies in Amcrica. In July, of that year, the tow,n of
Dover was destroycd and many of the inhabitants killed
or carried prisoners to Canada.

2. In 1690, Schenectady, in New York, was burned
and sixty of the inhabitants massacred. These barbari.
ties induced the colonists of New England and New
York to make preparations for invading Canada.

7. What is said of lhe invasion of Oeorgia by lhe Spaniards?
8. What change in the government was mOlde in 1743? Howw, ..
th. prosperity of the colony established?

1. What is .. lid of King William's War? What of tbe destruc-
tion of Dover? 2. What wa. done at Schenectady? What did these
barharítíe. induce tbe colonisls to do?



3. In 1690, un expedition under Sir \Yilliam Phipps
was sent against Quebec and a force by land against
MOlltreal. Both wcre unsucccssful.

4. The colonists continued to suffcr scycrely fÍ'Glll
tbese attacks by the French and Indiana untiI the war
was ended by the 'frcaty of Ryswick, in 1697.

QUEEN ANNE'S W AR (1702-1713).
5. In 1702, Queen Anne'a 'Yar commenced between

EngIand on the one side and France and Spain on tho
other, and in it the colonists soon became involved.

6. In 1704, DeerfieId in l\Iassachusetts was ourned
and its inhabitant~ killed or carried prisoners to Canada.
These attacks became so alarming that many of t1e set-
tlements were abundoned und the people collected in
forts for protection.

7. In 171 O, N ew EngIand sent out a Heet, aided by
one from England, which captured Port Hoyal and
changed its name to Annapolis. Nova Scotia then
became a British province.

8. In July, .. 1711, a lurge Heet und army under Ad-
miral \\'alker arrived in Boston, where they obtained
additional forces, and, in August, departed for Canada
with nearly seven tbousand meno Eight of thcir ship~

3. What cXl'cditions were sent out in 1690? 4. When did thu
Bufferings of the coJonists end? 5. What ls said of Qucen Anne'.
War? 6. When was lJeerfield attacked? What cffect had the waT
upon the settl.menta? 7. What is sai..l of the captnre of Port Royal?
8. DO$cribe the naval expeditioD against Can,,,l ...


were wrecked in the Sto Lawrence, and nine hnndrcd of
the men IOHt. This misfortune caused the expedition
to be abandoned.

9. The arruy, which was assernbled at Alhany t<J
cooperate with the Heet, returned upon hearin~ of this
disaster. In 1713, the war was ended by the Treaty of
TJtrecht .

• KING GEORGE'S WAR (1744-1H8).
10. In 1744, King George's War commenced between

Franee and England and at once involved the colonies.
The important evcnt of the war in Arnerica was the
capture of Louisburg on Cape Breton lsland.

] 1. Governor Shirlcy of lUassachusetts proposed a
plan for eapturing the place, and N ew York, Pennsyl-
vania, and the N ew England States joined in the expe·
dition. Three thousand two hundred troops un del
William Pepperell sailed far Boston, in April, 1 H5.
At Canso they were met by Admiral Warren, who with
a British flcct was rcady to assist thcm.

12. Thc cOlllbincd forces, numbcring four thousanu
men, eOllllllcnced a regular siege of thc place, which
was continucd until the 28th of June, 1745, when
Louisburg: and the lsland of Cape Brcton wcre 8urren-
dered to the English.

9. What was done by the army at Alba.ny 7 When was the war
.nded? 10. When did King George's War comrnence? What w;u
the important oyent of the war? 11. Describe the prepnrations fOl
.. n cxpedition agllinst Louisburg. 12. What is said of the siego of


13. In 1746, a hrge Heet was sent by the French to
desolare the English colonies, but storllls, shipwrecks,
and disease caused tlle enterprise to be abandoned
In 1748, the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle terruinated tba
war, and Louisburg was restored to the Frencb.

1. The territory along the grcat lakes and the .Mis-

sissippi River was claimed by the French, who, about
the year 1750, commenccd erecting a chain of forts
from Lake Eríe to the Gulf of l\Iexico.

2. 'l'his territory was al80 claimed by thc English
who opened a tl'ade with the Indians, but the traders
were seized by the 1<'rench, in 1753, and imprisoned in
their fort on Presque Isle.

3. Governor Dinwiddie sent George Washington, a
young Virginian in his twenty-seeond year, with a
remonstranee to the Freneh governor. Arter a journey
uf four hundred miles, one half of which was through
a dreary wilderness, Washington delivered the rucssagc
and brought baek a reply to the remonstranee.

4. The reply was not satisfactory, and, in April, 1754,
IN ashington with four hundred roen ruurehed agamst
the French at Fort Duquesne. On his arrival at the

13. 'Vhat was done by the Freneh in 1746? "\Vhen and h.w wa~
the war tcrminatcd?

1. What was done by the Freneh abou! 175O? 2. "\Vhat by the
Engliah 7 3. What was done by Dimviddie? What is said oC Wash·
ington'a journey 7 4. What di1 Washington do in 1754?

EVENTS OF ol755. 39

Great Meadows he surprised and eaptured a body of the
enemy, only one of their number eseaping.

5. Learning that a strong force was coming to meet
him, Washington built Fort Necessity. Here he was
attacked by the enemy, and, on the Fourth of July,
1754, was compelled to surrender, but he and his
troops were permitted to return unmclested to Virginia.

6. In J une, 1754, delegates from seven colonies met
at Albany and agreed upon a plan for the union of all
the provine es. This plan was rejected by the British
government and also by the colonies as unsatisfactory.

EVENTS Ol!' 1755.

1. General Braddock, who was appointed commander.
in-chief of the English force s in America, arrived in
February, 1755. Expeditions were planned agaiust
Nova Scotia, Fort Duquesne, Niagara, and Crown Point.

2. Generals Winslow and ~lonckton with three thou-
sand men were sent against Nova Scotia. They too k
posscssion of the whole country and carried away seven
thousand inhabitallts, who were afterwards scattered
among the English colollies.

3. Braddock with two thousand mell marched against
Fort Duquesne. He reached the vicinity of the fort

5. What W"S done at 1.'urt N ecessity? 6. What was done at
AJba ny in 17541

1. What General arrived in 1755, and what expeditions were
planned? 2. What is saie! of th. oxpedition against Nova Scotia {
S. Whut of Brade!ock's expce!ition against Fort Duquesne?


on tho 9th of J uIy, 1755, w hore he was attacken und
defeatod by the French and lndians. In this battle
I3raddock was mortally wOUl](.led and one }lalf of his
army was destroyed. Washington tIten took the com-
mand, and tIte army retreated to Philadelphia.

4. Governor Shirley eommanded the expedition
against Niagara. He advanced tu Oswego where he
built a fort, but storms, siekness, and the desertion of
the rndians caused him to abandon the entcrprise.

5. General J ohnson commanded the forces sent
against Crown Point. He built :Fort Edward, where
he left a part of thc troops, and then procccded to Lake
George. Coloncl "\Villiams was sent out to attack the
French and Indians under Die~kau, but he was killed
und his troops defeatcrl.

6. Dieskau then attacked the fort, but was repulsed.
Johnson now gave up the enterprise and, having buílt
Fort William Henry, returned to Albany where he
disbanded his army.

EVENTS FROM 1756 to 1759.

1. In May, 1756, England formally declared war
against France. Lord Loudon, who was appointed
commander-in-chief of the forces in America, arrived

4. What of Shirley's expedition against Niagara? 5. 6. What was
done by General Jobnson?

1. When did Engumd declare war againat Franoo? Whnl is
said e¡ Lord Loudon? •

EVENTS FROM 1756 TO 1759. U

in J nly, but nothing was attempted until the llt:>x:t

2. In August, 1756, tIte French under Montcalm
captured the forts ut Oswego, took sixteen hundrf)d
prisoners and one hundred and twenty cannon, which
tJwy curried safely to Canada.

3. In July, 1757, Montcalm besieged Fort William
Henry thcn eommanded by Colonel Monro. General
,,, ebb was stationed at Fort Edward, only fifteen miles
dístunt, but he rcfused to send any assistancc to Monro,
and the fort was surrendered. 'I'he garrison were
promised protection, but as 800n as thcy left the fort
the Indians plundered and butehered them without

4. In the summer of 1757, William Pitt was plaeed
at the head of affairs in EngIand. He reealled the
inefficicnt Lord Loudon, appointed General Abercrombie
in his place, ancl prepared to proseeute the war with

5. In June, 1758, General Amherst with twelve
thousand men commer.eed the siege of Louishurg.
'I'he garrison, aftcr a br::wc rcsistancc, surrenclercd, and
tIte whole island of Car-e Breton fel! into the hands of
tllO English. Fifteen hundred of the Frcneh were
líilied and five thousand taken prisoners.

6. In.J uly, 1758, General Abcrcrombie with fift,een

2. What ",as done hy Ihe Freneh in 1756? 3. What is saicl of
tlJe capture of Fort William IIenry? 4. Wbat changes ",ere made
in 1757? 5. What is said of tbe capture of Louisburg? 6. What
is Baid of t.he attack on Montcalm? What was done at Forl
~'ront~nac1 '''hat chango was mado in tbe commandors?



thousand n:cn attaeked ::\lontealm at 'l'iconderoga, bu!
after losmg nearly two thousand men he retreated to
the head of Lake George. Colonel Bradstreet was
then sent against Fort Frontenae, whieh was captured
and destroyed. Gcneral Abcrcrombie was now reeaUcd,
and General Amherst appointed to succeed him.

7. In July, 1758, General Forbcs with cight thou-
sand men was sent against Fort Duquesnc, whieh he
found deserted. The name of the place was thcn
changed to Fort Pitt, in honor of the Prime Minister
of EngIand.

EVENTS OF 1759 AND 1760.

l. In 1759, expoditions were plannod by the English
against Niagara, Tieonderoga, and Quebec. In July;
Gcneral Prideaux commenccd the siege of Fort Niagara.
He was killcd by thc bursting of a cannon, and the
command devolved upon Sir William J ohnson, to whom
the place was surrender'ed.

2. In July, 1759, General Amherst with eleven
thousand men advanced against 'l'iconderoga. On his
approach the garrison retreated to Crown Point und
afterwards to IsIc aux N oix. Amherst prepared tu
folIow them, but storms compclled him tu return to
Orown Point where he passed the winter.

7. What was done by General Forbes, in 1758? \Vh"t name
WIIS givcn to Fort Duquesne?

l. \Vhat expeditions were planned in 1759? What is said of tUI!
riege of Niagara? 2. What is said of the exp9dition sgainsl


3. In June, 1759, Celleral Wolfe with eight thou-
sand men commenced tIlc siege of Quebec. On the
13th of September, they were attacked by the French
nnder Montealm, but the assailants were defeateu and
the generals of both armies killed. On tIle 18th of
September, 1759, Quebee was surrendered to the

4. In April, 1760, the French attemptcd to reeapture
Quebee, but were unsuccessful. In September, :rlontreal,
the last stronghold of the French in America, was sur-
rendered to General Amherst.

5. A treaty of peace was signed at Paris, in February,
1763, by which France ceded to Great Britain aH her
territory in the northern parts of America east of the

REVOLUTION (1763-1775).

l. 800n after tIle close of the French and Indian
War EngIand asserted the right to tax the American
colonies in order to fiU her exhaustcd treasury. In
1764, a bill imposing dutics on sugar and other prod-
ucts was passed by Parliament.

2. In 1765, the Stamp-Act was passed. It requircu

3. What of the siega of Quebec? 4. What was done in 1760?
5. What is s:lid of the treaty of peace in 1763?

1. Whnt right did England a88ert "fter tha French and lndian
War? Whut hill was passed by Parliament? 2. When was tho
St.amp-Aet pa<>c,l, amI what di<1 it require?


that aH deeds, bonds, notes, newspapers, etc. should b6
executed upon stamped paper, for which a dniy should
be paid to the British government.

3. The news of the passage of the Stamp-Act was
recei,ed in America with general indignation. In
sorne places riots broke out, in others the bells werc
mullied and rung, the stamps scizcd and deatroyed, the
stamp officers compelled io resign, and appeals made to
EngJand that the Act might be repealed. The mer-
chants of New York, Boston, and Philadclphia resolved
to import no more British goods while the Stamp-Act
was in force.

4. In October, 1765, the first Colonial Congress met
?t New York. It was composed of dclcgatcs from nine
colonies. Timothy Rug¡<les was chosp.n President.
They agreed upon a "DecJaration of mghts" and a
statement of grievances, in which was asserted the
doctrine that England had no right to tax America.

5. So great was the opposition to the Stamp-Act,
that it was rcpealed by the Parliament, in 1766. This
caused great joy throughout America. But the British
ministry did not give up the right of taxation, and, in
1737, a duty was imposed on tea, g1ass, and other

6. This Jast act again aroused the people, and they
adopted measures for rl1sisting the King and Parlia-

3. IIow was tbe Stnmp-Aet received in America? 4. W'{lat i, .aid
of the first Colonial Congrc,,? 5. Wbat is said of n.e rercal of tba
Stamp-A et I Did tbe Britisb ministry give up tbe rigbt oí
taxation? 6. How was tbis aet reecived 1 Wbat i8 said oC ths
circular scnt hy M"ssn.cbusetts?


mcnt. In Fcbruary, l7G8, Massachusctts sent. n
circular to thc colonies, asking tlwir eoliperatiou in
OIJÜlining a redreHs of grievances. 'f'here was a cordial
response fayorable to the circular' from nearly c\"er1

7. This aet of .Massachusetts displeased the lhitish
ministry, and in the name of the king the assembly
was ordered to rcscind the resolution adopting the
circular. They refused to do so by an almost unani-
mous yote, and reailirmed that England had no right to
tax Amcrica.

8. General Gage was now ordered to Boston, with a
regiment of troops, to cru8h all opposition. In Octobcr,
l7Gil, they arrived and wore stationed in diffcront parts
of the city.

9. The insolence of the soldiers scrvcd to inerease
thc opposition of t1l0 people, so that disturbances
between them were of fl'Cflucnt occurrence. On the
5th of ~Jareh, 1770, a conflict ensued, when the soldiers
fired upon the eitizcns, killing three, and wounding eight.
Thia was called thc "Boston }!asg:tere."

,10. 'fhe Rritish l'arlialllent, in j}Iarch, 1770, re-
pcalcd all the duties cxccpt that on tca. This did not
satisfy the Americans, bccausc tbcy dcnicd the right
of England to tax them for any purpose whatever;
they thercfore agreed to use no more tea.

7. Il"w wa" this <let of J\f"~sachusetts rcceived by the mini"try?
[)id .:I1"so"dlll.<ctt.< oJ,"y the order? S. Wh"t i8 saiel of Gcneral
Gl\,;e? 9. \\'llat l'clmJtC'<l frnm hn.ving the soldicrs stationed in
Buslon? 10. Wha( di,] ¡¡le Parlialllent now do? How waS this
rooeived by the AUleríeans 1


11. In 1773, the Rast India Company was directed
to send several cargoes of tea to AlIlcrica. The in-
hapltants of Philadelphia and New York refused to
have tbe tea unloaded, and the vessels returned t(j

12. At Boston, the people refused to let the tea be
landed, and the goverilor would not permit it to be
sent baek te England. l!'indillg the authorities were
determined to un load the tea, a party of men, ún the
6th of December, 1773, disguised as Indians, went on
board the ships, broke open the tea-chests, and emptied
their contents into the harbor.

13. In order to punish the Bostonians, the Parlia-
ment, in 1774, passed the Roston Port Bill, which
forbade the landing or shipping of goods at Boston,
and removed their custom-house te Salem. An Act
was also passed authorizing the governor to send per-
sons, indicted for crime, out of the colon y ful' tl'ial.

14. The Port Bill caused much suffering in Boston.
The people of Salem generously refused to take th<1
trade of their neighbors, and contributions were scnt
[rom many of the colonies for the relief of the Bostan

15. In September, 1774, the first Continental Con-
gress assemhled at Philadelphia. It was composed uf
delegates frolll all the colonies except Georgia. They

11. What is said of lhc tea sent to America? 12. Whlt wa~
done with the tea at Boston? 13. How were the Bostonians
punished for this act? 14. Wll11t was the eff'ect of tho Boston PoTl
Bil!? How were their suff'erings relic\'cd? 10. What is aaid 01
thc fir.t Continental CongroFs?


adoptcd r€;solutions sctting forth the rights of the
eolonists, and suspending al! trade with Great Britain
until th08e rights were acknowledged.

16. General Gage, who was appointed military gOY-
ernor 'of Massachusetts, now occupied Boston with an
army to eompel obedience. An assembly of delegates
from Massachusetts Dlet in October, 1774, and voted to
raise and equip an arrny of twelve thousand men for
the protcction of the colonies.

1. On the 19th of April, 1775, General Gage

sent eight hundred troops under Major Pitcairn and
Lieutenant-Colollel Smith to destroy tha military sup-
plics at Concord. At I,exington they met a small body
of Amcrican8 whom they dcfeatcd and disperscd. This
was the flrst battle of the American Hevolution. They
then proceeded to Concord and destroyed the stores.

2. On their return to Boston they were terribly har-
assed by the Arnel'icans, and would have bcen eaptured
had not Lord Percy with ninc hundred men been sent
to ~heir assistance. They finally reached Charlestown,
having lost tw~ hundred and seventy-three men while
the Amcricans lost but eighty-eight.

16. wLat was done by General Gaga? What was done by thb
delegates from :\Iassachusetts?

1. Who were sent out to dcstroy the military stores at Conoord?
What wa.'l done at Lexington? 2. What is said of their return to


3. 1'1e news of this hattle Rpread through the land
and so many came to assist thcir eountrymen that, by
the 1st of May, the Briti~h were closely besicgcd in
Boston by twenty thouSllnd Arnericans.

4. Colonel Ethan AlIcn amI l~enedict Arnold,'·with II
small body of troops, marched against the fort.~ at Ti-
eonderoga and Crown Point. On the 10th of May,
1775, the fort at Tieonderoga was eaptured, and, on the
ncxt day, Crown Point surrendered. Along with these
fo1't8 the Amcricans obtaincd forty-ninc prisoncrs amI
one hundred and forty cannon.

5. On the 10th of May, 1775, the Continental Con-
gress again ruet at Philadelphia. John IIaneoek was
chosen prcsident. They forrued a unien under the title
of " The United Colonies," voted to raise and equip an
army of tWCJlty thonsand lIJen, and elertad George
Washington eommander-in-ch ief of a11 the forces.

6. On the 25th of May, 1775, large reenforcerucnts
of English troops arrived in Boston under Generals
Howe, Clinton, and Burgoyne. General Gage now had
twelve thousand men under his eornruand.

7. On the evcning of the 16th of J une the Amer-
icnns sent Cll]"IlCI l'rescott to fortify Bunker's lIiH
which commam!ed n<lston, but, by rnistake, he ascended
and fortified Breed's Hill neurer the city.

8. On the 17th of June, 17í5, threc thousund soldiL!r~

3. What effect had the news of this battIe "pon the pC'lple?
4. \Vho marched ngainst Ticonrlrroga anu Crown PíJint? \Vith
wh,tt resuIt? 5. What i. ""id of the second Continental Congress 1
6. By whom were tbe British reenforced in 1775? 7. Wh:.t "aR done
by Prescott? 8. Describe the attack of Ibe British.


umler Gencrab Howe and Pigot were sent to drive the
Americans from the hill, 1'hcy advanced against the
redoubt but '\fere twice repulscd and retreaicd in con-

9. General Clinton having arrived with reenforce-
ments, tr.e British advanced to a third attack, but the
ammunition of the Americans was exhausted and they
retreated from the hill. 1'he British lost one thousand
and fifty-four, and the Americans four hundred and
!ifty meno

lO, On the 3d of July, 1775, Washington took com-
mand of the army nt Cambridge, It was composed of
rourteen thousand undisciplined men who were defieient
in the means necessary to carry on a siege.

11. 1'he Americans now planncd two expeditions for
tbc invasion of Canada, One was scnt by way of Lake
Champlain under General Schuyler, but he was suc-
ceeded by l\fontgomery, who captured Sto John's on
the 3d, and 1\lontreal on the 12th of Novcmber, 1775.
Montgomery then proceeded 1{) Quebcc.

12. General Amold with the other expedition marched
by the way of the Kennebec Hiver to Quebec, where he
nrrived in November, 1775, and wa~ joined by Mont-

lB. 1'he Americana commenced the siege, which was
continued until December 31st, 1775, when an assault

9. IIow di,l lhe battIe resnll? lO, Whal is said of Ihe army at
Cambridge? 11. 'Yhat expeditions werc planned? DC8criue thif
one nnder Schuyler. 12. What is s"id oI Arnold's expedition?
13 What is .aid oC lhe siege oC Qnebec?


Wll.\l made upon j,he place, but thcy were repulsed with
the 1088 of Montgomery :lild four hundred meno

14. Arnold with the rernainder of the arrny retired a
ahort distan ce frorn Quebec where they spcnt the winter.
In the spring the Arnericans wcre urmble to resist tho
atta.cks of the British, and, on the 18th ol! J qne, 1776,
they evacuated Canada.

15. Lord Dunmore, governor of Virginia, seized a
quantity of powder belonging to the colony. Patrick
Henry headed a band of militia and dernanded the
powder or its value. Payment was irnmediately made.
Dunmore was forced to leave the State, and in revengo
he burned Norfolk, in January, 1776.


l. The Americans continued the siege of Boston
through tho winter, and on the 2d of Mareh, 1776,
they commenced eannonading the city. On the night
of the 4th, General Thomas was sent to fortify Dor-
chester Heights which commanded Boston. An attempt
was made to dislodge the Americans, but it was unsue-
ecssful, and the British wcre forced to leave the city.
On thc 17th of March, 1776, they embarked for IIali-
fax, and Washington with his arrny triumphantly entercd

14. Whut wus done by the Americans after the repulse at Quebco I
15. What was done by Dunmoro in Virginia?

1. What is suid of the siege of Boston? Of the fortificationil Oll
Dorohester Heigh t8? What is saiJ of the evacuation ?

EVENTS OF 17713. 51

2. Early in the spring of 17i6, General Clintoll,
ilided by a flect under Sir Peter Parker, sailed fOl
Charleston, South Carolina. On the 28th of J une,
they attacked the fort on Sullivan's Island, but, after
an action of ten hours, were forced to leave the harbor
and soon afterwards sailed for N ew York. In honor of
the commander, the fort was afterwards ealled Fort

3. On the 7th of June, Richard Henry Lee made a
motion in the Continental Congress, then sitting in
Philadelphia, to declare the colonies independent. After
Borne debate it was postponed and a committee appointed
to draft a Declaration of Independence. Thia was writ-
ten by Thomas J cfferson and rcported on the 2d of J uly.
On the 4th oi' J uly, 1776, it was adopted and published
to the world. The colonies now assumed the name of
the "United States of America."

4. After the British had evacunted Boston, Wa.'1hing-
ton proeecded to New York whieh he thought would he
the next point of nttnck. General Howe arrived in the
vicinity in J une, and, on the 2d of J uly, 1776, took
possessiou of Staten Island. On the 12th, Admiral
Lord IIowe arrived with a fieet and troops from Eng-
land. On the 1st of August, he was reenforced by
Clinton and Cornwallis, from Charleston. The combined
force of the British was not less than thirty thousand
men, whilc che Americans had only seventeen thousand
lit for duty.

2. Describo the expedition against Charleston. 8. What is said
of (he Declaration of Independence? Wh"t name did the colonies
aasuIlle? 4. What is 8aiu of the preparations for attacking Long
Islan\!? D


5. On the 22d of August, 1776, the British bnded
on the west end of Long Island. Generals Putnam and
Sullivan, with about five thousand men, were stationed
at Brooklyn. On the 27th of August, they were attacked
by Clinton and driven to tlleir fortifieations with the lOSE
of sixteen hundred in killed, wounded, and prisoners,
while the British lost but three hundred and sixty-seven.

6. General II~we feared to attack the fortifications at
Brooklyn without the aid of his fleet. While he was
waiting for it, \Vashington procured boats, and, on the
night of the 29th, silently crossed over to New York
with al! his stores and baggage.

7. On the 12th of Scptember, 1776, the Americans
withdrew from ~ew York to Ilarlem lJcights. On the
15th, the British entercd the eity, and the ncxt day
attacked the Americans at Harlcm l'lains, hut werc
defeated. The British army was now recnforced, and
the Americans evacuated the whoJe of i\Ianhattan Island,
except Fort Washington, and proceeded to White Plains.

8. A battJe was fought at this place on the 28th of
October, 1776, when the Amcricans were driven to the
roeky hills of North Castle. The British now returncd
to New York, and, on thc 16th of Novcmber, captured
Fort \Vashington and with it more than two thousand
eight hundred Alllericana.

9. On the 18th of Novcmber, 1776, Cornwallis

5. Describe tbe attack. 6. Why did no"e not attack the Amor·
ioans? Wbat was done while waiting for the Bee!? 7. Whal. i, said
of tbe cVRcllation of New York? 8. ,rh,ü is ""id (JI' ¡bo haUle of
Wbite Pluins? Of lhe capture of FOl't Washington? 9. What wa'
done a.t Fort Lee? WbRI did Washington now do?

EVENTS 011 1777. 63

marcheu against Fort Lee, which was abanJuned on his
approach. 'tVashington naw rctreateú across New Jer-
sey, closely pursued by the British, and, on the 8th of
Deccmber, crosscd the Dclaware with less than three
thousanu men. Carnwallis here gave up the pursuit
Ilnd scattereu his traops in several of the towns of N('w

10. General Lec was dircctcd to leave the Hudson
and join the anny under IV ashington. In his march
across N ew Jersey he was eaptured by thc British, and
the command devolved upon General Sullivan, who
hastened to the relicf of the main army.

11. Washington now determined to attack the Hes-
sians at Trenton. For this purpase he erossed the
Delaware with two thousand four hundred men, and,
on the 2Gth of Deccmber, 1776, fell upon the enemy,
killed auout twcnty, and taok one thousand prisoners.
'Vith his spoils Washington rccrossed the Delaware,
but the close of thc ycar fuund him with hi'l whole
army again at Trenton.


1. On the 2d of J anuary, 1777, Cornwallis attacked
the Amcricana at 'l'renton. Tilo two armiea encamped

10. What is sai(¡ of General Lee? 11. Describe the attack on

1. Dese,ribe tbe attrtck by Cornwallis. What wa, the result of
the battle of PrincctoD?


for the night on opposite si des of a small strcam.
Cornwallis felt certain of capturing the Americans in
the moruing, but soon after dark, Washington silently
moved off his army towards PrincetoL, where he met
some British regiments on their way to Trenton. A
battle ensued, when thc enellly was defeated with tbe
108s of four hundred meno 'l'he Amerieans lost about
thirty, among whom was General l\Iercer.

2. Cornwallis arrived just as the battle enn'}d; hut
the Americans wcre exhausted, and 'Washington ordered
a retreat to the hills of East Jersey. Soon after this
the Americans wcnt into wiutcr-quartcrs at ~lorristown
and the British at New Brunswick.

3. In l\Iarch, 1777, Congrcss scnt Silas Deane to
solicit aid of France Dr. Franklin and Arthur Lee
a.ftcl'wards joined him. They sccured about twenty
thousand stand of arms and one thousand barreIs of
powdcr. Several of the French, among whom was
Lafayctte, carne to America to take part in the struggle
against England.

4. In April, 1777, Governor Tryon with two thou-
sand men "as sent to destroy the military stores at
Danbury. He burned the town, hut during his retreat
was attacked by the Americans under Silliman, W ooster:
and Arnold, and lost three hundred meno

5. Soon after this, Colonell\1eigs attacked the British

2. What was done on the arrival of Cornwallis? Where did tb"
anUles go into winter-quarters? 3. Whal wns accomplished by the
J0UlUlissioners .ent to France? DíJ Ilny 01' the Frencb come to
Amcrira? 4. Describe the I1ttack on Danbury. 5. Describe the
O1ttack on Sag Harbor.

EVENTS OF 1777. 55

at Sag Harbor, on Long Island, took ninety prisoners
and burned several vcss31s and magazine s without
losing 11 single mano

6. 1Vashington's army now numbered about ten
thousand meno In March, he left Morr~~town ami
encamped at IIliddlebrook. Whilc here, the British
tried to bring on a battle, but failing to do so they
withdrew to Sta ten Island.

7. In June, 17i7, General Burgoyne with ten thou-
sand men 10ft Canada to invade the United States by
way 01' Lake Champlain. On the 2d of J uly he
drove Sto Clair from Ticonderoga, and pursued him
towards Fort Edward, capturing a large amount of
artillery and stores.

S. General Schuyler, the commander of tlle northern
army, made every effort to obstruet Rurgoyne's march
towards Fort Edward, and the latter did not reach that
place until the 30th of J uly. On the approach of
the British, Schuyler retreated to the mouth of the

9. Colonel Sto Leger with seYen thousand men was
sent by Rurgoyne to besiege Fort Schuyler. General
Herkimer went to t1le relief 01' the garrison, but he
was attacked and four hundred of his mcn killed.
Arnold was then sent to the as8Ístance of the besieged,
Upon his approach the Indiana fled and Sto Leger
retreated to Canada.

6. What is .aid oC Washington's arroy? What did the Britie~
lo? 7. What ¡nvasion vras maele Crom Cana da ? What iid Bur.
goyne do in July? 8. What wns done hy Geocrul Schuylerl
9. Del~ribe tbe sie¡:. of Fort Flchuyl<lr.


10. On the 19th of AugU3t, Generai Gate~, who had
been appointed to the chicf' comllland of the northern
army, superseded General Schuyler. Burgoyne sent
Coloncl Baulll with six hundred Illen to capture tho
stol'es at Bennington. He was met by Gencral Stark,
on t11e 16th of August, 1777, and tutally dcfeated. A
reenforccmcnt of five hundred mCTl undel' Colonel
Breymall was al so defeated by Coloncl Warncr. In
bot.h battlcs the ellemy lost over eight hUlldrcd mCll.

11. Burgoyne 1l0W stationcd his army at S ara toga,
while the Americalls were cllcamped at Stillwatcr. Ou
thc 19th of' Scptcmber, an indecisive battle was f'ought
at Stillwatcr. On the 7th of Octobe1', 1777, a second
battle was fought at the same place, whcn the British
were defeated with the loss of fi:mr hundred meu,
General Frazcr bcillg among the slain.

12. Burgoyne now attemptcd to return tu Fort
Edward, but his rctrcat was cut off by the Amcrieans.
He, therefore, offered to surrender, and the articles of
capitulation wcre signed on the 17th of October, 1777.
The whole number of troops surrendcred was five thou·
sand seven hundred and ninety-one.

13. Clinton had sent throe thousand roen up tho
lIudson to meet Burgoyne, but when they honrd of his
surrender, they returned to New York, plundering and
burning Beveral villages along the river.

10. Wbat cbangc was made in the cornmandors of tbe northern
army? What is "aid of the battle of Bennington? n. Where wer.
the t\Vo armies stalioned? What is said of tbe liTO¡ battle of Still.
wat Br? What of the sacond hattle? 12. Wha¡ did llurgoynl
nnw do? 13. "'hat is said of tbe expedition sent lo meet llur.


14. On the ZBd of July, 1j77, the British Heet len
New York for the Chcsilpcakc Bay, w:th tho intcntion
vi' lIlaking an aUack upon Philndclphia. They sailed
up tho Hayas f;Lr as Elkton, whcrc thcy landcd eíghteen
thousand troops and comIllenced thcir march towaru~
tlJC Dclaware.

15. As soon as the British left N ew York, Washing.
t.dn rnarched to Philaclclphia, wllCre he was joined by
Lafayette and Count Pulaski. He then auvanced to
Chad's Ford, on Brandywine Creek, where he was
atlacked by the 'Britisb, on the 11th of September, 1777.
In this battle the Amerieans were defeated and forced
to rctreat with the los8 of twelve hundred meno

16. Soon after this the armics again met, but a heavy
rain prevented a battle, and 'Washington withdrew to
Rcadillg. General Wayne was now sent with fifteen
hunured men to check the advance of the encmy, but
he was surpri"cd, on the Ilight of the ZOth, at Paoli, and
lost three hundred meno

17. Congress adjourned from Philadelphia to Lan-
c:1st.er, on the ] 8th, and soon afterwards to York. On
the 26th of September, 1777, the British entered Phi-
ladelphia and prcp:tred to make the city their wintcl"
quartcrs. A portiün of the army was quartered at Gc.r·

]8. On the 4th of October, 1777, Washington

H. What<lidthe BriLish doinJuly? 15. How tlid Washington tr]
to preven the capture of Philadelphb? 16. What clid W,,,hington
do after rctreating to Phibdelphia? Wbat happened to General
Wnyne? 17. What (lit! Congrcss do? What id said of the entry of
tl,e nriti.h into Philnrlclphin? 18. Deo.cri1,c the h"ttlc of Germ.m-


attacked the enemy at Germantown. The AmeriJans
were repulsed with the 10ss of one thousand men and
returned to their camp at Whitemarsh. Tbe British
lost about six hundred.

19. After Howe's army had been landed at Elkton, the
British fleet sailed round to the Delaware, but was pre.
vented from reaching Philadelphia by the obstructions
in the channel and by the forts below tIte city. In
October, 1777, Count Donop with a body of Hessians
attackcd Fort Mercer, but was repulscd. The attack
on Fort Miffiin, by the British ships, was al so unsuc·
cessful. IIowe afterwards sent a large force which cap·
turcd these forts and removed the obstructions, so that
the fleet sailed up to Philadelphia in November.

20. On the 4th of December, 1777, Howe attempted
to surprise the American camp at Whitemarsh, hut
was unsuccessful. On the 11th of December, ·Wash·
ington went into winter-quarters at Valley Forge, on the


1. The condition of the American army at Valley
Forge was truly distressing. The soldiers were insuf..
ficicntly clothed and worsc fed. Many were without
8hoes, and their bare feet were terribly bruised on tho

19. What was done with tbe British tleet in tb. Chesapeak.?
How were tbe e bstructions in the Delaware removed? 20. Whal
attempt was mnde ngainst tbe eRmp at Whiternarsh? When and
""he re did Washington go into winter-quar!ers?

1. Desoribe tbe canditlon of tb .. Aroerican 81'Dly at Valle, FOTge.

EVENTS OF 1 ns. 59

frozen ground, in the march from "\" hitcmarsL to their
winter-quarters. A few of tho officers resigned their
eommissions, and some of tbe soldiers deserted, but the
most of them bore their suffcrings with patíellce.

2. During the wínter an attempt was made to remove
Washington from his command and give it to General
Gates, but, fortunately for America, it díd not succeed.
In the spring of lii8, France openly acknowledged the
Independence of the United States and sent troops to
assist the Americaus.

3. On the 11th of May, 1778, Sir Henry Clinton
arrived at Philadelphia and succeeded General Howe as
commander-in-chief of the Rritish forces. N ews was
received that a French fleet was expected at the mouth
of the Delaware. '['his alarmed the British, and, on
the 18th of June, 1778, they cvaeuated Philadelphia
and proceeded across N ew J Jrsey towards N ew York.

4. Washington immediately left Valley Forge and
eommenced the pursuit. He erossed the Delawaro
aboye Trenton, and, on tho 28th of J une, 1778, attacked
the enemy at Monmouth. In this battle the Americana
were nearly defeated by the retreat of General J~ee.
Washington succeeded in cheekíng the rotreat and tho
battle was continued untíl evening, when Clinton with-
drew his army to New York. Washington soon aftcr-

2. What is snid of the atternpt to rernovo Washington from his
cornmand? What did Franco now do? 3. Who now took command
of the British army? What is said of the encuation of Philadel-
phia? 4. What course did Washington take? Describe tbe battle
of Monmouth. What did Washington do after the baUJa?


wards marched to "\Vhite Plains, where be remaincd
until he went into wintel'-qual'ters at l'II iddleLrook.

5. On the 8th of July, u French !leet under Count
D'Estaing arrived at the Il10uth of the Dclaware. An
arrangement was made betwecn the Americans und
French tu re capture Hhode Island. In August, 1778,
G clleral 8ullivan !anded on the island, and during tbe
same day D'Estaing attacked thc British Heet off the
coaRto 800n after this thc French Railed to Bostun for
rcpairs, and General Sullivan was cOlllpelled, aftcl' sorne
skinllishing, to leave the island.

6. In J uly, 1778, about sixteen hundred Tories and
Indians, under Colonel Hutler, attacked \Vyoming, mas-
saCl'ed the settlers and burnerl thcir llOUSCS. In No-
vember, Colonel Brant with 11 Land of Tories attacked
Cherry Val!cy and butchered 01' cnrried off most of tbe

7. In December, 1778, two thousand British troops,
under the command of Colonel Cumpbe]], landed near
Savannah, in Georgia, and, after defeating a SITwl! force
under General Robert IIowe, took pussession of tIte city.


1. Early in J anuary, 1779, General Prevost t00k
Sunbury and marchcd to Savannah, wherc he assumed

5. What is said of the arriva! of the French? Dc"crihe t~e
attcmpt to recapture Rhode I,land. 6. Descrihe the "ttack. on
Wyoming anu Cherry Valley. 7. Describe the attaek on Savannah

1. What did Prev()~t do? Who took comma.na of the AmericnnR 1
Describe the battle of Kettle CrMk.

EVENTS OF 1779. 61

the commanJ of the British forces. General Lineoln
al so arrivcd and too k command of the American army
on the Savanuah. In February, 1779, Colonel Picken~
rontcd a band of Tories in a battle OH Kettle Creek,
killing seventy and taking seyenty.five prisoners.

2. Lincoln sent General Ash with two thonsand men
against the British in Georgia. He encamped at Brier
Creek, where he was surprised by Prevost, in March,
1779, and defeated with the loss of nearly five hundred
meno The British now laid siege to Charleston, and
Lincoln hastened to the relief of that city. On his
arrival the enemy withdrew, but left a strong detach-
ment near Stono Ferry. In J une, Lincoln atbcked
this detachment, but was repulsed with the loss of three
hundred men.

3. Early in Scptember, 1779, a powcrful flcet under
D' Estaing arrivcd on the coast of Georgia, rcady to
cooperate with Lincoln in besieging Savannah. In
October they attcmptcd to carry the works by storm, but
were repulsed and soon aftcrwards abandoncd the siege.

4. In May, 1779, the British plundered N orfolk and
Portsmouth, in Virginia. Soon after this, Clinton cap-
tured Stony Point and V crplanck's Point on the II ud-
son. In July, Tryon went to Connecticut, where he
plundered N ew Hayen and burned Fairfield and N orwalk

5. In July, 1779, General Wayne attacked Stony
Point, which was garrisoncd by six hundred British

2. Describe tbe lwttle on Brier Creck. What is said of the aiege
oC Charleston? 3. What of the siego of Savannah? 4. What was
done in May? In July? 5. Describe the capture of Stony Poiut by
tue Amanea.n!. Of P,,,,luR Rook.


troops. Ris men adyanced with fixed bayonets and
captured the place without. firing a gun. About the
same time Colonel Lee capturcd the fort at Paulua
Hook (now J crsey City), killing thirty and taking one
hundred and sixty of the British garrison prisoners.

6. In August, 1779, General Sulliyan was sent against
the Indians,on the frontiera of New York and Penn-
sylvania. The sayages were everywhere defeated and
forty of their villages destroyed. The Americans then
returned to Easton.

7. During the summer of 1779, the American com-
missioners at Paris fitted out a squadron which was
placed under the command of Paul Jones. In Septem-
ber, while cruising near the British coast, he captured
two English ships which he carried as prizes to Rolland.


l. The Americans, in their winter-quarters at l\:I@r-
ristown, suffered much from want of food and clothing.
They were paid in continental money, which had
decrcased so much in yalue that thirty or forty dollare
of it were w0rth only oue of silver. They wcre often
without food, and it was with the greatest difficulty that
enough could bc obtained to savc the army fram dcstruc-

6. Describe Sullivau's expedition against the Indians. 7. What
ptizes were taken by Pau) J ones?

l. What was the QonditioD of the A m'TioRno at Morri.town 1

EVEN.TS OF 1'1'80. 68

2 Clinton with five thousand troops sailed from New
York with the intention of invading South Carolilla.
[n February, 1780, he hnded near C1arleston and
bef!'an preparations for besieging that eity. In April,
Cülone! Tarleton eaptured Monk's Cornero This shut
off thc supplics from Charleston. The siege was con·
tinued with so much vigor that Lineoln, on the 12th of
May, 1780, surrendered the city. With it the British
obtained about five thousand prisoners and four hundred

3. General Clinton supposing the war at the South
nearlyat an end, sailed for New York, in June, 1780,
leaving Cornwallis with four thousand men to keep
possession of the subjugated States. The Amerieans,
howcver, were not conquered, and soon eollected another
army with which they harassed the enemy.

4. In J uly, General Gates arrivcd and supcrseded
Baron de Kalb in the command of the Southern army.
He immediately marched to Clermont twelve miles
from Camden. The British under Lords Rawdon and
Cornwallis were stationed at the latter place.

5. A battle was fought at Sander's Creek, in August,
1780, when the Americans were defeated with the loss
of one thousand men, among whom was Baron de
Kalb. Soon after this Sumpter's forees wcre badly
defeated by Colonel Tarleton, at Fishing Creck.

2. What did Clinton now do? Describe the sicge of Charleston
3. Why diJ Clinton go to New York? What is said of the Ameri.
cans 1 4. Who took command of the American army? 'Vhere did
he go? Where were tbe British? 5. What ia said of the battle ai
BandeT'B Creek? At Fishing Creek?


6. Cornwallis now established a military dcspotisID
at the South, and sent out detachments of his army to
encnurage the 'l'ories in their work of plunder. In
Odober, 1780, one of these bands un del' Colonel
Ferguson was attacked and dcfeatcd at King's ~Ioun.
tain by a body of militia. n10re than elevcn hunured
of the British were killed, woullded, 01' taken prisoners,
while thc Americans lost but two huudrcd. On the
2d of December, General Greene super~e<lcd Gatml, in
the cornrnanu of the :.rrny, hut no engagcrnent occurred
until J alluary.

7. In June, 1780, Washington marchcd to the Hi[.\'h.
lands in order to protect West l'oint. In July. n
Fl'euch fieet with six th()u~anu troops arrived at ]S' cw·
port, llhoue Tsland. Soon afterwards a large fieet
arrived from Enghnd and prcnnted the Frcnch from
cooperating with the A.meric:lns.

8. A bout this time Arnold was making preparations
to betray VI' est Point to the enemy. While he was
military governor of Philadclphia, after its evaenation
by the British, his conduct was so impruuent that he
was seutcnccd by a court-murtial to be reprirnandcd by
'Vashington. Iris pride was now wounded, and med i·
tating reYcngc he turned traitor.

9. Arnold obtaineu froIII Washington the coItll1land

6. How did Cornwu !lis net? What happencd tu one of the,e
bl.nds? 'Vlwt chn.nge was made in the command of the Americana?
7. 'Vhere did \Yflshington go in .June? 'Vhat ncets nrrh"ed? R. ,rhat
was AruoId (Ioing nt this time? 'Wh!lt 18 sailt (lf him whi1e g0\7crnol
of Philadelphia? 9. IIuw ,lid Ile <tltcmpt to execute his plans?
What wa€ neee"ary tu completo the arrangement.? What Ilgree-
ment was mado?

EVENTS OF 1180. 65

of West Point, and opened a correspondenee with
Major André, a British oflicer, proposing to betray tuat
place to Sir Henry Clinton. A personal interview was
necess:uy to complete tle arrangements, and Major
André went up the H udson in tle sloop-of-war V ulture
fol' tuat purpose. It was thel'e agreed that Aruold
flhould receive thirty thousand pounds sterling fol' his
treaehel'Y, and be made a brigadier-general in tue
Rritish army.

10. Whcn André was ready to l'eturn he found tle
VuILure had been moved down the rivel', thcrefore he
attempted to reaeh New York by land. For this pur-
pose Arnold furnished him with a pass under the name
of John Anderson, and he set out on his journey dis-
guised in the dress of a citizen. At Tarrytown he was
seized by threc llIilitiamen to whom he confessed that
he was a British officer. They sent him to Colonel
Jameson at the nearest military post.

11. The capture of André was then made known to
Arnold, who fiod immediately to the V ulture and joined
the British army. André was t.ried by a eourt-martíal,
and, on the 2d of Oetobor, 1780, hanged as a spy.
Ris eaptors were J Ollll Paulding, Isaac Van Wert, and
David Williams. To each of them Congress voted a
silvor medal and a pension of two lundred dollars a

12. In Deeember, 1780, England declared war agaillst

10. What is said of Anrlré's roturn? 11. WhutbccaillC af ArnoIJ~
WII3.t was Jone with Anoré? Who were his ""ptors, !tna bow IVere
they rewarued? 12. Agninst what nution did EngIand declare waT?
Against what nations bad she previously declarcd war?


Honand on account of the protection that nation had
~)vcn to American privateers. She had previously
declared war against France and Spain.


1. On the 1st of January, 1781, thirteen hundred
of the Pennsylvania line left the camp at ~Iorri8town,
with the intention of marching to Philadelphia to
obtain a redress of grievances. They were met at
Princcton by a committee from Congress who satisfied
their demands and they returncd to camp,

2. On the 18th of January, 1781, a portion of the
New Jersey line revolted, but they were promptly
queJIed by military force. Robert Morris of Philadel-
phia was now appointed treasurer by Congress. To
him thc country was indebtcd for the means of carrying
on the campaign of 1781.

3. Arnold, the traitor, had been sent by Clinton
with sixteen hundred troops to invade Virginia. In
January, 1781, he marched to Richmond where he
dcstroycd much property. In .March, he was joincd
by General Phillips with an army of two thousand
mcn. "-Tith these he went on another plundering
expedition up the James river. In l\Iay, CornwaJlis
took the command and Arnold returned to N ew York.

1. Describe the revolt of thc Pennsylvania lineo 2. Of the New
Jersey lineo What is said of Robert Monis? 3. Desoribe Arnold',
invallion of Virginia.

EVENT8 OF 1781. 6'1

4. Early in January, Greene sent out General Morgan
with one thousand men to occupy a position on the
Broad river. Tarlcton with eleven hundred men was
sent against him. The two armies met at the Cowpens,
where asevere battle was fought, on the 17th of
January, 1781. The British were defeated with the
loss of nearly seven hundred meno Thc Americans
lost but seventy-two.

5. Morgan immediately set out with his spoils for
Virginia. Cornwallis started in pursuit as soon as he
heard of the dcfeat of Tarleton, and endeavored to cut
off the Amcricans before they reached the Catawba
river. Two hours aftcr Morgan had eros sed the
stream the British arrived on the opposite bank.
During the night a heavy rain feIl which made the
river impassable.

6. Cornwallis crossed as soon as possible and con-
tinucd the pursuit. Greene now took the command
and hastened to thc river Yadkin, where a portio n of
his baggage was cut off by the enemy. Both armies
then started for the river Dan, but Grccne crossed ii
before Cornwallis arriyed.

7. The British now gaye up the pursuit and retired
to HilIsborough. Greenc soon returned to Nortb
Carolina, and, in March, reached Guilford Court-House
where he was attackcd by the enemy. The Americans
wcre driven from the field, but thc British army was

4. Describe the ¡mttle of Cowpen3. 5. 6. De.cribe the relreat oC
the Americans. 7. Where did the two armies now go? Wh&~ ÍI
eaid of the battle at Guilford Court-IIouse?



so much shattered that Cornwallis retreated towards
Wilmington, and, in April, set out for Virginia.

8. Greene marched to Hobkirk's Hill where he was
attacked and defeated by Lord Hawdon, in April, 1 j81.
About this time, General Marion and Colone! Lee
captured severa! British posts, among which were Fort
'Vatson, Fort Gran by, and Fort Motte.

9. In May, General Greene commenced the siege of
Ninety-Six. Learning that Lord Rawdon was advanc-
ing to the relief of the garrison, the Americans made
an assault upon the fort, but were repulsed.

10. In Septcmber, 1781, Greene attacked the British
under Colonel Stewart, at Eutaw Springs. The Amer-
icans had the advantage in this battlc, and the enemy
Boon afterwards retreated to Charleston.

11. Cornwallis reached Virginia, in May, 1781. lIis
first object was to capture Lafayette, who was at Rich-
mond with three thousand men, but that general
retreated until he was recnforeed by General Wayne
and nine hundred troops. He then pursued CornwalliJ¡
who retreated to Yorktown, which was afterwards
strongly fortified.

12. At the North, Washington made preparations to
attack New York. For this purpose he was joined by
the French army undel' Oount de Itochambeau. Learn-
ing that a French Heet under Count de Grasse was on

8. Describe the battle at Hobkirk's Hill. What did Marion and
Lee capture? 9. Describe tbe siege of Ninety.Six. 10. Describe
the hattle at Eutaw Springs. 11. What is s"id of Cornwalli. and
Laf~yette? 12. What preparations did Washington make? Why
did he change his plan s ?


its way to the Chesapeake, Wasbington ttbandoJed tha
attack UpOll New York and marched against the enemy
in Virginia, where he arrived on tbe 25th of Sep-

13. As Boon as Clinton was assured of Washington's
movements, he sent Arnold on an expedition to Con-
necticut. On the 6th of September, 1781, he hurned
New London and captured Fort Griswold. In the
latter fort nearly the whole garrison were massacred
after they had surrendered.

14. De Grasse arrived in the Chesapeake, on the 5th
of September, 1781, after he had driven off the British
:Il.eet under Admiral Graves. On the 23th of Sep-
tember, the alliad armies, numbering twelve tbousand
men, appeared before Y orktown. Tbe siege was Boon
commenced, and, on the 9th of October, tbe batteries
opened upon the British fortifications and the town.
Cornwallis now attemptcd to escape across tllC river,
but was prevented by a violcnt storm. Ret,reat wa9
entirely cut off, and on the 19th of October, 1781, he
surrendered his army, amounting to seven thousand
men, to \Vashington, and his ships and seamen to Count
de Grasse.

15. The news of this event was hailed with joy
throughout the country, for it was eonsidered the death.
blow to the war. The power of the British was now

13. Desoribe tbe expedition to Connecticut. 14. Wben did De
Grasse arrí>e? Describe the siega ofYorktown. 16. Howw"" the
new. of this event received? To what cilies was the power of the
British limitad 7 Whcre did the French ... nd American armies spend
the winter?


limitcd almost entircly to thc three cities, Savannah.
Charleston, and N ew York. 'l'he French arruy remained
in Virginia during the winter, while the Amcricanil
encamped at Newburg on the IIudson.


1. In the spring of 1782, the Rritish ministry offered
to treat with the Americans. John Adams, Benjamin
Franklin, Henry Laurens, and John Jay, were ap-
pointed commissioners for the United States, to con-
elude a peace with Great Rritain, and, on the 20th of
J anuary, 1783, a treaty was signed at Paris. This
joyful news was proclaimcd in the American army, on
the 19th of April, 1783, just eight years 'arter thc battle
of J.cxington.

2. On the 25th of Novcmber, 1783, the Rritish
evaeuated New York, and General 'Washington, accom-
panied by Governor Clinton and others, entered the
city. On the 4th of Deccmbcr, \Vashington took a
finalleave of his offieers, aftcr whieh he proceeded to
Annapolis where Congress was in session, and on the
23d of the same month resigncd hia commission a·s
eommander-in-ehief of the American armics.

1. What was done in 1782? By whom and when WI1S a treaiy
made? When was lhe news proclaimeJ in lhe American army ¡
2. What is said of the evacuation of N ew York? What did
Wasbington do in December?

EVENTS FROM 1781 TO 1789. TI

3. At the close of thc war there was much murmuro
ing by thc unpaid soldicrs. In ofller to incrense the
discontentmellt, some persons circulat.cd Icttcrs through
the American eamp, at N ewburg, ad\'ising the sohliers
to march to Philadelphia and compel Congress to do
them justice. It required all of Washington's influen~
to satisfy the disaffected and prevent a general mutiny.

4. The Articles of Confcdcration i!"aye Congress no
powcr to tax the pel/ple ur pro\'ide fuI' the expenses of
the goYcl'nment. AH thoy coulll do was to recommcnd
certain measures to the States withuut any means of
enforcin~ them. Business was depressed and the
resources of the country wcre exhausted. The Stutes
now laid hea"y taxes on their citizens for the support
of government.

5. These things cansed insurrections among the
people in 178G. In l\Iassachusetts, Daniel Shay with
a number of citizells ,,"ont to 'Vorcester to compel the
Assembly to repeal the taxes. General Lincoln witI! a
body of militiu was sent to qnell the disturban ce.
Fourteen of the lcaders werc taken und condemned to
death, but were aftcJ'wards pardoned.

6. A change in tho general government was badly
nccded, and in May, 1787, representatives froID all the
States, cxeept Rhode Island, met at tho State Hüuse in
Philadclphia, with Washington as president.

3. 'Vhat occurred in tbe CRmp nt Newburg? 4. lIfention sorne
of the defeets in the Articles of Cüllfedcrution. What was the con.
dition otO the country after tbe dose of the Bevolllti,m? O. Whai
11 aaid of Shay's insurrection? 6. What mea.EUre8 were taken to
change tbe governmen t r


7. After deliberating for four months, they agreed
upon a new Constitution which was presented to Con-
6ress, on the 1 nh of Scptember. It was sent to the
States, where it met with some opposition, but was
finally ratificd by eleven of thcm. The 4th of March,
1789, was named as the day for the new governmcnt to
go into opcration.

r. What is said oC the adoption of the new ConstitutioD 7


1. Congress assemblcd in N ew York, in the spring

of 1789, when it was found that General Washington
was unanimously chosen Presidcnt, and J ohn Adams
Vice-President, of the United States. On the 30th of
April, 1789, the oath of office was administered to
Washington, at New York, by ChancelIor Livingstonc.

2. Thc first session of Congress was chiefiy occupied
in organizing the ncw government. Alexander Ramil-
ton was appointed Secretary of the Treasury, Thomas
J efferson Secretary of S tate, Renry Knox Secretary of
';Var, John Jay Chief Justicc, and Edmund Randolpb
Attorney-General. .

3. Congress adjourned on the 29th of September,
and soon afterwards Wasbington made a tour through
the New England States, where he was received witb
many marks of affection.

4. Tlle sccond session of Congress comm€'lced in 1790,
when Mr. Ramilton, Secretary of the Treacury, recom-

1. Who were chosen President and Vice-President in 1789?
When and by whoro wa. tha oath uf oliee admini,tered to Washing-
ton? 2. How was the first session of Congress oecupied? What
ofticers were uppointed? 3. Whut díd Washington do a'ter Con-
gre88 adjourned? 4. What díd Humilton recommend to CongreBa 7

(78 )


mended to that body a plan for cstablishing thc public
credit. He wished the National Governmcnt to aRRUIlle
the debts both of thc U nitcd States amI of the severa]
Sta tes, amounting in aU to about seventy-four millions
of dollars. After considerable opposition, the plan was
adopted, and confidence in the government restored.

5. In 1790, an Aet was passed, in whieh it was agreed
that Congresa should hold their sessions at Philadclphia
for ten years, and, at the end of that time, a territory
ten miles square, on the Potomae River, whieh was called
the Distriet of Columbia, should beeome the seat of the
National Government.

6. The Indians north-west of the Ohio became so
hostile, that, in September, 1790, General Harmer with
fourtcen hundred mcn was sent ag-ainst them. After
destroying some of their villages, he wns badly defeated.
In Novcmbcr, 1791, an expedition of fiftccn hundred
ruen was sent out under General Sto CIair, but lle was
surprised and dcfeated by the Indians, with a loss of
nine hundred of his troops.

7. Congress met, in December, 1790, at Philadelpllia.
In 1791, Vermont was admitted iuto the U nion as a
State. The first settlement was made at Fort Dummer,
now Brattleborough, in 1725, by the English. During
the year 1791, a bilI establisbing tbe Bank of the United
States, with a capital of ten millions of dollars, was
passed. Congress also passed an Act for taxing distilled

5. What was done in regard to the seat of government? 6. De-
S<lribe Harmer's expedition ngainst the Indians. Sto C¡air's expe-
dition. 7. Where did Congregs meet in 17\10? What is said of
Vermont? What bilis werc 1'''''' 1 hy Congreso in 1791 ?


8. In 179~, Kentucky was admiUed into the Union
as a Sta te. The first settlement was made at Boones-
boruJ , in 1775, by Colon e! Daniel Boone. At the prcsi-
dential election, in 1792, 'Washington was reclected
President, and J ohn Adams Vice-President, of the
U nitcd States.

9. At the commencement of Washington's second
term of oflice the country was disturbed by the revolu·
tion in France. l\lany pcrsons wished to aid the citi-
zens of that nation in establishing a republic, but Wash.
in¡.;ton dctermined upon a strict neutrality.

10. The French appointed citizen Gcnet minister to
the U nited States. He landed at Charleston, in 1\1 ay,
1793, and, in opposition to the laws, cOITlmenced to fit
out privatecrs to cruise against the enemics of France.
Washington requcsted his recall, and he was finálly
Buperseded by 1']1'. Fauchet.

11. In li9-1, the people of \Vestern Pcnnsylvania re-
sisted the attempt to eollect the tax on distilled spirits.
The Prcsident issued his proelamation warning the
insurgents to desist, and finally sent General Lee with
fifteen thousand troops, who at once enforced obedicnce.
This is known as the " \Vhiskey Insurrection."

12. In 179-1, General W ayne with three thousand
men marched against the Indians west of the Ohio
He overtook them on the banks of the l\:Iaumee River,

?:::":l \NI

8. Whnt is said of Kentucky? What was the result of the eleci~') e e
in 1792? 9. What was the condition of the country at the Ir;;' ... ¿;::~
mencement of Washington's second term? 10. 'Yhat is s:Ji:ol~· .
:'\finister Genet? 11. Describe the Wbiskcy Insurrection. l~:De::
soribe Wayne's expedition ag"inst the Indiano. \ '?

l. ..
\ ~


where he gained a complete victory. In 1795, the,
entered into a treaty by which peace was secured.

13. During the year 1794, the British ministry did
many aets which excited the hostility of the Americans,
and it was feared that a war would resulto 'Washington,
desirous of peace, sent John Jay to Great Britain with
full powers to settle the disputes. He eoneluded .t treaty
which provided that the western posts held by the Bntish
should be given up, and authorized a restricted trade
between the United States and the British West Indies.
It met with much opposition, but was finally ratified by
the Senate, in J une, 1795.

14. During the year 1795, a treaty was made with
Spain, which secured to the Americans the free naviga-
tion of the Mississippi River, and one with Algiers, which
protected the U nited States commerce in the Mediter-

15. In 1796, Tennessee was admitted into the Union
as a Statc. The first settlement was made at Fort Lou-
don, in 1757. In the autumn of 1796, Washington
published his Farewell Address, in which he announced
his intention to retire from public life.

16. At the election, in 1796, J ohn Adams was chosen
President, and Thomas Jeffersoll Vice-President, of tho
United S tates. On the 4th of March, 1797, they were
inaugurated, and vVashington returned to l\lount Vernon,
where he hoped to spend the rernainder of his days.

13. What i8 said of the difficulties with Grcat Britain? 14. What
is said of the trcatics with Sl'ain Dnd Algiers? 15. What is .aid
of Tennesscc? Of Washington'. Farewell Addrcss? 16. What w&8
ehe result of the pre.identia! el.ctian in 1796? What took p!aoe
ID Ma.rch, 1797?

JOIl~ ADA:\IS'S AmnNISTRATION (li\J7-1801).
1. Toere were difficulties bctween the Ullitcd States

and Fl'anc~ a~ the cornmencement of Adams's adminis-
tratíon; he, therefol'e, called an extra session of Congl'ess
on the 15th of May, 1797. That body authol'ized the
Prcsident to raise an arroy, enlarge the navy, and take
snch other measures as would maintain the honor of the
United States.

2. In J uly, 1797, John l\1arshall, Elbridge Gerry, and
Charles C. Pinekney were appointed envoys to Franca
to se cure if possible an honorable adjustment of all the
difficulties. The French govcrnment rcfused to receive
them, but intimated that a loan of money lllight open
thc way to a I1cgotiation. This was iudignantly refused.
J\larshall and I'inckney were thell ordered to leave the

3. In May, 1798, Congresa authorized the raising of
an al'my of ten thousand men, and "r ashington was ap-
pointed coromander-in-chief. They also ordered U nited
Stntcs vessels to cruise against the armcd vessels of
France, and several of the btter were captured. Among
these was the L'Insurgent,of forty guns, captured by
the Constellation, of thil'ty-eight guns, undel' Comroo-
dore Truxton.

4. Tile French government now proposed to adjust
aH difficulties, und, in February, 1799, WiIliuro V. 1)1 ur-

la 'Vhat is E-luid of the commencement of Adams's administrution 7
Wh.t dit! Congrc"" do? 2. What is said of the em'oys sent to
France in l7Ui? 3. What did Congre •• do in 1798? What vesscl
.. as captnred? 4. What is .aid of too envoys to France in 17~?



ray, W. R. Davie, and Oliver Ellsworth were apFointed
cnvoys to France for that pmpusc. 1'hey found Napo.
leon at the head oY tIte French natioll und eOllcluucd a
trcaty of pea ce with him, in Scptcmber, 1800.

5. In 1788, the Alien and Sedition Laws were passed
by Congress. By the Alien Law, any person, not a
citizen, suspected of conspiring against the government,
might be expelIed from the country by the President
The Sedition Law was intendcd to suppress all publica.
tions whieh \Vould tend to weaken the go"crnruent.

6. On the 14th of Dcccmber, 178Ü, Washington died
The whole nation mourned his loss, and imprcssive
funeral ccrcmonies wcrc cverywhere observad. In 1800,
the scat of governmcnt was removed from Philadelphia
to 'Vashington, in the District of Columbia, and Con-
gress assembled there in Decel1lber.

7. At the next presiden ti al election, no clmdidute
lIad a majority of' al! the votes, and it became t.he lluty
of' the House of Hepresentativcs to cho08e a Presid('llt.
Thc contcst was between Thomas Jefferson and Aal'oll
Burr. At the thirty.si;'th ballot, J eff'crson was cho¡;en
President and Burr Vice-Prcsidcnt.

l. In 1802, Ohio was admitted into the Union as a

State It was settled at JUarietta, in 1788, and formed

5. What were lhe Alien and. Sedition Laws? 6. What is said el
Washington'. death? What i. said of lhe srat of governmentf
'1'. What was lhe result of lhe next clcelion?

1. What is said of Ohio ? Of Louisiana?


8 part of the Northwestern Territory. In 1803, Louia-
iana was 'purchascd from France, by tbe V nited States,
for the SUl}; .;f fincen lllillions of dollars. By this pur-
chuse the Americans secured the free navigution of tha
Mississippi River. _

2. The Vnited States had long be en a sufferer from
the depredations made upon her commerce by the Bar-
bary Statcs. This was on the increase, and, in 1801,
the American government rcmonstratcd in su oh terma
as to cause a declaration of war on the part of Trípoli.

Z. In lS03, a flcet under Commodore Preble was
Bcnt against the Tripolitans. While cruísíng before
Tripoli the frigate })hiladelphia, commanded by Captain
Bainbridge, ran upon a rock and was capturcd by the
enemy. In Fcbruary, 1804, I;ieutenant Decatur, with
síxty rnen, entered the harbor of Trípoli, set fire to the
captured frigatc and returncd without losing aman.

4. In August, 1804, the Amcricans bombarded that
eity, sCl'íously injuring the fOl't and destroying sorne of
tlle Tripolitan vessels in the harbor. In 1805, William
Eaton, the American consul, captured Derne a Tripoli-
tan city on the Mediterranean. He thcn marched
towards Tripoli, bu't the reigning bashaw was w tcrrified
at his approach that. a treaty was made with l\lr. Lear,
American consul at AIgiers.

5. In July, 1804, Alexandcr Hamilton was killcd in

2. \Vhat is s"id of lhe dcprcdations of the Barhary Sta!es? 3. What
wns dene in 1803? How was the frigato Philadelphia destreyed?
4. Wha! did the Americans do in 1804? lIow was the war ended?
5. \Vhat is said of the duel in 1804? Of the elwtion in 1805 r
What ji sain of Burr'. oon :iuct 7


a dllc1 by Aaron Burr. At thc electioo, io 1805, Jef.
f"rson was reClcctcd Prcsident of the U nitcd Statcs, aod
George Clinton Lecame Vice-l'resident in place oi" Burr.
In ] 806, Burr secretly made preparatioos fúr uo expe·
ditinn down the Ohio. This.caused him to be arrested,
in 1807,00 a churgc of attempting to scparate the West-
ero States from the U oion, or of preparing to attack
Mexico, but at the trial he wus aC'1uittcd.

6. At this time England and France were at war, and
the United States, as a neutral nation, was carrying on a
trade with al! the ports of Europe. lo order to check
this, the British goveroment, in May, 1806, dcclared a
lurge part of the coast of Europe in a state of bloekade.
In November, 1806, Napoleon rctaliuted by declaring
the blockade of the British Islands. In consequcoee of
these acts American vessels wcrc captured and American
eommerce oearly dcstroyed.

7. Groat Britain claimcd tho right of searching
United States vessels and carrying away 8uch of tbe
crew as sbe suspected to be British dcsortcrs. Tbe
American government iodignaotly dcnied this right.

8. lo J uoe, 1807, while the frigate Chesapouke was
going out to sea, she wus attuckod by thc British ship
Leopar,l, and three of her men were killcd and eightcen
wounded. Four men were then tuken from the Amer-
ican vessel, three of whom were nutive Americaos.
This outruge caused the Presidcnt to order all Briti~h
armed vessels to lcave thc hurbors of the United Statc8.

6. How did the Europe,m wars affect the UnifeJ States? 7. What
right did Gr."t Britain clairn? Did tbe Americans grant it 7 8. De.
scribe the Ilttaok on the Chesapeake 7


9. In November, 1807, the British governme:Jt issued
the "Orders in Councll" prohibiting al! trade with
France or her allies; and, in December, N apoleon in
rctaliation issued the "l\lilan Decree" forbidding aU
trade with EngIand or her colonies.

10. In eonsequence of these dccrces Congress, in De-
eember, 1807, laid an embargo which prevented Amer-
ican vesscls leaving their ports. This put an cnd to the
commerce with forcign nations. As the embargo fuilcd
tn accomplish thc desired object, it was rcpealed by Con-
gress, in 1809, and an aet prohibiting ul! intercourse
with France and England substituted for it. Thomas
Jefferson retired from oiñee on the 4th of l\lareh, 180P,
when James Madison búcamc Prcsident and George
Clinton Vicc-Prcsidcnt of thc United States.

1. When Mr. Madison becume Presidcnt, he found

the affail's of thc nation much disturbcd by the hostile
conduct of EngIand and France. In April, l\Ir. Erg-
kine, the British minister, assurcd the President that
the offensive orders should be repeuled, but Great Bri-
tain refuscd to sunction thc arrungement.

11. Who.t deerees were issued by the British and French in 1807
lO. Who.t did Congresa do iu consequence of the deerees? Whal
was done with the embargo? Who became Prcsident and Vice·Prcsi-
dent in 1809?

1. What ls said oí Ihe national affairs w hen Madison became Prasi-


2. In 1811, the English sent armed ships to the
United States coast to sci7.e American vessels as prizc~.
On the 11th of May, 1811, the llritish sloop-of~war
Little Belt was hailed by thc frigate President, Captain
Rogers, w hen she replied by firiDg a gun. Rogcrs
returncd the tire and after killíDg or wounding thirty-
two men received a civil reply.

3. The Indians northwest of the Ohio became so hos-
tile that Ger:eral Harrison marched againEt them in
1811. As he approached one of their towns on tha
Tippecanoe, he was metby the chiefs who proposed
terms of peace and requested him to encamp for tha
night. Before daylight next morning thcy attacked his
camp but wcre finally defcated.

4. In 1812, LouisÍána was admitted into the Un ion
as a State. It was settled at Ibcrvillc, by the French,
in 1699. The conduct of the British had become so
grievous that Congress declared war against that nation,
on the 18th of June, 1812.

5. Preparations were now made by Congress for
raising a large army, and General Dearborne was ap-
pointed commander-in-chicf. On the 12th of J uly,
1812, General H ull croRsed the river Detroit iDtO Canada,
with two thouM.nd meno On the 17th ol' J uly, the British
surprised and captured the fort at Mackinaw. The loaB
of this post, the defeat of a small force under Major Van
lIorne, and the appearance of the British at Malden,

2. Wbat did tbe Englisb do in 1811? Describe tjle alfair witb the
LitUe Belt. 3. Describe Hnrrisan's expeditian again.t tbe Indians.
4. What is said of Louisiana? Of tbe conduct of the Briti"h? 5. For
what did Congress prepare? Descri\)e Hull's expedition t) Canada.


induced H ull tu return to Detroit. General Brock,
with a force of British and Indians, now ruarched
against Detroit which was surrelldered along with the
w hole territory of l\lichigan without any defenee.

6. A seeond army, under General Van Rensselaer.
crossed thc Niagara nivcr into Canada, on the 13th of
Octobcr, 1812, and captured the British fort at Quccns-
town. The cneruy under General Brock attempted to
retakc the heights but were repulsed and their general
slain. The British soon afterwards made a second attack:
when the Americans were obliged to surrenrler.

7. Whilc failures attended the army of the Amer-
icans, their navy was very suceessful. In August, 1812,
the E~sex, Captain Porter, captured the British sloop
Alert; and tite Constitution, Captain Hull, captured the
British frigate Guerriere. In October, the sloop-of-war
'Vasp, Captain Jones, captured the BritiBh brig Frolie.
Soon after the battle both vessels were taken by the
British ship Poictiers. On the 25th of October, the
frigate United States, Captain Deeatur, captured the
British frigate l\Iacedonian, and in December the Con-
stitution, Commodore Bainbri<lge, captured the Java. _

8. At the next elcction, Mr. Madison was reelected
President of the Unitcd States, and Elbridge Ccrry was
chosen Vice-Presidcnt in the place of Gcorge Clinton
who died, April ~O, 1812.

e. Describo Van Rens.eJuor's expedition into Canada. 7. What
na'nl hattlcs occurred in August? In October and Decombcr I
'l. lio" did the nex! election resul! 7





9. Tlree al'mies were raised fol' the campuign of
1813; ene was under the command of General Harri-
son, one under General Deal'borne, and the other under
General Hampton. General Harrison's al'my, umount-
ing to about eight thousund men, was stutioned at Muu-
mee Rapids. Eight hundred of his troops under General
'Vinchester were sent to }<'rcnchtown, where, on the
22d of Junuary, 1813, they were attueked und dcfcated
by a body of British und Iudi:lllS under Colouel Proetor.
The next morning the Iudians brutally murdered all the
Biek and wounded Amcricans.

10. General Harrisún now built a f"rt at Maumee
Rapids, whieh he called 1<'ort Mcip;s. Rere he was
besieged, on the 1st of l\Iay, by Colonel Proctor with
two thousand British troops. O cneral Clay with twclve
hundred men eume to tIte assistanee of the Amerieans,
and, on the 9th of May, 1813, the encmy abaudoned
the siege and returned to Jlalden.

11. On the 21st of J uly, Proctor again attacked 1<'ort
Meigs, but it was so vigorously defended that he with-
drew his forees. On the 1st of August, l1e uttucked
Fort Stephenson, but wus repulsed by the garrison under
!\lajor Croghan, und soon afterwards returned to .]\falden.

12. During the summer, a flect of nine vessels, carry-

9. What armies were raised for the campaign of 1813? Whllt is
said of the attack on Frenchtown? 10. Describe the siege of Forl
l\Ieiga. 11. \vh .. t is said of the seconu attack on Fort :lfeigs? Of
the attack on F:rt Stephonson? 12. Describe th. naval battle OD
Lake Brio.

CAMPAIGN OF 1813. 85

ing fifty-four guns, was equipped at Eríe and pbeed
uuder COllllllodore Perry. To oppose this, the British had
a fleet of six yessels, carrying sixty-three guns, under
COllllllodore Barclay. The two fleets met at the westcrn
extrcmity of Lake Erie, on the 10th of Septelllber, 1813
The battle lasted three honrs, whcn the whole llritish
!leet surrcndered.

13. COlllmodore Pcrry now convcyed I-Iarrison's troopa
Bcross Lake Erie to J\Ialden, wllich they fonnd deserted.
The AIllerictlns pursned the retreating British to the
l\Iorayian towns, on the river Thallles, where asevere
oattle was fonght, on the 5th of October, 1813, and
l)roclor's army complctcly broken up. General Cass
"Nas now left in command of Detroit, and Harrison went
lo the assistance of General Dearborne.
14~ In A pril, 1813, Gelleral Dearborne was stationed

ftt Sackett's Harbor. "\Vhile hcre he sent out seyenteen
hundred men under General Pike to attack York (now
Toronto), in Upper Canada. They crosscd I.Juke Ontario,
in COIlltllodore Channcey's !leet, and, on the 27th of
April, captured the place. As the British retreated
tl1Cy blew up their magazine, mortally wounding General
Pike and killing 01' wounding two hnndred of his meno

15. General Dcarborne, having b('en recnforced,
nlnrcllcd against Fort George, at the lllouth of the
Niagara rivcr. This place was abandoned by the
British, who retreated towards the head of Lake On.
lario. Generals Chandler and Winder were sent in

13. What was done by IIarri,on's troops? 14. Dcseribe the
attack on York. 15. What is said of Fort Gcorge? Of the J¡litt1e
at Stony Creck ?


pursuit, but, on th1\ night of tbe 6tb of J une, they
were attacked at Stony Creck and both Generals made
prísoners. The Rrítish, however, were defeated.

16. On the 29th of May, 1813, th'.) Rritisb attaeked
Saekett's Harbor, but werc rcpulsed by General Brown,
and hastíly retreated to thcir ships. In the following
K ovember, the enellly attacked Fort George. The
Amcricans blew up tllis fort and flcd to Niagara, whcre
they were 800n afterwards cuptured by the Briti3h. The
!atter now crosscd the Niagara river and burned several
towns on the American side.

17. General Wilkinson succeeded Dearborne in eOID-
mand of the AmcricanR. JI e went down the Sto Law-
rcuce to eooperate with General lIampton in an expe-
dition against J\lontreal, but theenterprísc was afterwards

18. During this year (1813), thc Creek and Seminole
Indlans commenced a W'Lf against the whitcs in Georgia
and Alabama. On the 14th of August, 1813, they cap-
tured Fort l\limms und massacred thrce huudred of its
inmates. G cueral J ad son marched against them with
thrce thousand five hpudrcd meno The Indians were
defeated in a numbe: of buttles, the Iast of which was
at Tohopeka, where more tban eight hundred of them
were slaín.

19.5cvcral naval engagements occurrcu in 1813. On
the 2-1th of February, thc sIoop-of-war Hornct, Captain

]6. \Yha! is sai<! of the "ttn .. k on Snckctt's Harbor? Wha! did
tbe British do in No\'emher1 17. Wha! did Wilkinson now do?
18. Whal. i. mid of the ('rcek nn!! Seminol. Indians? Wba! wal
.ions by General Jackson? 19. Describe tbe captureufthe Peacock.

CA?llPAIGNS OF 1814 AND 1815. 87

Lawrence, captured tlw British brig Peacuck. The
¡atter sunk soon after thc battJe with thirteen oi' the
British and four of the American seamen.

20. Lawrenee was now appointed to the eommand oi'
the Chesapeakc, and, on the 1st of J une, 1813, he Wal'
attaeked and captured by the British fri6rate Shannon,
Captain Broke. Lawrcnce with forty-eight oi' hjs crcw
was killed, and nincty-eight of thcm were woundcd.

21. On the 14th of August, the brig Argus, Captain
Allcn, was captured by the British sloop-of-war Pclican,
an-d on the 5th of September, the Enterprise, Captain
Burrows, captured the British brig 130xer.

22. In the spring of 1813, a Briti8h squadron entered
Chesapeake Bay and destroycd Frcnchtown, George-
town, Havre-de-Graec, and Frederick. Theyattelllpted
to capturo N orfolk, but were repulsed with a loss of two
hundred men. After eommitting the most shoeking
brutalities at Bampton, they sailed for the \V est Indies

CA~IPAIGNS OF 1814 AND 1815.
23. On the 3d of J uly, 1814, General Brown, assisted

by Generals Seott and ltipley, erossed the Niagara rivor
and eaptured Fort Erio. They then proceedcd against
Chippewa, wl1ere they defeatcd the enemy undcr Geneml
Riall on the 5th of J uly. Tite 13riti8h retrcaLed to
Lake Ontario, whcre they wcre rcen/'(Jfccd by General
Drummond, who assulllcd thc chief cOlllllland.

20. Wh,ü becarne of Lllwrencc? 21. What nanll battles oocurr·,J
~n August and Scptembcr? 22. W'-hat af.rocitic8 werc curnmitteJ in
Cllesapeako b<ty? 23. What is said of the capture of Fort Erial
l)f Ch1ppewá? Whl!l"9 did lhe Britisb uow go 7


24. Drummond advanced against the Americans and
was met by General Browll at Lundy's Lane, on the 25th
of .J uly, 1814. Both armies claimcd the victory, but
the Americans retaincd possession (\f the field. Each
army lost over eight hundred meno Gelleral Riall wa!
wounded and captured, and Generals Brown and Scott
were wounded.

25. The Americans withdrcw to Fort Erie, where
they were besiegcd, on the 4th of August., by Drum-
mond with five thousand men. On t}le 15th of A ugnst,
1814, the British assaultcd the fort, but wcre repulsed
with the IOS8 of one thousand men. The siege was
eontinued, and, on the 17th of Septcmber, General
Brown sent out a strong force which drove the enemy
from their intrenchmcnts and compelled them to give
up the siege.

26. General Izard soon after arrived with four thousand
men from Plattsburg, and took comHland of the Ameri-
eans. On the 5th of November, 1814, he destroyed
Fort Erie and then retired across the Niagara River,
where he wcnt into winter-quarters.

27. Plattsburg was left with a garrison of fifteen
hundred men, under General Macomb. In the harbor
WllS Commodore l\1cDonough with a Hect carrying
eighty-six guns. General Prevost determined to attack
(he tleet and army at the same time. He arrived with
twclve thousand men on the 6th, and his f1eet, carrying
ninety-five guns, uuder Captain Downie, arrivcd on the

U. Describe lhe battle of Lundy'. Lane. 25. Describe the siege
of Furt Erie. 26. What did Gene",l bn.rd do? 27. Describe th«
~tt.,ok on Plattshurg, IInd the fl.et of MoDonon¡¡h.

CAMPAIGNS OF 1814 AND 1815. 89

11th of Scptcmhcr, 1814. The hattle hetwoen the Reets
lasted two hours, when the whole British squadron sur·
rcndcI'cd. Thc attack on land was also unsuccessful,
and Prevast during thc night retreated in confusion,
leaving his woundcd and stores in the hands of the

28. A British Heet under Admiral Cochrane sailed
up the Chesapeake Bay, and, on the 18th of August,
1814, fivc thousand troops under General Ross landed
at Bcncdict and commenccd thcir march towards \Vash.
ington. On the 24th of August, they attacked and
defeat.ed General Windcr at Bladenshurg, and on the
same day reached Washington where they hurned all
the public buildings.

29. The British retnrncd immediately to Benedict
and procecdcd up the Ches:.peake to attack Baltimore.
The troops nndel" ROFS l:mded at North Point, an the
12th of Septelllhcl", and nwrclled towards the city. The
Americans, under General Stricker, met the enemy seven
miles frorn Baltimorc, where a skirmish ensued in whieh
Hoss was killcd and the All1ericans driven hack. In
~he meantime the 13ritish Hect made nn unsuecessfnl
atbck on Fort McHenry, which communded the en-
trance to the city, after which the arllly recmbarked
aud soon after left the hay.

30. The" Hartford Convention," compased of twenty-
six dekg-ates fram the New England States, met on the
15th of Dcccmhcr, 1814. They deliberated with closcd

28. Dcscrihe !tos s'. expcdition agaimt Washington. 29. DescriLe
the expeditioD aglliTlst Baltimore. 30. What is Baid of tbe Hartford
Go:~vr'lltinÍ1 ?

" .


doora for twcnty daya, proposed sorne amendmcnts to the
Constitution, and sent a committee to eonfer with tha
governlllcnt at \Vashillgton.

31. In March, 1814, the Essex, COlllmodore Porwr\
was capturcd by two British vessels, the Phmbe and
Cherub. In April, the Frolic, Captain BainbriJge, was
captured by the British frigate Orpheus, and the Peacock,
Captain Warrington, capturcd the British brig Epcrvicr.
The Wasp, Captain BIakely, captured the British brig
Reindeer in J une, and the Avon in September.

32. On the 16th of .January, 1815, the frigate Presi-
dent, Commodore Decatur, was captured by a British
squadron. In February, the Constitution, Commodore
Stewart, captured the BritiRh vcssels Cyane and I~evanj,
and, in March, the Hornet, Captain Biddle, captured the
British brig Penguin.

33. The Spanish Governor of Florida permitted U.e
British to land troops at Pensacola and arm the Creek
Indiana. General J ackson, therefore, attacked that town,
on the ith of November, 1814, and compelled the English
to leave the harbor. N cws was now received that a
British fleet was about to invade Louisiana, and Jackson
hastened to N ew OrIeans.

34. The British fleet entered the l\Iississippi, in ])e-
cember, 1814, amI lanJed twelve thousand troops under
General Packenham. They were attacked by J ackson,
on the 23d of December, and four hundrcd of their

31. What naval battles occurred in 1814? 32. What naval balllos
oeeurrcd in 1815? 33. What did Jnckson do at Pcnsaeola? What
news did J 3<,k80n receive? 34. Describe the expedition against
New Orlean •.

OAMPAIGNS OF 1814 AND 1815. 91

number killed 01' wounded. J ackson now intrenched
his army near the city, where he was attacked, on the
8th of January, 1815, by the British. After asevere
battle, in which Packcnlu m was killcd, the enemy fled
in confusion, leaving more than two thousand dead or
wounded on the field. The Americans lost but six
killed and seven woundcd.

35. A treaty of peace bctween Great Britain and
the U nited States was signcd at G hent, on the 25th of
Deccmbcr,18l4. It was ratified by the United States,
on the 17th of February, 1815, and put an end to al!

3G. Durillg the war with Great Britain, the Dey of
Algiers had committed depredations on the American
commerce. To check these, Dccatur was scnt with a
fleet into the Meditcrrancall. He captured two of their
largcst vesscls, and compcllcd thc Dey to sign a treaty
by which he rclcascd aH American prisoncrs, made in-
dcmnity for captures, and relinquished al! claim to
tribute in the future.

37. In December, 1816, Indiana Was admittcd into
the Union as a State. It was settled at Vincennes, by
the French, about the year 1690. At the next election
James Monroe was chosen President, and Daniel D.
Tompkins Vice-Presidcnt of the United States.

35. When W!\8 Ihe trenty of peaee signed, and when ratilid?
36. JIow did the Dey of AIgiers "et during the war? Where was
Decatur sent, and what did he 'tceomplish? 37. What is said
of the admission and settlement 01 Indiana? What was the rcsult
oC the next election ?


1. J amcs Monroe was inaugurated President of thc

U nited States, on the 4th of March, 1817. During
this ycar Mississippi was adruitted into the Union as a
Stnte. It was first settled, in 1699, at the Bay of
Biloxi by the French.

2. Towards the cIose of 1817, the Seruinole and
Creek Indians commenced hostilities against tIle in-
habitants of Georgia. Thcy were encouraged by tha
Spnnish authorities of :Florida. General Jackson was
scnt against thcm, and, in 1818, capturcd the town of
Sto }lark's. Armbristcr and Arbuthnot, two British
subjects found there, were convicted of inciting tha
Indians to war, and were put to denth. J ackson then
capturcd Pcnsacola, which ended al! hostilities.

3. In Deccmber, 1818, Illinois was admittcd into tha
U nion as a State. It was first settled by the French, at
Kaskaskia, about the year 1686. In 1SU), Alabama
was admitted as a State. It was first settled by the
French at Mobile, in 1702.

4. In 1819, the American und British commissioners
agrccd on the 49th parallel 01' north latitude, froIIl the
Lake of thc W oods to the Rocky Mountains, as the
boundary line betwcen the U nitcd Statcs and British
America. In 1820, :'Ilaine was aJltlittcJ into the Un ion

1. '\fhcn was 1fonroe inallgnratell? 'Vhnt 18 said of tbe 1tdmis-
~jon and scttlcmcnt of Missbsippi? 2. De:-:erihe the Semillole 'Vm'
in Georgia. 3. 'Vhat is s3.iJ. of tbo admission lLnd settlmnerrt of
lllinois? Of Alab'!Dla? 4. Whnt boul1rbry Jina W:1S settled in
18197 \'·hat iEl sn,id of tlw Rllm¡:-:~d{)n Hnll Rettlement of J\ffL1De7


15 a Sta te. It was first settled by the French, on Mount
Desert Island, in 1613.

5. In 1821, l'lissouri was admitted into the Union as
a State. At the time of its admission a violent debate
arose as to whether it should be admitted as a free 01' a
sIave State. This was finally settled by the " l\lisi'ouri
Compromise," whieh admitted :t as a 8]ave State, but
prohibited sIavery in aH territory west of the l\Iississippi
and north of thirty-six degrees thirty minutes north

6. President Monroe and Vice-President Tompkins
entered on their second terms of office, in March, 1821.
During their administration the United States recog-
nized the independence of the South American repubIics.
On that occasion the President proclaimed the " l\Ionroe
Doctrine," which is, that the American continents " are
not to be considered as subject for future colonization
by any European Power."

7. In 1821, a treaty between Spain and the U nited
States was ratified. By it, Florida and the adjacent
islands were ceded to the United Statc8. In 1824,
General Lafayette arrived in America, wIlere he re-
mained for upwards of a year. He visited every state
in the Un ion, and was reccived with marks of affection
and gratitude. At the next elcction John Quincy

5. What is s"id of the admi,sion of Missouri? 6. When did
Monroe', .econt! term of offiee eommencc? Whut occurrcd during
bis atlministrntion? 7. What is ."id of tbc treaty with Spain?
What i. s"id of Lnfayrttc's visit to the Lnited States? Who
became tte next Prcsi,lent "nd the next Vice-Presidon!, and when
"ere tbay inauguf3ted?


Adams was chosen President, and J ohn C. Calboun
Vice-President of the U uited States. They were in-
augurated on tbe 4th of March, 1825.


l. The 4th of J uly, 1826, was the fiftieth anniversary
of American independence. On that day Thoma~
Jeffcrson died, ut l\lonticel1o, in Virginia, in his cighty-
fourth ycar, and J ollll Adams, at Quincy, l\Iassachusetts,
in lIis nillety-first year.

2. Adams's administration was noted for the peace
which existcd at home und abroad. The whole country
enjoyed ullinterrupted prosperity, and the arts and
sciences flourished. The Union now consisted of
twenty-four States, and contained ten millions of people.
In 1828, Andrew J ackson was elected Presídent and
J ohn C. Calhoun was reelected Vice-President of tha
United Sta tes


1. General J ackson was inaugurated on the 4th of
l\1arch, 1829. On the 4th of July, 18B1, James
l\Ionroe the fifth President of the United States died,
in his seventy-third year. He had been a soldier iu

1. What happencd on the 4th of July, 1826? 2. What w¡" the
p.ondition of the ('ountry during Aaalllsls aurninistration? 'Vhat
waB tbe result of tbe uext eleotion?

1. Whcn WILS .To.ckson inauguratod? WblLt is 8ILid of JaUl8S


Washington's arroy, und was wounded at the battIe of

2. In 1832, tho western lndian tribes, led by Blaek
Hawk, commeneed a war upon the inhabitants of
IlIinois. General Atkinson was sent against them.
On the banks of the l\lississippi the Indians were
defeated, and B1ack Hawk taken prisoner. General
Scott was afterwards sent to supersede Atkinson. He
arrived after the battle, and rcmaincd until treaties
were made with the lndian tribes, by whieh nearly the
whole of lowa and Wiseonsin was ceded to thc United

3. In 1832, Congress passed a tariff bill imposing
additional duties upon forcign goods, whieh met with
much opposition. A convention in South Carolina
nullified 01' fOl'bid the operation of thc tariff laws in
that State. This caused thc President to issue a
proelamation warning the N ullificrs tha.t the laws of
the U nited States would be enforeed. The diffieulty
was BettIed by a compromiso, whieh provided for the
gradual redlletion of tho duties.

4. At the election, in 1832, J aekson was reeIeeted
President and l\f:utin Van Buren was clccted Vice-
President of the United States. In 1833, intense
excitement was produc ed by the removal of the govern-
llIent funds from the United States llank to the state

2. DeFcrihe the war with tbe Indians under Rlack IIawk r
3. ,rhat was done hy Congrcss in ]8;~2? 'fhat ditlit'ultics arose
In South Garolina, and h"w wcre tbey ,ettleo.? 4. Wbat was the
reBult of the next clection 7 What WIlS done in 1833 ?


5. In 1835, the Seminole Indians in Florida, in·
fluenced by their chief Osceola, commenced n war
against the U nitcd States. 'fhe-y lUld u.grccd by ttCl\t"
to remove to the Indian Tcrritory, but, becoming dis.
aatisfied, they refused to go, and began to plunder and
murder the whites.

6. j\J ajor Dade, with oue hundred and scyenteen
men, was scnt to rcenforce General Clinch at Fort King.
On the 28th of Decclllber, 1835, he was attackcu by
the Indinns, nnd al! his lllen except four wcre killed.
On the 31 st, the savages were dcfeated by General
Clinch on the Withlacoochee rinr.

7. On the 29th ofFebruary, 183fi, General Gaines was
nttackod by the Indians, but thc lJllttle was in,lecisiye.
General Scott was now sent to take tho cornrnand of the
troops. By his management mnny of the Inuialls wcre
sent west of the l\lississippi riyer.

8. In J uly, 1836, thc Treasury Department issued
the " Specie Circular" whieh required the payment of
gold and silyer for the publie lands. In 1836, Congrcss
pasRcd the "Distribution Act" which provided that, al!
money in the Unitcd States treasury, on thc 1st of Jan·
uary, 1837, should be distributcd among the States in
proportion to their population.

9. In 1886, Arkansas was admittetl into the Union as

5. Whot iB s,liu orlhe Seminale Indians, in 13:15? To what had
theyagreeu by trenty? 6. Wbat b"ppcncd lo Major Darle? By
whom were the Indians defeatetl? 7. Wbat i8 o"i'] 01' Ihe "ttnek on
General Gaines? ""-ho wa~ now sent a.gninst the T ndian~, und wbat
did he accoDlpli,h 1 8. Whal i8 said of Ihe Spceil' Cirr.ular? Of the
Distrihution Act? 9. Wh"t 18 ""id of the admission anu settlemen'
oí arkan33s! What was the result of the next eleeliDn?


a State. It was first settled, at Arkansa8 Post, in 11)85.
In 1837, Michigan was admitted into the Union. It
was first settled, at Sault Sto Marie, in 1668. At the
next eleetion Martin Van TIuren was ühosen President
and Richard ]H. Johnson Vice-President of the United


1. Martin Van Buren was inaugurated on the 4th of
March, 1837. In l\Iay, the banks suspended specie pay-
mento This was followed by mercantile failures a11
over the country, so that business was prostrated and
confidenee destroyed. An extra session of Congresa
met in September and passed several bills, among whieh
was one for issuing treasury notes to the amount of ten
millio!l dollars.

2. 'fhe Seminole War was still going on. In 1837,
several of the ühiefs came to General Jessup's eamp and
signed a treaty agreeing to remove to the Indian Terri-
tory. This trcaty was soon broken by Os ceo la. In
October, he, with seventy others, came to the American
camp unuor a flag of truce when he was seized and
imprisoned by General J essup.

3. In Docember, Colonel Zaehary Taylor defeated the
Indians at Lake Okeechobee. After this hattle the
savages retreated to the swamps, where the U nitetl

l. Whcn wns Y nn Buren inauguraled 7 1Vhat was the condition
ofthe country? What did C)ngrc8s do? 2. Wh,ü did the Seminole
cbiefs do in 1837? 3. Whcre did Taylor dcfcat the Indians? Ho,.,
long did thc war oontinuo?


States troops could not follow, and continued the war
until 18'\':2, when peace was firmly established.

4. In 1837, a rebellion broke out in Canada which
enlisted the sympathies of many of the American pcople,
sorne of which crossed the line to give assistance to tbe
"patriots." In order to check this the President issucd
a proclamation declaring that those who invaded th6
13ritish possessions would forfcit the protcction oi' their
government. At the next election General WilIiam
Henry Ilarrison was chosen President, and John Tyler
Vice-Prcsident of the U nited States.


1. General Harrison was inaugurated on the 4th of
1\1arch, 1S-H. Desiring a change in the policy oi' the
governrnent, he issued a proclaruation for an extra ses-
sion oi" Congress, to meet on the 31st of JUay. On the
4th of April, one month after his inauguration, Harri-
son died and J ohn Tyler became Presidcnt of the U nited

2. The extra session of Congress commcnced on the
31 st of Maj. Two separate bilis were passed for
rechartering the United States Bank, but both wera
vetoed by the Prcsident.

3. The boundary line of Maine, which !lad caused

4. What is Bai<1of lhe rebellion in Canada? Give the resu!t uf
tbe next election.

1. Whcn was IIarrison in:lugurated, and what dit! he do? What
occurred on the 4th of Apri!? 2. What W:lS doco by Congre.82
3. What i •• aid of the boundary line of Maine 7


much controversy between the United States and Great
Britain, was settled in 1842, by the commissionera
Daniel Webster and Lord Ashburton.

4. In IS42, serious difficulties occurrcd in Rhode
Island. They grew out of the efforts to exchange the
old charter granted by Charles n., in 1663, for a State
constitution. Two parties were formed, and the quarrel
between them became so bitter that the State was on tha
brink of civil war, and the President thought it neces-
sary to send troops to keep the peace. Their constitu-
tion was adopted the same year.

5. In 1845, Florida was admitted into the Union as a
S tate. It was first settled at Sto Augustine, by the Span-
iards, in 1565. At the next election, James K. Polk
was chosen President, and George M. DalIas Vice-Presi-
dent of the U nitcd Sta tes.

1. James K. Polk was inaugurated on the 4th of

March, 1845. In J anuary, of this year, Congresa
passed a 1ill for the annexation of Texas. That repub-
líc approved the bill, on the 4th of July, 1845, and
thus became a State of the American Union. The
people of Texas declared thcir indcpendence in March,
1836, and, in tbe same year, totally defeated tbe Mex

(. Describo tha difficulties in Rhode rsland originating from a
ohanga in the government. 5. IVhat i •• "id of tha admission "nd
settlemant oC lt'lorida? What waS the result of the next eleetion 1

l. Wheu was Polk inaugurated? What is Baid of the anRsxatioD
of Tens? Of the iudependen~e of Texas?



icans at the blttle of San Jacinto. Their indepenJenoo
was aftcrwards acknowledged by France, England, and
the Unitcd States.

2. Mexieo, however, claimed Texas as a parto of her
territory and made preparationa for defimding ber pos-
sessions. Tbe American government sent General Tay-
lor with fifteen hundred troops to Corpus Christi, and
Commodorc Conner with a fleet to the Gulf of l\Iexico,
to oppose the movements of the Mexicana.

3. In 1846, the boundary linc of Orcgon was settled
by the American and Britisb commissioners, James Bu-
chanan and Richard Packenbam. They agreed upon
the forty-ninth degree of north latitude, and thc Strait
of Juan de Fuca to separate British America from tbe
United States. In 1846, Iowa was admitted into the
Union as a State. It was first settled at Burlington, in

4. In March, 1846, General Taylor moved from Cor-
pus Christi to Point Isabel, which he fortified. He then
proceeded to the Rio Grande opposite Matamoras, where
be erected Fort Brown. The Mexicans commenced
hostilities in April, by killing Colonel Cross, Lieutenant
Porter, and tbrce other persons. Taylor now left the
fort in eharge of Major Brown and moved back to Point

2. What did Mexico do? Wh"t did the American govcrnmrnt
do? 3. When and how was the houndary line of Oregon s.ttled?
What ;s sa;d of the aamission "nd settlement of IOIVa? 4. What
Nas done by General Taylor? How were hostilities commcnoe'l?
Wher9 did Taylor now go?


5. Soon. after tbis the Mexicans attacked Fort Erown,
aud Taylor with two thousand three hundred men
ruurched to the assistance of the garrison. On the 8th
of jIuy, 1846, he ruct and defeatcd Gcneral Arista with
six thousand Mexicans, at l>alo Alto.

6. On the following day, ~Iay 9th, Taylor attackcd
!lnd defeated the Mexieans at Resaca de la Palma. In
this battle they lost one thousand men, while the Amer-
icans only lost one hundred. On the 11th of :\Iay, Con-
gress formally declared that war existed between the
Unitcd Stntes and Mexico. They authorized the Presi-
dent to raise fifty thousand voluntecrs, and made an
appropriation for carrying on the war.

7. On the 18th of May, General Taylor crossed the
Rio Grande and took possession of l\Iatamoras. During
the summer he was recnforccd, and, on the 19th of Sep-
tember, he arrived at Monterey with six thousand meno
This place was defended by Gcneral Ampudia and nine
thousand Mexicans. Tuylor at once commeneed the
siege which was conducted with so ruuch vigor that
Ampudia surrendered tl1e town on the 24th of Septem-
ber, 1846. The los s of the Americans was abont five
hundred men, while the Mexicans Jost oyer one thousand.

8. During this year, 1846, Colonel Freruont, aidcd
by Commodores SJoat and Stockton, captured California,

5. What is said of the nttaek on Fort Brown 7 What occurred on
the 8th of M<1Y? 6. Whnt on the 9th 7 What w"s done by Con.
ilress? 7. When did Taylor get possession of Matomor:t8? De.
scrihe the siege of Monterey. 8. What other captures were made
tn 18461


General K€lrney captured New Mexico, and Colonel
Doniphan captured Chihuahua.

9. General Seott was sent to ~Iexico wllCre he nrrived,
oarly in 1847, and took the chief corIlluand of the Amer-
ican forces. He ordered a Iarge part of Taylor's army
to join him in the attack upon Vera Cruz. This left
General Taylor with only five thousand men to oppose
twenty thousand Mexieans at San I,uiH Potosi under
General Santa Anna.

10. 'fhe latter attacked Taylor's arrny at Buena Vista,
on the 23d of February, 1847, but was repulsed and
driven in confusion from tho field. The American9
were now in possession of all the northern part of Mex-
ieo. Taylor remained with the army at Buena Vista.
until September, when he gave the command to General
Wool and returned to the U nited States.

11. On the 9th oi' March, General Scott landed near
Vera Cruz and at once besieged the place. Thi5 was
eontinued until the 26th of March, 1847, when the city
and the eastle of San Juan de Ulloa were surrendered
to the American forces. General ,,, orth was now ap-
pointed governor of Vera Cruz, and Scott with about
eight thousand men marched towards the city oi' Mexico.

12. Santa Anna stationed hi8 army of fifteen thou-
sand men at the mountain-pass of Cerro Gordo which
was strongly fortified. Here he was attacked and totally

9. Wbat is "aid of General Seo!,t? What was Toylor's .ítuation?
10. What ; • ."id of (he hattle oC Ruena Vista? How long- did r"ylrr
rematn at Buena. Vista? 11. "~hat i~ saiJ. of tbe si~I~.;e of Yera. Cruz?
Where UJ Scott now go' 12. Whal ia said of tbo h,,-uJa of Cerro


routed h Y General Seott, Oll the 18th of April, 18-17.
Tn the battle the Americans lost about four hundrca
lllcn, while the l\1cxicans 10st four thousand in killcu,
wounded, and prisollcrs.

13. Oll the 22d of April, Seott. too k possession of the
furtress ofPerote. On the 15th of}Tay, 18fT, the Amer-
icans entered tho city of La Puebla, where they remained
ulltil August. In the llleantillle the U nited Síates sent
l\1r. 'I'rist to otfer an honorable pea ce to the l\lexicans,
hut the olfer was refused. General Scott, having been
recnforced, left La Puebla early in August with ten
thousand meno

14. On the 20th of August, 1847, the Americans
captured Contreras,ll'which was defended by eight thou-
sand Mexicans. On the same day they proceeded tú
Churubusco, where they met Santa Anna with two
thousand seven hundred meno After a battle of three
hours tIlO Mexicans were dcfeated and fled in confusion
to the city of l\lexico.

15. An armistice was now agreed upon, hut was soon
after violated by Santa Anna. On the 7th of Septelll-
ber, Scott declared the armistice at an end. On the
8th, he captured El Molino del Rey; on the 13th the
strong position of Chapultepec was taken; and on tha

13. When did 8cott tnke the fortress of Perote? What city did
the Americans enter in Muy, and how long did they remain there?
Wbat was accomplisbed by Mr. Tri.t's offer of peace? When <lid
8cott leave 1,,, Puebla? 14. Wbat is sllid ofthc capture of Contrcras?
What of tbe battlc of Cberubuseo? 15. Wh"t is '!lid of the armis-
tice agreeu upon? Describe the battlc8 leading t9 tho oapture of
tb e eity oC Mexi~Q.


14th of Septemher, 1847, the Americans triumphanU,
entered the capital 01' lIIexico. .

16. This ended the war, and, on the 2d of February,
1848, a treaty of peace betwcen the two countries was
conc1uded at Guadalupe Hidalgo. By it New lUcxico
and Californi~ were ceded to the U nited States, and, in
return, the lHexican govcrnment was to reccive fifteen
millions of dollars for the ceded territory.

17. In May, 1848, Wisconsin was adwitted into the
Union as a 8tate. It was first RettJed at Green Bay by
the French, in 1690. At the next election General
Zachary Taylor was choscn l'residcnt, and Millard
Fillmore Vice-l're~ident oi' the U nitcd 8tates.


1. General Zachary Taylor was inallgurated on the
5th of l\Iarch, 1849. The gold found in California
induced many persons to go there from a11 other sections
of the country. Having forrued a State constitution
which prohibited slavery, the inhabitants of that 8tate
asked to be admitted into the Union as a State. This
was violently opposed by the friends of slavery who
threatened to withdraw from the Un ion.

2. To setde the difficulty, Henry Clay introduced

16. '''hen was a treaty of pence concluded, and what were it.
l'rovisions? 17. Whnt io sllid ofthe ndmission ami settlement of
Wisconsin? Wh,tt was the result of the next el"etioD ?

1. When was Taylor inllugurated? What io said of Califurnia 1
W hat did the fdends of sla very threaten to do? 2. How was tlle
dilllculty settled ?


into Congress a compromise bill which provided, 1st.
That California should be admitted as a free State,
and should embrace the territory from Orogon to tho
Mexican possessions; 2d. That the territory of Utah
sllOuld be erected without mention of slavery; 3d.
That the territory of New l\:Iexico should be formed
without mention of slavery, and that ten millions of
dollars should be paid to Texas in purchase of her
claims j 4th. That the slave trade in the District of
Columbia should be abolished j 5th. That a Iaw should
be passed for the arrest and return of fugitive slaves.

3. On the 9th of July, 1850, General Taylor died,
and, on tho next day, Mr. Fillmore took the oath of
officc as Prcsidcnt of the United Statcs. In September,
1850, the compromise bill was adopted by Congress,
und California was admitted into the U nion as a Seate.
It was first settled by the Spaniards at Los Angelos, in

4. On thc 29th of June, 1852, Renry Clay of Ken-
tucky died in Washington, and, on the 24th of October
f()llowing, Daniel Webster died at his residence in
l\Iassuchusetts. At the next election Franklin Pierce
was chosen President, and William R. King Vice-
President of the United States.

3. When did TayJor die, and who succeeded hiro? What is said
of the adroission and Bcttlement of Californin.? 4. What di ••
tinguished persan; dicd in 1852? Wbat was thc rcsult of tbe ncxt
electioD 1



] Franklin Pierce was inaugurated on the 4th 01
March, 1853. On the 18th of April, Vice-Prcsident
King died at his residen ce in Alabama. During this
year a treaty was made with Mexico by which the
United States acquired the territory of Arizona, and in
return agreed to pay twcnty millions of doHars to tha
Mexican government.

2. In March, 1854, Commodore Perry made a trcaty
with J apan, by which commercial intercourse was
established between the United Statcs and that nation.
During this year Congress passed a biH for organizing
the territories of Kansas and Nebraska, giving tha
iuhabitants the privilcge of being admitted iuto the
Union either as free or slave States.

3. The most strenuous efforts were now made by the
two sections, thc North and the South, to obtain control
of the affairs of Kansas. Each party sent settlers to
the territory, and a civil war ensned, which lasted
for more than ayear. At the next eJection, James
Buchanan was chosen President, and J ohn C. llreckiu-
ridge Vice-President of the United States.

1. When was Pieree inaugurated? When did Vice-President
lOng die? What is said of the treaty with Mexico? 2. What is
,a.id of the treaty with J apan ? What did Congress do with Ransaa
lnd N ebra.ka? 3. What effect was produced upon Kansas? What
wa,s tho result of th. next electian ?


l. James Ruchanan was inaugurated on the 4th ot
March, 1857. The Mormons at Salt Lake City, uuder
Brigham Y oung, refused obedieuce to the laws of the
U nited States, and a military force was sent against
them, which arrived, in 1858, and amicably scttled the

2. In 1858, Buchanan recommended to Congress the
admission of Kansas into the U nion as a slave State,
with the constitution adopted at Lecompton. This
was opposed by the friends uf frecdom in and out of
Congress, and Kansas was finalIy admitted, in J anuary,
1860, as a free State.

3. J n 1858, Minnesota was adrnitted into the U nion
as a State. It was first settled at Sto Paul, iu 1846, by
emigrants from the Eastern States. In 1859, Oregon
wa.~ admitted as a State. It was first settled at Astoria,
in 1811, by emigrants from New England.

4. On the 16th of October, 1859, John Brown with
twenty-two other persons seized the arsenal at Harper's
Ferry, with the intention of liberating the slaves of
Virginia. They were soon overpowercd and captured
by the State and National troops, and, on the 2d of
December, Juhn Brown was hung.

1. When was Buchanan inaugurated? 'Vhat difficulties aroie
with the Mormons, and how were they séttled? 2. "'hut is "aid
of the admission of Kan S". into the Unian? 3. What is said of
the admission and settlement of Minneso! .. ? Of Orcgon? 4. Wha.!
unid of John Brown'. attempt to libera te the sllt\'es of Virginia?

(107 )


5. At the election, in 1860, Abraham Lincoln was
chasen President, and Hannibal Hamlin Vice-President
of the United States. The politicians of the Sou~h
were dissatisfied with the election, and, on the 20th of
December, South Carolina se ceded from the U nion.

6. At this time the ga:trison of Fort l\Joultrie was
commanded by Major Robert Anderson. He withdrew
to Fort Samter, and Fort Moultrie was taken and
occupied by the troops of South Carolina. The steamer
" Star of the 'West," sent with provisions to Fort Sum
ter, was tired into, on the 9th of J anuary, 1861, by
the 80uth Carolina troops and compelled to return.

7. By the 1st of February, 1861, Mississippi, :Florida,
Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas had followed tha
example of 80uth Carolina. Virginia, Arkansas, North
Carolina, and 'l'enncssee afterwards Bocedcd, making
eleven Sta tes in al! They seized the fort8, arsenals,
and other property belonging to the United 8tates, and
made preparations for establishing a government.

8. Delegates from six of the seceded States met, on
tIle 4th of February, 18tH, and formed the so-called
"Southcrn Confederacy" with the titlc of" Confederate
Siates of Amerie<1." They ehose .J efferson Davis Pres-
ident, and Alexander H. Stephens Vice-President of
the " Confederation."

5. What was the result of the election in 1860? What was dcmt
by South Carolina? 6. ,"'l1at was done by General Anderson 1
What is suid of the .t.amer Star of the West? 7. ,rilat States
aoceded by the 1st of February, 1861? What Stato, nftcrw .... ds
aeoeded? What did Ihe secedera do? 8. What wuf done by Ihe
deleglltes from the seceded Slate. ?


l. Abraham Lincoln was inauguratcd, on tlw 4th
Jf :\Iarch, 18(H, and at once prepared to maintain the
authority of the National Gover/lluent. On the 11th
of April following, a Heet was sent to relieve Fort
Rumter. On the 12th of April, before its arrival, tho
Confederatcs attacked the fort and eompclled Allderson
to cvacua tc i t.

2. On the 15th of April, 1861, thc Prcsidcnt issued
a proclamation calling for scventy-fivc thousand men to
serve for threc months, and fOI" an extra sesaion of
Congress to mect on the 4th of J nly. The troops were
quickly raiscd and sent to protect the city of 'iVashing.
ton from the thrcatcncd attaek of the Confederates.

3. On the 18th of A pril, 1861, five hundrcd Penn-
aylvania volunteers arrived at the capital. On the 19th,
as a rcgirnent of troops from J\IaRsachuseUs was passing
through Baltimore, it was attacked by a mob, anu, on
the same day, a body of unarmed troops from Penn-
sylvania was attackcd and compelled to return to l'hila-

4. 'Ihe troops at ITarper's Ferry destroyed the public
buildi ngs and retreated to 'iVashington. The navy yard
at N orfolk and the vessols in the harbor were destroyed

J. When was I,incoln inaugurated. find wbat did he do? What
Was dllne witb Fort Sumter? 2. What was the President's pro-
clamati,m? What was done with the troap.? 3. Wha arrived at
the capital on the 18th of April? What occurred at Baltimorer
4.. What wa8 done at Harper'. Ferry 1 At Norfolk?

(109 )


by the Union troops to pre,cnt their falling ido tht
hands of the enemy.

5. On the 3d of ~rny, thc Prc.,ident called for sixty
four thousand volunteers for thc army, and eightcen
thousand for the navy. General Butler now occupied
Baltimore with 11 large body of troops and rcstored quiet
tu the city.

6. On tilO 10th of June, General Eutler sent a force
agaínst the encmy at Great Bethel. In the darknesE
of thc night two of the regimcnts, ruistaking each othcr
for the encruy, corumcnccd firing when one ruan wa~
killed and several wounded. In the attack next ruorn-
ing the Union forces were defeated and compclled to
retreat. Lieutenant Oreble and Major Winthrop were
killed in this engagement.

7. Congress met, on the 4th of July, 1861, and
authorized the raising of fivc hundred thousand ruen
and appropriated five 1l1lndred millions of dollars to
carry on the war. On the 11th of July, the Confed-
erates under Colonel Pegraru, at Rieh l\lountain, in
Virginia, were defeated by General Roseerans. The
Uníon forces obtained a large aruount of cannon and
ruilitary stores and six hundred prisoners.

8. At Sto George, Virginia, the Confederates under
General Garnett were routed by the Union forces under
General McClellan. Two hundred of their number,

5. What did the President do on Ihe ~d of J\fay? What is said
of Rutler? 6. Wbat is ",itl oC Ibe hattle of Great Dethell
'1. What was authorized by Congress? Wbal was done at Rich
Mountain? 8. What;s said of Ihe battle at St. George?


ineluding General Garnett, were killed, and one thousand
taken prisuners.

9. On the ] 8th of Ju!y, the Union forees under GQnera)
l\1cDowell attacked and repulsed the enemy at Centre-
ville. On the 21st of July, 1861, they attacked tha
Confederates under General Beauregard at Bull Run.
The enerny was at first repulsed, but having been reen-
foreed, he eharged upon the Union forees, whieh fied
in great eonfusion towards Washington with the 1088 of
oyer three thousand men and a large quantity of artillery
and baggage.

10. On the 22d of July, 1861, General MeClellan was
appointed to the eomllland of the Army of the Potomae.
He spent the autumn and the following winter in pre-
paring for an adyanee against Riehmond, the Confed-
erate capital.

11. A naval expedit.ion under Commodore Stringham
and General Butlcr was sent against the forts at lIatteras
Inlet, North Carolina, and, on tlle 29th of August, 1861,
they wcre eaptured with seyen hundred and fifty men
and a large amount of stores. None of the Union forees
were injured. Of the Confederates only eight were
killed and fifteen wounded.

12. Early in September, 1861, General Roseerans
attacked and defeated the Confedcrates under General

9. When and by whom was the encrny dcfeated at Centreville?
What i8 ""id of the battle of Bnl1 Run? 10. When was MeClellan
appointed to the commantt of tho arroy, and what did he do?
11. What is .aid of Ihe expedition against the fOTts at Hatteras
Inlet? 12. What happened near Summerville? What was dGDC
!Lt Harper's Ferry?


Floyd, ncar Summerville, Virginia. Floyd crossed tlle
Gauley rivcr in the night anu escaped. On the 14th
of Oetober, the Unjan f~)rces undcr Colon el Geary were
attacked at lIarper's Feny by the Confederates, but th6
assailants were forced to retrcat.

13. On the 21st of October, 1861, the Uníon forces,
nurnbering about sevcnteen hundred rnen, under General
Stone, wcrc attacked and defeated by three thousand
five lmndred Confederates undel' General Evans. During
thcir rctreut aeross the PotOllluC one of the boats sunk
and several wcre drowned. Colonel Baker was slain,
and about síx hundred and forty of the Uníon troop8
were kílled, wounded, or lllissíng.

14. In the latter part of Octobcr, 1861, General Seott
resigned his eOlllmíssion as comnumder-in-chicf of the
army, and General l\T eClellan was appoinled to succeed
him. In Oetober, a naval expedition was sent out under
Admiral Dupont, whieh eaptured Hilton lIead and the
oown of Beaufort, South Carolina, on the 7 th of N ovem-
ber, 1861.

15. On the salfle day (November 7th), Captain
1\'ilkes took the Confeuerate COilllllissioners, Mason and
Slidell, from tho English mail steamer Trent, and sent
them to Fort 'Warren at BOlJton. The British govern-
llHmt nemttnueu tbeir surrenaer ana t1lCy wcre set at
liberty, January 1st, 1862.

16. On the 10th of May, 1861, General T,yon

13. What harrened to the nrmy under Úener"l Stone? 14. When
did General Seott resign, ami who suceeeded him? Wh"t is said
of the naval expedition under Dupont? 15. WhlLt was done with
Mason and Slide1l1 16. What did General Lyon 8ccompli.h al
Dooo ville 7 What \. said of the engagement al Carthage?

EVENTS OF 1362. 113

captured a Confederate camp at Boonville, Missouri,
aud took p08session of a large amount of military sto res
in the arsenal. On the 5th of J uly, asevere engage-
ruent oecurred near Carthage, I\1issouri, betweell tht
Union troops under General Sigel and the Confederates
under Jackson, when the latter were repulsed.

17. 1'he Uníon fort at Lexíngton, Míssouri, was
attacked by the Confcderates under General Prica.
Tho assailants were at first repulscd with heavy 10S8,
but afterwards rencwed thc attack, and, on the 20th of
September, 1861, t11e fort with t11e garrison was sur-
rendered to the cnemy. It was recaptured by Major
White and a party of Uníon cavalry, on the 16th of

18. On the 18th of December, 1861, Colone] J efferson
C. Davis defeated the Confeuerates near I\1ilford, Mis-
souri, took thirteeu hundred prisoners, one thousand
hor8es, and a large amount of arms and ammunition.


1. On the 19th of J anuary, 1862, the Confed(jratca
under Generals Crittenden and Zollickoffcr attacked
Goneral Thomas near Somersot, Kentucky, but thoy
wcre repulsed and General Zollickoffer sIain. On tho
16th of February, 1862, the U nion forees uuder Gen-

17. What occurrcd I1t (he rort, ut Lcxington, :\Iissouri? 18. What
WIl8 dune by Colonel Da vis ... t Milford ?

1. What is s!lid of the utta,ck on General Thornas noar SOIDerseU
What is said of the capture of Fort Donclson ?


eral G rant capturcd Fort Donelson, on tbc Cumberland
River. Grant's army amounted to fiftccn tbousand
)lleno Tbe Confederatcs numbered eightccn tbousand,
and were commanded by Generals Floyd and Pillow.
Floyd escaped with five thousand men, but the remain-
ing thirteen thousand, with three thousand horses,
sixty-two cannon, and twenty thousand arms, were sur-

2. On ths 8th of lVlarch, 1862, the Uníon forces
numbering twenty thousand men, under General Curtís,
after three days' fighting, defeated thirty thousand
Confederates under G en eraIs Van Dorn and Price, at
Pea Ridge, in Arkansas, and captured a large amount
of military stores.

3. In March, General Grant, with thirty-eight thou-
sand men, commenced to ascend the Tennessee River.
On the 6th of April, 1862, he was attacked at Shiloh
by about sixty thousand Confederates under Generala
Beauregard and A. S. Johnston. The battle lasted an
day, and in the evening, Grant was recnforced by
General Buell with twenty thousand meno At day-
break the ncxt .morning he attacked the enemy and
drove him from the fiold towards Corinth. Generala
Wallace of the U nion and J ohnston of the Confederate
Mmy were among'the killed in this battle.

4. On the 7th of April, 1862, Commodore Foote
with a Heet of gunboats captured I~land No. 10, in tha
Mississippi River. He was assisted by a body of U nion

2. What is said of the hatllc of rea Ridge? 3. W"cre did Gen'
era! Grant go in llhrch? Describe the battlo of Shilch. i. What
lB latti of the capture of Islalld No. lO?

EVENTS OF 1862. 115

troops under General Pope who eut oH.n.e enemy's
retreat. Seven thousand Confederate officers and sol-
diers, and a large amollnt of military stores, were sur-
rendered along with the Island.

5. General l\1itcheIl, after a rapid mar\!h tbrough
Kentucky and Tennessee, captured H untgvillc, in Ala-
bama, on the 11th of April, 1862, and securcd two
hundred prisoners with a large amount of military
stores. Thc ncxt d~y he sent an expcdition to Stevcns's
Station which captured two thousand of tbe enemy.

6. Commodorcs Farragut and Porter, with a Heet of
gunboats, passed up the l\1ississippi to capture New
Orleans. Forts ,Jacbon and Sto Philip obstructed their
passage, anc1, on the 18th of A pril, they commeuced to
bombard them. This was continued until the 28th of
April, when the forts wcre ~urrelldel'ed. On the 23d
of April, a part of thc ficet passed the forts and ap-
proached Ncw Orleans, which was abandoned by the
Confederate army under General Lovcll. On the 28tb
of April, 1862, the city was surrendered, and General
Butler's army took military possesslOu of it.

7. In August, General Bragg, with over twenty-tlvl!
thousaud Confederate troops, invadcd Kentucky ana
procccded ucarly to Louisville. JI is intentions well!
foiled by General Hnell, at the head of eighteen thou-
salid Uníon troops, and after a seyere battle near l'erry_
ville, on the 8th of October, 1862, he was compelled
to retrcat into TellIlcssce.

5. Whut was (lone by (~cncl'"l :\Iitch"l1 in April? 6. [¡e.-crib.
the capture ¡¡f New )rleans. 7. 'Vuut iR ;:"!;Ji 1 vf Ur¡-lgs's hna.:.<i¡)D
()f Kenfu'eky? H


8. On tho 3d of October, 1863, forty thousand oí
the eDemy, commandcd by Van Dorn, attacked the
U nion troops under Roscerans, at Corinth, Mississippi.
After two days' fighting, the Confedera tes were repulsed
with a heavy loss. By this victory the Union troops
gained possession of 'Vest Tennessee.

9. On the 39th of December, 1862, General 8her-
man, with fifty thousalld Union troops, attacked Vicks-
burg on the Mississippi. After asevere battle he was
repulsed. On the 31st, about sixty-five thousand Con-
federates attacked the U nion forces and compelIed them
to reembul'k and leave the place.

10. In January, 1863, a land and naval expedition
under General Burnside and Commodore Goldsborough
10ft Fortress Monroe for North Carolina. On the 8th
of February, they captured Roanoke Island and three
thousand Confeuerates, with forty cannon and three
thousand small arms.

11. On tho 8th of 1\1arch, 1862, the Confederate
¡ron-cIad steamer Merrimac, Captain Buchanan, sunk
the frigates Cumberlalld and Congress near the mouth
of the James River. In the night the Union iron-cJad
steallier ~Ionitor, I.Jieutenant "r orden, arrived, and the
ncxt morning attacked and disablcd the l\Icrrimae and
drove hor baek to N orfolk.

12. On the 22d of Fobruary, 1863, the Army of the

8. Whnt is saiJ of the nttnck upon Corinth? 9. What is suid of
Shennan's :Itta(~k un Vicl\:,burg? 10. 'Vtlat was done by Burn~ide
.n.1 Gol,lsborough? 11. What was done by lhe iron·clad Merri.
mad V'hat by the Monitor? 12. What was done by ~!cClellan1
What by Gelleral ShielJs in March?

EYENTS OF 1862. 117

Potomac '.lnder McClellan advaneed towards Richmond l
and, on t1w 10th of March, took l\Tanassas und Centre.
ville. On the :):lcl of March, seven thousancl Unjon
troops under General Shields defeated eleven thousand
Confederates under Longstreet and J ackson near 'Vin-
chcstcr, Virginia.

13. On the 14th of March, 1862, General Burnsilo
captured N ewbern, N orth Carolina, taking three hun-
dred prisoners and a large supply of guns and ammu-
D1tlOn. An expedition was now sent a.gainst Beaufort,
which was evaeuatcd on the approaeh of the Union

14. On the 11th of April, 1862, Fort Pnlaski, ut the
roouth of the Savannah river, was eapturecl by General
Gillmore, and, on the 26th of April, Fort Macon, N orth
Carolina, was surrendered to the Union forces under
Commodore Goldsborough.

15. On the 4th of April, 1862, General McClellan
landed at Fortress iYIonroe, uncl proeeecled with his army
towards Y orktown. On the 3d of l\Iay, the Confedero
ates evaenated the place and fied towards Richmond
On the 5th, the Un ion forces eame up with the enemy
at Williamsburg, and, after asevere buUle, drove him
from the lield.

16. On the 10th of May, 1862, General Wool, with
fiye thousand mcn, captured Norfolk, a.nd the following
------- -~-----------

]3. Wha! is ."id of tbe capture of Newbrrn? Of Beaufort!
14. Wbat is s:tid of the 'capture of Fort Puln,ki amI FaTt Macnn ?
15. What is said of MoClelll1Il's advance? 'Vhat of the baltle of
Williamsburg? 16. Wbal, was done on the 10th "nd 11th uf Mayl
Wh,t waH dflne hy tbe iron-clad gunboats?


morning the Confederates destroyed the iron-clad l\Jerri·
maco Soon after this the iron-clad gunboats proceeded
up the James river towards Richmond, but were pre-
\'ented from reaching the city by the obstructions in the

17. l.\JcClellan moved carefully on towards Bichmond
and, on the 22d of May, crosscd the Chickahomin)
rivcr. On the 31st of May, lí:SG2, and the day follow-
ing, severe battles were fought at Fair Oaks, but neither
party gained any advantage.

18. On the 24th of J une, 1862, l\IcClellan began to
change his base so as to receive his suppIies from tho
James river. The encmy took this opportunity to attack
the Union army. A series of sevcrc and bloody battIes
followed, during the next se ven days, attended with great
1088 of Jife; but the Confederates wcre foiled in every
attempt to capture or destroy the U nion army.

19. About fifteen thousand Confederate troops undcr
Ewcll and J ackson attackcd General Banks's division
of four thousand men, ncar 'Yinchcstcr, on the 25th of
l\Iay, 1862. The U nion troops retrcatcd across thc Po-
tomac at WiIliamsport. The cnemy now withd1'cw his
rorces, and General Frcmont started from the Shenan-
doah valley in purEuit. On the 8th of Junc, 1862, at
Cros8 Keys, a battlc was fought which 1'esulted in tho
defeat of the Confedc1'ate troops and their ret1'eat across
the BIue Ridge towards Richmond.

17. What is guid of McClellan's movements? Wh"t of the battl.
of Fnir O"b? 18. Whn( is 8ni,l of McClellall's chan:;;e of base?
19. What i8 oai(l of the battle of Winehest.er? What of tho battl.
at Ctr~s Key.?

EVENTS OF 1862. 119

20 On the 25th of June, 1862, the fOIéCS under }'rc-
mont, Banks, and McDowell were eonsolidatcd and placed
under the r.ornrnand of General Pope. President Lin·
ooln, on the 1st of J uly, called for three hundred thou-
sand rnore troops for the arrny.

21. On the 11th of July, 1862, General HalIeck was
appointed comrnander-in-chief of the Union forces. Un
the 1íth of J uly, Congress adjourned. During the ses-
sion, an act was passed confiseating the property of per-
sons in arms against the ü nited 8tates government, also
an act aboli8hing slavery in the District of Columbia.

22. 800n after the "seven days' fight" the Confeder-
ates bogan to mOye towards 11' ashington. The danger
to that eity bccame so great, that MeClcllan was ordered
to withdraw froID the Peninsula and hasten to tho aid
of General Pope.

23. Un the 9th of August, 18G2, the Union force s
under General Banks were attacked at Cedar lIIountain
by General J ackson. In the evening General Pope
arrived with additional U nion troops, and the enerny.
on the 11th, hastily retreated across the Rapidan.

24. General.Tackson nowatternpted to destroy Pope'a
arrny bcfore l\lcClel!an could reenforce it, and the Union
forees were cornpel!ed to fal! baek towards Manassas.

20. What was done with the fareca nnder Frcrnont, BimKs, and
~feDowe1\? Whnt wn.s done hy the President on tite 1st of July?
21. When was Ualleck "ppoin!cd cornmander-in·ehief? When did
Congress ndjonrn, Hn\l what was done during thc se:::sion? 22. '\Vhat
(lid tbc COTlfcd('futl~.:\ do níter tbe seven ¡lays' fight? 'Vhat W8.8
MoClellan or<lcre<l to <lo? 23. What is S:lid al' Ihe hattle of Ced.ar
Mountain? 24. Wha! i" saia of Pope'. "rrn)"? Wh"t is s"ir! of Ibe
iecond buttle al Uull lbm 7


On the 29th of August, 1862, they were attacked neal
tbe old battle-field of EuIl Run and finally compelled te
retreat to Centreville, and afterwards to tbe fortifica-
tions around Washington.

25. General l\icClellan arrivcd on the 1st of Septem
ber, and took eommand of all the forees for tl¡e defenee
of thc Capital. The Confeuerates under General Lee
now crossed tbe Potomac into Maryland. They were
fbIlowed by McClellan, and, on tbe 14tb of September,
1862, asevere hattle was fought at South lUountain,
~Iaryland, whcn the enerny was defeated.

26. On the 15th of September, 1862, Colon el Miles
Burrendered Harper's Ferry, witb eleven thousand five
hundred Union troops and a large amount of stores, to
Generals Jackson and Hill who commanded thirty-five
thousand meno

27. On tbe 17th of September, 1862, tbe great battle
of Antietam was fought, on Antietam creek, in Maryland.
The Confederates, numbering ninety-seven thousand
roen, under General Lee, were defeateu by .McClellan
and, during the night, erossed the Potomac into Virginia.

28. Early in Oetober, 1862, a body of Confcderate
cavalry, under Generals 8tuart and Hampton, mude a
raid into Pennsylvania, captured Merccrsburg and
Chambersburg, and escaped into Virginia with out'
thousand horses besilies otller plunder.

25. When did McCleI1an arrive, amI what di,! he do? 'Vhat waa
no'" dono by the two a.rmies? 26. What is s:lid of the surrendcr of
Harper's Ferry? 27. \Yhat js sajd of the battle of Antietam 1
28. Wh .. t is said of the nid into Pennsylvania by StuaJ"t "nd

EVENTS OF 1863. 121

29. McClellan followed Lee's retreating army through
Virginia, and, on the 5th oi' Novelllber, he was super-
seded in comllland by Burnside. On the 17th I)f No-
vembcr, thc Union forces encamped opposite Freder·
iekshurg whcre thcy went into. winter-quarters. Enrnside
crossed the Rnppahannock rivcr, and, on the 13th of
Deccmber, 186Z, attacked Lcc's troops at Frodericks·
burg, but he was defeated and eompelled to retreat aerOS8
the ri,'or with the 10s8 of oyer eight thousand mep.

30. The plospects of the country at the close of 1862,
werc indecd gloomy. The Confcdcrates had still a very
large army in the fle1d and were vigorously preparing
for the next campaign. The Union armies nurubered
ubout eight hundred thousand mon, but with ull this
force tlley had secmingly accolllplished but litt1e towards
ending the war.

EVE~TS OF 1863.

1. On the ht of January, 1863, President·Lincoln
issu¡,d a proclamation frceing the slaves in Arkansas,
Texas, Louisiana, l\Iississippi, Alabamu, Geo1'gia, Flor.
ida, 80nth Carolina, N o1'th Carolina, and Virginia. On
the 11th of Janunry, the Union forees under General
l\IcClernand and Admiral Por ter captured Arkansas

29. When und by whom was l\IcUlellali suceeeded? Where did
the Union forees go into winter-quarters? Wlwt is snirt of tbe hattlo
of Frederick,bnrg? 30. Wbat was lhe condition of tne country 111
the cloRe of 1862?

L Wbat was done by the President on the 1st of Jal'luary, 1863.
Wbat ia said of tha capture of Arkansas Post 7


Post and four thousand seven hundred Confederates
under ChurchilJ.

2. On the 5th of l\farch, 1863, the Union forces
undel' Coburn were defeated at Spring Hill, by Van
Dorn, with the 1058 of tV/lelve hundred prisoners. Ou
the 7th of L\ pril, seventeen hundred Un ion eavalry,
under General Dodge, were captured at Cedar Bluff by
the lJonfederates under Forrest.

3. On the 10th of Apríl, 1863, Van Dorn with fifteen
thousand Confederates attacked General Granger, at
Franklin, Tennessee, but he was repulsed. In April.
Colonel Grierson made a cavalry raid through Georgia
and Alabarua, capturing five hundred Confederates,
cutting all the railroads, and doing much other damago.

4. On the 1st of May, 1868, General Grant totally
routed eleven thousand COllfcucrates at 130ulinsburg,
Míssissippi. 011 the same day Port Gibson was cap-
tured by the U Ilion forces under l\fcClernand.

5. On the 16th of May, 1863, Grant defeated the
Confederafes under Pemberton at Champion Hills. On
the next day Grant l1gain defeated the enemy, eompelling
!'im to retreat to Vicksburg.

6. On tIle 18th, Grant, aided by Admiral Porter,

2. What of thc defeat of lhe Union forces at Spring Hill? Whnt
happened to General Dodge at Cedar Bluff? 3. What is said of the
nttack upon General Granger at Franklin? What of Grierson's
cavalry raid tbrougb Georgia and Ala bama? 4. What is said of
the battle of Eoulinshurg? Of thc capture of Port Gibwn?
5. Whnt was done hy General Grant on (he 16th of May? 00
the 17th o[ May? 6. Deocribe lhe siege and capture of Vieksburg.
What was the 10sI of each army in the hattles leading to the capture
of Viok.bur¡t?

EVENTS OF 1863. 123

commenced the siege of Vieksburg. He made several
atterupts to carry ~he works by assault, but was repulsed
with heavy loss. General Johnston with a largE, Con-
federate force threatened the rear of the U nion army;
hut, afte! a severe ~truggle, General Pemberton, on the
4th uf J uly, 1863, surrendered the place with thirty-one _
thousand men and an immense amount of stores to
General Grant. In the battles leading to the capture
ofVicksburg, the Confederates lost nearly fifty thousand
men, while the 10ss of the U nion forces did not exceed
ten thousand.

7. Port Hudson on the l\iississippi was invested by
General Banks, in ¡Uay. Several assanlts were made,
hut the U nion troops were repulsed. The siege was
vigorously continued until the 9th of J uly, 1863, when
the town and five thousand five hundl'ed men were sur-
rendcred by General Gardner to the Union army.

8. On the 8th of J uly, General J ohn Morga n with
five thousand Confederates made a raid into Indiana,
where they plundcred and destroyed ll1uch valuable
property. The inhabitants yoJunteered in such num-
ber8 to opp08e the enemy, that Morgan retreated into
Ohio with considerable loss. He was closely pursued,
and, on the 26th of July, 1863, he and the remnant of
his army were captured near New Lisbon, Ohio.

9. On the 19th of September, 1863, the Confederates
under Bragg and Longstreet attacked General Rosecr:ms
at Chickaruauga, G eorgia. After two days' hard fighting

7. What is said of the siega and surrcndcr of Port lIuuson 1
8. What of Morgan's raid into Indiana? 9. What of the battl"
of Chiokamaugll?


they withdrew their forces and tho U nion army fcIl back
to the fortifications at Chattanooga.

10. In Octobor, Wheeler's Confedcrate cavalry made
a raid into Tennessee, but were finally defeated at Farm-
ington's Parm by General Crook. Thoy lost during the
raid over two thousand meno On the ~Oth of tho same
month, 8even hnndred {T nion troops were captured at
Philadelphia, 'fennessee, by the Confederate cavalr)
nnder Morrison.

11. On the ,1th of November, the Union forees under
Burbridge were defcatod at Bayon Cotean, Louisiana,
with a loss of soven hundred men. On the 23d of
November, 1863, the battle oi' Chattanooga coruruonecd.
It continued for three days, when the Confederates under
TIragg were routcd and forced to rctrcat into Goorgia
with the 1088 oi' six thousand prisonors.

12. On tho 30th of Novombcr, 186g, the Coni'ederates
under Longstreet made an assault upon Fort Sanders at
KnoxviIle, Tennessee, but were repulsed. Tbe enemy
retreated to Beans's Station where he was aUucked by
General Shackeli'ord. In the battle which followed the
U nion troops were defeuted, but Longstl'eet continued
his retreat until he joined Lee's army in Virginia.

13. On the 26th oi' ,J anuary, 18G3, General JIooker
was appointed eommunder oi' thc Army of the Potomac

10. What of Wheeler's cavalry mid inlo Tennes,ee? What was
done hy Ihe Confederate cfivalry nnder lIJorrii<on? 11. What is
.aid ,,[ lhe battle of Bayou Coteau? Of the "altle of Cl.a.ttanooga?
12. What is ""id of the lt,,,.ult "pon Fort S"ndcrs? Of lhe llattl.
al Beans's Station? 13. Wben was Ilouker lIppointed ""mm"nder
oC the Army of lhe Polomae? Whcn was Viest Virginia admitted
in a St .. te?

EVENTS OF 1863. 126

in place of Burnside who resigned. Ou the 21st oí
April, West Virginia was admitted into the Union all a

14. During the session of Congress which ended in
March, the " Conscription Act" became a law. Undor
this Act the President ordered a draft for throc hundred
thousand meno 'I'his led to a riot in New York city
(J uly 13th, 1863), by which one hundred and fifty lives
were lost and two millions of doHars worth of property

15. Near the end of April, General Hooker, with the
Army of the Potomac,;. crossed the Rappaha'lnock, and,
on the 2d of May, 1863, met the Confederates under
General Lee at Chancellorsville, Virginia. A battle
ensued which lasted until the night of the 4th, when
the Union forces retreatod across the Rappahannock.

16. General Stoneman with a large Union force made
a rllid through Virginia, passing within two miles of
Richmond. After having captured five hundred prison-
ers and destl'oyed a large amount of property, he joincd
Hooker's army, on the 8th of May, 1868.

17. About the middle of June, Lee crossed the
Potomac into Maryland and thence into Pennsylvania.
He was füllowed by Hooker who was relieved oi' his
command, on the 27th of June, and succeeded hy
General Meade. On the 1st of July, 1863, the arm:es

14. Whnt is said of the Conseription Aet? Wh"t of the draft
ordered by Ihe Presi']ent? 15. What of the battJo of Chancellors,
ville? 16. Wb"t of Stoneman's raid through Virginia? 17. Where
did Lee go in Juno? What is said of Hooker? Wb .. t oí the hattle
of Gettysburg?


met at Gettysburg, where asevere struggle COIn-
ruenced which lasted for threo days, when the Cunfed.
erate arruy was badly defcated and fled back to the

18. On the 18th of July, 1863, Fort 'Nagner, in
Charleston harbor, was attacked by the ¡ron-ciad flect
and the Union forces under General Gilmore. An
assault was ruade on the works, but the assailants were
repulsed. The siege was continued during the reruaindcr
of the year.

19. There was much skirmishing between the U nion
forces under Meade and the Confederates under Lee, on
the Rappahannock, but no very seyere battle occurred
until the next year. At t1le close of 1863, tlie Union
forces held possession of tho l\1ississippi river, of the
States of l\lissouri, Arkansas, Kentucky, and Tenncssee,
and of a large portio n of l\1ississippi, Louisiana, and
Florida, aH of which had been wrested from the Con-


l. On the 1st of February, 1864, President Lineoln
ordered a draft for five hundred thousand men to sup-
ply the army and navy. On the 3d of February,

18, "'hat of Gilmorc's attack on Fort Wagner? 19, What Wa!
Ione by the two "rmies on the Rappahannock? Whut was lh.
state of ,,/fuir" at the close uf 1863 ?

l. What was done by the President in Fchrnary, 18641 What ia
eaid ~f Shermlln's raid 7

EVENTS OF 1864. 121

General Sherman left Vicksburg, witb twenty-six tllOu-
sand men, and made an extensive raid tbrough Mis-
SISSlppi. He destroyed an immense amount of Con·
federate property and liberated about five tbousand

2. A large body of Union troops, under General A.
J. Smith, made a raid through Mississippi with the
intention of joining General Shcrman, but was pre-
vented by the enemy. He arl'ived at lHemphis, on
the 25th of Febl'ual'y, 1864-, after having dcstroyed
much property, taken three hundred prisoners, and
liberated two thousand slaves.

3. On the 25th of l\1areh, 1864, six thousand five
hundred Confedcratcs under General Forrest attaeked
Paducah, Kentueky, but were finally repulsed with the
loss of fifteen hundred mcn. On the 8th of A pril, the
Un ion troops under General Banks were defeated by
the Confederates under General Kirby Smith, at J',1ans-
field, Lonisiana.

4. During the night General Banks witbdrew to
Pleasant Hill where he was reenforced by General A.
J. Smith. On the next day CApril 9th), the Con-
federates again attacked him, but were repulsed with
the loss of over one thousand meno

5. On the 12th of April, 1864, Forrest with six
thousand Confederate troops captured Fort Pillow
below Paducah, Kentucky, which was undcr the com-
ruand of Major Booth. Over four hundred of the

2. What of Smith's raid? 3. Whnt of the rebei attaek on Pa.
dncah? What of the dcfcnt of nanks at Mnnsfield? 4. Wbat i!
nid of his retYe11't' 5. Wbnt of th~ cap1ur"e of Fart Pflll:< ... ?


garrison were cruelly massacred after they had sur.

6. On the 1st of .Tune, 1864, General Sturgis left
lUemphis on an expedition against the Confederatea
under Forrest. On the 10th, he was attaeked at Gun-
town, Tenncssee, by the enemy and defeated, after
IVhich he retreated to Riplp.y.

7. General John H. lIIorgan, with a body of Con-
fedcrates, made a raid into Kentucky. After capturing
a number of places and destroying much property, he
was defeated at CYllthiana, Kentueky, on the 13th of
J une, 1864, by General Burbridge. Burbridge also
recapturcd fifteen hundred Un ion prisoners which had
previously been taken by ~1:organ.

8. On the 20th of July, 1864, the Confederates
attacked Sherman's army, at Decatur, Georgia, but
were re pul sed and driven to Atlanta, where they were
attacked and again defeated by Sherman, on the 22d
of July.

9. On the 5th of August, Admiral Farragut with a
Heet 01' thirty-two vessels defeated the Confederate flcet
in Mobile Bay, capturing two vcs~els and two lmndred
and thirty meno On the 8th, Fort Gaines with over
eight hundred Confederatcs was captured, and, on the
2;~d of August, 1864, Fort Morgan with six hundred
prisoners was surrcndered by General Page to Admira!
Farragut and General Granger.

6. What is said of the expedition nndcr General Sturgis? 7. What
uf Morgan's raid iuto Kcntucky? 8. What of lhe bnttJe, al Derat,,!
and Atlanta? 9. What WllH Rccompli,hc'¡ by Farra!;"t in J\robile

EVENTS OF 1864. 129

10. On the 31st of August, 1864, Sherman's army
was attaeked at J onesboro, Georgia, by Lee and Hardee.
Ihe battle was renewed the next morning, w hen the
Cunfederate8 were defeated with the 1088 of three thou-
sand meno

11. Late in September, 1864, Hood with a large
Confederate force commcnceu operating on the real' of
Sherlllan's army. A portion of the cnemy under Gen-
era l Frcnch attackeu General Corse atAllatoona, Georgja,
hut were defented.

12. Hood now marchcd into Tcnncssee with an army
of forty thousand men. Gencral Thomas commanding
the Unjon troops reireated to Franklin, whcre he was
attaekdd by Hood, on the 30th of November. The
Confedel'ates were repulsed, but Thomas continued bis
retreat to N aHhville where he was besieged by Hood.

13. On the 15th of December, 1864:, Thomas attacked
the bcsjeger8 in front of Nashville. After two days'
hard fighting, Hood's army was routeu and forced to
retreat into Alabama.

H. On the 12th of Novcmber, Sherman commenced
his mareh from Atlanta to Savannah. He captured
Milledgeville and several other towns, destroyed an
immenRe amount of Confederate property, and finally
took possession of Savannah, on the 21st of December,
18(j~, after it had been evacuated by the Confederates
under Hardee.

JO. Whot is said of the attack on Sherman's arroy at Jonos-
boro? 11. What was done by Hootl's Confederate force in Georgi,,?
12. What in Tonno"ee? 13. What is .nid of the siego of Na.h-
ville? 14. What of Shermlln's march from Atlant,a to Savann&h?


15. On the 12th of l\Iarch, 1864, General Grant was
assigned the command of tha armies of the U nited
States. On the 20th of April, the Confcderates uuder
General Hoke captured Plymouth, North Carolina,
along with the commander General Wessela and sixrecn
hundred meno

16. On the 4th of ?tray, 1864, the Army of tha
Potomac nnaer Grant crossed the Rapidan, and moved
towards Riehmond. On the 5th, they met the Con-
federate army under General J,ee, and eommenceu the
batt1e of the Wilderness, whieh, after two days' fight-
ing, resulted in favor of the Union army. The Union
loss in these batt1cs was about twelve thousand, while
that of the enemy was still greater.

17. On the 10th of May, 1864, Grant attacked Lee's
troops at Spottsy1vania Conrt-Honse, Virginia, and after
three days' sevcre fighting drove tbem from the field.
Grant continned to advance, and, by the 1st of J une,
Lee's who1e army had retreated to the defenees oi'

18. On the 5th of May, 1864, General But1er with
a large force ¡anded at Bermuda Hnndred, near the
mouth of the Appomattox River, in order to check tha
reenforcements under BeaUl;egard whieh had been sent
to Lee. General Grant now crossed the James ltiver
and commeneed tlle siege of Petersburg. He sent out

15. Whcn did General Grant take command of al! the Unian
armies? What is said of the capture of Plywouth? 16. What wa8
done by Grant in May? What is snid of the battle of the Wilder-
ness? 17. Wbat of tha batt\e of Sr"tt'y\v:mi .. Court-Hou~l
18. What was done by Butler, in May? Wha.t hy (lrant?

EVENTS Ol!' 1864. 131

tbree expedi lions under H un ter , Wilson, nI: iI. Sheridan\
which dcstroyed the railway communication~ between
Lee's army and ltichmond.

19. On the 16th of l\Iay, 1864, General Butler's
forces were surpriscd and dofoatod at Port \Valthal,
Virginia, by Bcaurogard. On tho 21st, the Con-
federates made a night attack upon Butler, at Bcrmuda
Hundred, but were repulsed.

20. On the 19th of June, 1864, the pirate Alabamn,
Captain Semmes, was sunk on the coast of Franee by
the Kearsarge, Captain Winslow An English vessel
picked up Semmes and a portion of the crew before
they could be sccured by Winslow, and carried them to

21. On the 6th of .J uly, 1864, fifteen thousand Con-
fedemte Boldiers under General Early invadod nIaryland
by way of the Shenandoah. They met and defeated
General ,Vallaee at l\Ionoeacy, compelling him to retreat
towards \Vashinguon .. After seeuring a large amount of
pluuder they retrcated to Winchester, Virginia, where
they wcrc badly defeated by General Avcrill.

22. The Confouerates were afterwards reenforced,
whcn thcy made auothor raid into Maryland and Penn-
sylvania, and,on the 30th of July, 1864, burned Cham-
bcrsburg. They 800n retreated to Virginia, but not until
they had seeured an immense amount of plunder and
destroyed muoh valuable property.

19. What is said of tbe nttacks upon Butler's forces? 20. What
of the sinking of the piratc Alabarna? 21. Whut is said o(
Early'8 invasion of Maryland? 22. What (f the raid lnto Penn •
• ylvania?


23. The siege of Petersburg was continued by Grant,
and many advantages were gained by the Union forees,
in J nne and J uly. The WeIdon railway was seized, Oil
the 18th of August, and the supplies for Lee's army
cut off. Several desperate attempts were made by the
Confedcrates to retake it, but they were re pul sed with
heavy loss.

24. On the 18th of September, General Sheridan
totally defeated the Confederates under Early at Ope-
quan, Virginia. On the 19th of October, Early was
again defeated by Sheridan, at Cedar Creek, and com-
pelled to retroat with heavy los8.

25. At the election, in November, 1864, Abraham
Lincoln was reelected President, and Andrew Johnsoil
was elected Vice-President of the United States.


1. A military and naval expedition left Fortress Mon-
roe, under Admiral Porter assisted by General Butler,
to capture Wilmington. On the 15th of J anuary, 1865,
Fort Fisher was captured by a part of the land farces
nnder General '1'erry assisted by the fleet undcr Portero
The siege was continued, and, on the 21st of Fcbruary,
1865, Wilmington was captured.

2. On the 20th of January, 1865, Shermun left

23. What of the siege of Petersburg? 24. What of Sheridan's
~ttllcks upon the Confederates? 25. What w&s the result oí the
elecUon in N ovemher?

1. Wha.t is said of the expedition to capture Wilmington 1
2. What ls ssid of Sberman's march from Savannah to Goldsboro 1

EVENTS Ol!' 1865. 133

Savanna'\:¡ and commenced his cnmpaign in South Caro-
lina. On the 17th of Fcbruary, thcy captured Colum-
bia, and on the following day (Febrnary 18, 1865) they
too k possession of Charleston. Sherman marched on,
capturing several places, until he arrived at Goldsboro,
North Carolina, where he was joined, on the 22d of
March, by Terry from Willl1ingtou and Schofield from
N ewbern. Throughont this expedition of five hnndred
miles the Confecleraté~ were unable to check Sherman's
progress, and thousancls abandoned their sinking cause
and joined the Union army.

3. On the 27th of Febrnary, General Sherirlan left
Winchester, Virginia, on a cavalry expedition into the
Shenandoah Valley. After defeating the Confederate
arrny nnder Early and destroying the cornrnunications
with Richmond by which Lee's supplies were cut off,
he joined Grant's army on the James rivcr.

4. On the 29th of March, Grant and Meade com-
meneed vigorous operations against Petersburg which
were eontinued until the night of the 2d of April, 1865,
when the Confederates cvacuated it and retreated west-
ward. They were so closely followed by the Union
army that, on the 9th of April, 1865, General I~ee
surrendered the remnant of his forees to General Grant.
On the 26th of April, General Joseph E. Johnston sur-
rendered the Confeclerate arruy under liis cornmand to
General Sherman. This was the only remaining army
of any size in opposition to the government.

3. What of Sheridan's expedition into the Shenando"h ValIey!
<l. What of the operations Rgain~t Petersburg? What o: the sur.
render orLee's army? What of Jehnston's army?


5. 'I'ho s!urendel' of 1,cc'8 al'my caused fe~lings 01
grcat joy thl'oughout the countl'y, but they were SOOD
changed illto those of sadnos:>. On the Hth of April,
1865, Abraham Lincoln, Prcsidcllt of thc U nitcd States,
was assassinated at Ford's 'l'heatre, in the city 01' \Yash-
ington, by J ohn Wilkes Booth, and died on the following:
day. An attcmpt was also made at the same time to
take the life 01' Secretary Seward, but it did not sueeeed.

6. On the 15th 01' April, 1865, Andrew Johnson
took thc oath of oflice as Prcsidcut of the Gnited States.
He appointed the 25th of Mayas a day of publio
rnourning throughout thc countl'y on account of the
death of Abl'aharn Lincoln.

7. A l'ewal'd of one hundred thousand dollars was now
olfered fol' the capture of J clfcrson Davis, tllc President
of the so-ealled. " Confederacy," who was tl'ying to escape
from the country. He was captured near Irwinsville,
Geol'gia, on the 10th of ;\Iay, by Colonel Pritchard.

8. On the 29th of May, 1865, Presidellt J ohnson
olfel'ed pardon to al! persons ellgap:od in the rcbellion,
exeeptillg those in tho army who rankeJ aboye a Colonel
and in the navy aboye a Lieuteuant, and excepting a
few other persons, providing thoy would take the oath
of allegiancc and kccp it. Thousflnds availed thcmsclves
of the olfer.

9. On the 23d of .Tune, 1865, the Pl'esident declarcd

5. 'Vhat effect had tba surrender of Lee's army? What "",1 ael
ebanged the feeling;s of the nation? 6. Who now beeame Presi·
:lant? What day was ap,ointed for publie mourning? 7. \Vha!
la said 01' the capture of J efferson Davis? 8. What pardon was
o!l'ered by the President? 9. What was done 011 the 23d ~f Juna'

EVENTb OF 1865. 186

+bat the po1'ts in the United Statos should be no longet
"fOckaded, and tlLat ull ports ~h()uld be open ror CClJll-
.nerce OH and after the 18t of J \lly.

10. On the 18th of A ugust, a Illilitary eommi~sion
was appointcd to try Captaill \Vi1'z for barba1'ou8 treat-
ment of the Union prisoners at Andersonville prison,
Georgia. He was found guilty of the most inhuman
conduct and was afterwards hanged.

11. The ordinances of secession were repealed by
most of the Southcrn States bcfore the close of the
year 1865, and several of them passed resolutions pro-
hibiting slavery within their limits.

12. It has been cstimated that. during the war, nearly
three hundred thousand men perished in the U nion
army. 1\lany of these were killed in battle, but a greater
nuruber died from wounds and disease. The 1088 of life
was probably as great on the Confederate side.

13. The nationa!. dcbt at the close of the war was
$3,000,000,000. Although the ánnual interest on this
sum is nearly $180,000,000, yet the resources of the
government are sufficient for paying this interest, and
also for the gradual extinguishment or the debt.

14. Early in 1865, Congress proposed an Amendment
to the Constitution abolishing slavery in the United
States. Three-fourths of the States having ratified this
Amendment, slavcry was declared abolished in Decero-
ber or the same year.

10. What was done with Captain Wirz? 11. What is said of tha
rcpcal Q!' the scccssion ordinanccs? 12. What is said of the 108s of
life uuring the war? 13. Wbat is said of the debt? 14. What
Amendment to the Couititution was proposed?


15. In 1865, the Freedlllan's Eurcau was organiZí'd
under an Aet of Congl'ess, i (,8 object beiJlg to give r~'¡.
tection and assistance to the frecdmen. lt W118 plac¡;,i
under the charge 01' General Oliver O. Howal'd.

16. In 1866, the first Atlantic cable was succcssfully
laid from Ircland to Ncwfouudland, thus cstablishing
tclcgraphic comlllunication bctwccn Europc and Amel'ica.
It is 18640 miles in lcngth, and its succcssful cOlllpletion
is chicfiy duc to Cyrus W. Field, of ~ ew York.

17. In March, 1867, Congl'css passed a llcconstruc-
tion Act, prescribing the conditions for reconstructing
the seceded States, and subjccting thcm to military au-
thOl'ity till they complied with the cOllditiollS. U nder
this Act, most of thc Statcs were restored to the U rlion
befo re the close of 18(;9.

18. In March, 18(j7, Coagress passed the Tunure of
Oflice Bill, declaring that those persulls who had been
appointed to civil oflices, with thc advicc and cOllsent 01'
the Senate, could not be removed by the Pre6idcnt with-
out the perlllission of the Sonate.

19. In 1867, Nebraska was admitted into the Union
as a Statc. lt was organized as a 'l'el'l'itory in 1854.

20. In 1867, the Territory of Ruasian America was
purchased frolll Russia for $7,200,000, in gold. Since
cOll1ing into the possession of the U nited States, its name
has been changed to Alaska.

15. What is said of the :Freedman's Buroau? 16. What of tbe At-
I:Lntic cable 1 17. What oí' the Hccomtruction Aet? 18. What of
the Tenure 01' Office Bill? 19. When was Nebra,lm admitled int~
the L"nion 1 20. What is said of the territorial pUfehasc in 1867

E V E N T S O F 1 869. 13'1

21. In February, 1868, t13e House of Representativos
impeached Andrew J ohnson, P1'esident of the U nited
8tates, eharging him with violation of the 1'enn1'e of
Office Bill) and with other otrcnces. He was tricd by
the 8enate, bnt was acquitted, the vote for conviction
being one less thau two thirds of the melllbers presento

22. In 1868, an embassy from China visited the
United States. While here, a treaty was made between
the Unitcd 8tatcs and China, which guarantees liberty
of conscicnce to Americans in China, and grants to the
United 8tates cOlllmerciuJ privileges of grcat value.

23. 800n after the close of the Civil 'War, a general
aUlIlesty to all connected therewith was gr:ll1ted. Since
thon, tho bitter feelings of partisans have mostly died
away, alld the reorle have ongaged in the peaceful pur-
suits of establishing 8chool8, rcbuilding railroads, and
dc\'clopillg tlle l'esources of the country.

24. At, the clection in 1868, General Ulysses S. Grant,
of IIlinois, was chosen Prcsident, and Schllyler Colfax,
of Indiana, Vice·Presidont of tho United States.

1. General U. S. Grant was inaugurated President

on the 4th of March, 1869.
2. During the year 1869 the Paeific Railroad was

finished. It is 1800 miles long, and completes the rail-
road conncction bctwcen the Atlantic and Pacific oceans.

21. What is s<Lid of thc impeachment of the President? 22. IV hat
is mitl of the tre,dy with China? 2~1. What of the condition of tho
country? 24. Whal was the result of the e1ection in 1868 ?

1. When W11S Geneml Grant in11ugumted? 2. Wh11t i8 said of th.
l'l1oifie R"ilroad ?


3. In February, 1869) Congl'css pro posen. thc Fifteenth
Amendment to the Constitution, which declares tlmt" tIle
right of eitizens of the U nited Strrtes to vote shall no!
be denied 01' abl'idged on aceount of race, color, 01' pre-
vious condition of servitudo." 'l'hl'oe-fourths of the
States having ratified this Amendment, in March,1870)
it was declarad to be part of tho Constitutioll.

4. During the war au :F:llglish vessel, the Alabama,
committed many depredations on the eommorce of tIte
United States. As the Bnglish go\'ernmcnt refused to
settle for the damages, lUuch hostile fcoliug towards that
country was pl'ouuced.

5. In order that this and othcr national difficulties
migM be settleu, a lIigh J oint COllllllission oi' di8tin-
guished statc8111en oi' the two eountries met at 'Vashing-
ton in 1871, and agreod UpOll thc basis of a traaty be-
i;"'l(~~",, ~~~ \'",'..\"'<\ ~::A'~\"" ",,,1\ \:xTea't )',úta·lIl.

G. Wishing to try tho etfect ofkind treatment towards
the Indians, Pl'esident Grant, in lSG!), placcd a few of
the tribes under the care of ditferent l'eligious societies,
giving them thcentire chargc of the lndian appropriations
to those tri bes.

7. This plan has worked well, and the condition of
these Indians has been much improved. 'l'hey llOW re-
ceive what is justly their due, and, in retnrn, entertain
kindly feelings towards the general GOVCl'lllllent. Sorne
ofthe other tribes, howe\'er, are dissatisfieu, and threaten
to make wal' agaillst the white settlers.

3. What of the Fiftecnth Amcndrncllt? 4. What of tlw Abbama
elaims? 5. Hmr WOl'e lhe di1licultie" sottlea? G, 7. What i. said
nf Presiuent Gmnt's policy to,mnls the Indi"lle?



1492. America discovered by Columbus. (S.) *
1497. The Cabots diseovered Labrador. (E.)
1498. Se basti:lll Cabot explored the coast of N. America. (E.)
1499. Vespucius visited the New World. (S.)
1512.' Ponee de Leon diseovered Florida. (S.)
1524. Verrazani explored the coast of North America. (F.)
1534. Cartier discovered the Gulf and River of Sto Law-

rence. (F.)
1535. Cartier sailed up the Sto Lawrence to Montreal.
1539. De Soto invaded Florida. (S.)
154l. De Soto diseovered the Mississi ppi River.

Cartier built a fort near Quebec.
1542. De Soto died.
1562. Settlementat Port Royal, S. Carolina, by Ribault. (F.)
1564. Settlement at Sto John's river by Laudonnier .. (F.)
1565. Sto Augustíne settled by the Spaniards. (S.)
1583. Gilbert's voyage to Newfoundland. (E.)
1584. Raleigh sent out an expedition under Amidas and

Barlow. (E.)
Virginia named.

15R5. Settlement made at Roanoke by Grcnville. (E.)
1587. Second colony sent to Roanoke under J ohn Whíte. (E.)

• The natioDS ~cnding out, the expeditioDs' S. (Spanish), E.
(Bnglish), and F. (French).



1602, Gosnold discovered Cape Codo (E,)
1606, London and Plymouth Cumpaniea received grunts in


1607. Jamestown settled by the English.

Captain Smith taken by the Indians.
1610. Smith returned to England.

Lord Delaware arrived at Jamestown.
1619. First Legislative Assembly met at JamestoWIl.
1620. African slavery introduccd into Virginia.
1622. Indians attempted to massacre the English.
1624. Virginia became a royal province.
1639. Borkeley appointed governor.
1644. Second attempt of the Indians to massacre tbe

1663. Navigation Act enforced.
167G. Bacon's Rebellion.
1677. Culpepper became governor.

1609. Hudson river discovered.
lG14. New York (New Amsterdam) setUed by the Dutoh
] G45. War with Algonqnin Indiana.
1664. New York captured by the English.
Hi74. Androas made governor of New York.
1683. A Charter of Liberties established.
168f\. AndroAs again became governor.
1691. Colonel Sloughter appointed governor.

1607. Sett1ement commenced on the Kennoboc river.
1614. C:1ptain Smith explored the coast of New England


• 620. Plymouth settled hy thll Puritana.
1628. Salcm settlcd lJy ·Jolm Endicott.
1630. Boston settlcu by Winthrop.
1635. Roger Williams banished.


1636. Ann I1utchinson and Rev. John Wheelw tight ban

1639. Firat printing-pres~ in America establiahed.
1643. Union of the N ew England colonies.
16:')6. Quakers banished from the colony.
1675. King Philip's War broke out.
1684. The Charter declared invalido
161'6. Androsa appointed governor of New England.
1689. Androsa imprisoned by tbe peop1e.
1704. Deerfield destroyed by the Indiana.


]622. New Hampshire p:ranted to Gorges and Mason.
162:). N 8W Hampshire first settled at Dovel'.
1638. Exetcr scttlcd.
1641. New Hampshire placed under Massachusetts.
16i9. N ew Hampshirc separated from Massachusetts.
~680. Edward Cranficld appointed governor.
1690. Samuel Allell appointcd governor.


1624. N ew J 1r8ey first settled at Bergen.
1664. Elizabethtown aettled.
1670. 'l'hc payment of quit-rents demanded.
1672. The settlers rebelled againat tbe payment of quit.

1676. A part of N ew Jersey sold to the Quakers.
16,7. TIlO provinco divided into East amI West Jersey.
1682. East Jersey purch~~ed by Willia Ul Penn.


1688. Andross appointed governor of Ne,'!" Jersey.
1702. East and We,~ Jersey unitcd.
1738. New Jersey separated frolIl New York.

1629. The Swedes and Finns bought the territory of Delmn,,·'_'
1638. Swedes set.tled at mouth of Christi:wa Creek.
1651. Dutch built a fort at New Castle.
1655. DeJaware captured by the Dutch.
1664. Delaware captured by the English.
1682. Delaware grantcd to William Penn.
1691. Delaware placed under a sepamtc govcrnor.
1702. Dclaware finally separated fl'Oill Pennsylvania.


1632. Claybol'ne built trading-hou~e8 on Kent Jsland.
Lord Baltimore obt:Lined charter for Mal'yland.

1634. Sto Mary settled by Calvert.
1635. Clayborne's rebellion.
1642. lndian wal' broke out.
1645. Clayborne's second rebellion.
1652. Lord Baltimore deprived of the government 01

1676. Lord Baltimore died.
1691. Maryland became a royal province.
1715. The government restored to the heira of Baltimore.


1630. Connecticut granted to the Earl of Warwick.
1633. The Dutch built a fort at IIartford.

The English built a trading-house at Windsor.
1635. Settlements made at Wimbor and W cathersfield.
1636. Hartford settled by Thomas Hooker.


1637. Pequod war commcnced.
1638. New Haven foundcd by Eaton and Davenrort.
1ü50. The Duteh relinquished their claim to Connectieut.
1662. Charter granted by Charles n.
1ü87. Andl'uss appointed governor of all New England.

The Charter secreted in the " Charter-Oak."
lG92. Fletehor appointed eommander of the Connecticu



1636. Rhode Island settled at Providence by Roger Wil·

1638. Portsmouth setUed.
1639. Newport settled.
1644. Charter granted to Roger Williams.
1647. Delcgatcs met at Purtsmonth.
lü63. Second charter granted to Rhade Island by Charles IL


1663. Settlernent made on Albernarle Sound.
H\G5. Emigrants settled on Cape Fear River.
1683. Seth 80thcl became govcrnor.
lG95. John Archdale Lecume goYernor.
1707. Frcnch Protestants settled an Trent River.
17 11. '''al' wi th Tuscarora and Coree Indians.
1729. Narth and SOUtll Carolina separated.


1670. Sonth Carolina settled at Old Charleston.
lGRO. The present eity of Charleston setUed.
1690. 80th SotheI beeame goYernor.
1695. John Arehdale became governor.
1702. Moore's expedition against Sto Augustine.


1706. A French and Spanish Heet attacked Charleston
1715. War with the Yamasee Indians.

1643. 'L'he Swedes built a fort on Tinicum Island.
1681. P~nnsylvania granted to William Penn.

Emigrants arrived at Chester.
1682. Philadelphia founded by Penn.

The first Assembly met at Chester.
1684. Penn roturned to England.
1692. Penn deprived of the government until 1694.
1701. Penn granted a new Charter to the inhabitants,
1718. Penn diad in Landon.
17G1. Mason and Dixon's line fixed.

1732. Georgia grantcd to a comp:wy of gentlem(Jn.
liH3. Savannah settled by Oglethorpe.
1738. George Whitefield visited Georgia.
liH9. Oglethorpe made an expedition ngainst Florida.
li42. Georgia invaded by the Spaniards.
1752. Georgia became a royal province.


1G89. IGng William's War commenced.
1600. The town of Schenactady destroyed.

Expedition against Quebcc under Phipp~.
1G07. The war ended by Treaty of Ryswick.
1702. Queen Anne's 'Val' commenced.
1704. Deerfield burned.
lilO. Port Royal capturen ay t1le English.
1711. Expedition against Canada andel' Admiral Walker.
1713. The war ended by the Treaty of Utrecht.
1744. King Georg;¡'8 War oommenced.


1745. Louisburg captured by the English.
1748. The war ended by Treaty of Aix-la-CLapelle.


1753. English tradera seized by the French.


'Vashington sent with a lctter to the French governor
1754. Washington surrendered Fort Neceasity.

Delegates frorn Beven colonies rnet at Albany.
1755. General Braddock appointed cornmander-in-chiof of

the English forces in America.
Nova Scotia captured byWinslow and Monckton.
Braddock's expedition against Fort Duquesne.
Unsuccessful expedition against Niagara undcr

Unsuccessful expedition againat Crown Point undel

1756. England declared war against France.

Oswego captured by the Fl'ench undel' Montcalm.
1757. Fort William Henry captured by the French.

William Pitt became Prime Minister of England.
1758. Louisburg captured by the English.

English dcfeated at Ticonderoga.
English captured Fart Frontenac.
Fort Duquesne taken by the English under Fol'bes.

1759. Furt Niagara captnred by the English.
Ticonderoga captured by the English.
Quebec captured by the English undol' Wolfe.

1760. Montreal aurrendered ta the English.
1763. Wal' ended by the Treaty at Paria.

17G4. Parliarnent laid a tax on sugar, etc.
1765. Stamp-Act pasaed.


1765. First Colonial Congresa met al New York.
1766. Stamp-Act repealeJ.
1767. Tax imposed un tea, glass, etc.
li68. l\Iassachusetts sent circular to the other colonies.

Troops under Gcneral Gage arrived in Bostan.
1770. Boston lIIassaere occurred.

Dllties repealed on al! articlea except tea.
1773. Tel. destroyed in Baston harbor.
1774. Bostün Part Bill passed by Parliament.

First Continent111 Congress met at Philadelphia.
General Gago l1ppointed militl1ry governor úf ;trassl)



17'í5. Battle of Lexington, Aprill!lth.
Ticonderoga and Crown Paint captured by the

Continental Congress again met in Philadelphia.
'Vashington elocled commander-in-chief.
British reenforccd by Clinton, IIowe, and Burgaync
Prescott sent to fortify Bunker's lIill.
Battle of Bnnker's Hil!.
'Vashington took command uf the army at Boston.
Tnvasion of Cann,ch by the Americans.
Montreal captured.
Arnol<l marched throu¡:;h the wilderncss of Maine.
Quebec as~aulted. Ampl'icans repulsed.
Lord Dunmore seized the powder in Virginia.

1776. Norfolk hurned.
Amel'icans evacuated Canada.
British evacnated Bastan.
British a.ttacked Charlcston.
Declaration of Independence at Philadelphia.
British took p08sessioLl of Staten Taland.


1776. Battle of Long Island.
British defeated at IIarlem Plains.
Battle of White Plains.
Fort Lee abandoned by the Americana.
Washington retreated across New Jersey.
Battle of Trenton.

1777. Battle of Princeton.
American winter-quarters at Morristown.
Congress solicita aid of France.
Lafayette arrived in America.
Danbury burned by Tryon.


Burgoyne invaded the United States from Canada.
Fort Edward cvacuated by the Americans.
Fort Schuyler beHieged by the British.
General Schuyler superseded by Gates.
Battle of Bennington.
BattIes of Stillwatcr.
Surrender of Burgoyne.
British fleet sailed up the Chesapeake.
Battle of Brandywine.
Wayne surprised at Paoli.
Congress adjourned from Philadelphia to Lancaster
British entercd Philadelphia (September 26th).
Battle of Oermantown.
Attack on Fort )Ioroer.
Washington's winter-quarters at Valley Forge.

\778. France acknowledged tite Independence ofthe Unted

Clinton 8ucceedcd 1I0we in the command 01 tbA

Philadelphia eva')llated (June 18th).
Battle of Momnollth.
Exprdition to rccapture Rhode IRland.
MaN"Sacres at Wyomin¡¡: and Cherry Valley.



1778. Savannah captured by the Britisb.
1779. Sunbury captured by the British.

Tories defeated at Kettle Creek.
Americana defeated at Brier Creek.
Lincoln repulsed at Stono Ferry.
Savannah besiegcd by Lincoln and D'Estaing.
N orfolk and Portsmou th plundered.
Capture of Stony Point and Verplank's Poin! by

tbe British.
Stony Point recaptured by Wayne.
Sullivan sent against the Indians.
Paul Jones captured two English ships.

1780. Charleston surrendered to the Britisb.
General Gates took command of Americans at the

Battle at Sander's Creek.
Battle of King's Mountain.
Green superseded Gates.
Arnold's treason. Execution of André.
England declared war against Holland.

1781. Revolt of the Pennsylvania Line at Morristown.
Arnold invaded Virginia.
Battle of the Cowpens.
Americana pursued by Cornwallis.
Battle of Guilford Court-House.
Battle of I1obkirk's IIill.
Forts Watson, Granby, and Motte captured.
Battle of Euiaw Springs.
Cornwallis fort.ified Yorktown.
Arnold burned N ew London.
Cornwallis surrendered at Yorktown.

l7S2. Commissioners appointed to conclule peace.
1783. Treaty of Peace signed at Paria.

W Il.I!hington resigned bis commisllÍon.

1786. Shay's Insurrection.
1787. The Convention at Philadelphia adopted tho Federal

1789. First Congress met at New York.

Washington inaugurated the first President.
1790. General lIarmer sent against the Indians.

CongreRs met in Philadelphia.
1791. Sto CInir sent against the Indians.

Vermont aumitted.
Bank of the United States established.

1792. Kentucky admitted.
Washingto.n reelected.

1793. The French Minister Genet landed at Charlcston
1794. The Whiskey Insurrection.

Wayne defeated the Indians.
1795. Wayne's treaty with the Indians.

Jay's treaty with Grent Britain.
Trenties with Spain and AIgiers.

1796. Tenncssee admitted.
Washington's Farewell Address.

li97. John Adams's Administration.
Difficulties with France.

1798. Congresa authorized the raising of an army.
French vessel L'Insurgent captured.
Alien and Sedition laws pasaed.

1799. Death of Washington.
1800. Treaty of Peaee with France.

Scat of Government removed to Washington.
1801. Jefferson's Administration.

War with Tripoli.
1802. Ohio admitted.
1803. Louisiana purchased from France.

The frigate Philadelphia captured.
1804. The Philadelphia destroyed by Decatur.


1804. Tripoli blockaded.
Hamilton killed in a duel by Aaron Burr.

1805. Eaton captured Derne.
Treaty with Tripoli.
J efferson reelected.

1806. Great Britain and France blockaded.
1807. Burr tried for treason.

The Chesapeake attacked by the British ship

Ordera in Couneil and Milan Decree issued.
Em bargo laid on American vessela.

1809. Intercourse with France and England prohibited.
Madison's Administration.

1811. The frigate President fired into the British sloop
Little Belt.

Harrison sent against tho Indiana.
Battle of Tippecanoe.

1812. Louisiana admitted.
War dcclare<:l against Great Britain (June 18th).
General Hull croBsed into Canada.
Michigan sUlrrendered to the British.
Battle of Queenatown.
Essex captured the British sloop Alert.
Constitution captured the British frigate Guerriere.
Wasp captured tha British brig Frolic.
United Statea captured tha British frigata !.bce-

Constitution captured British frigate Javo.
Madison reelected President.

1813 Battle at Frenchtown.
Siege of Fort Meigs.
British repulsed at Fort Stephenson.
Perry's victory on Lake Erie.
Malden evacuatel by tha British.


1813. BattIe at the Moravian towns.
Amaricans captured York.
British abandoned Fort George.
Battle at Stony Creek.
British repulsed at Sackett's Harbor.
War with the Creek and Seminole Indi.ws
Massacre at Fort Mimms.
Indiana defcated at 'I'ohopeka.


Hornet captured thc British brig Peacock.
Che~apeake captured by the British frigate Shannon,
Argus captured by the British aloop Pelicano
The British brig Boxer captured by the Enterprise
British squadron entered the Chesapeake Bay.

1814. Fort Erie captured by Scott and Ripley.
British defeated at Chippewa.
Battle at Lundy's Lane.
Siege of Fort Erie.
Battle of Plattsburg and defeat of the British on I

Lake Champlain.
British captured Washington.
Attempt to capture Baltimore.
Hartford Convention.
Essex captured by the British vessels Phrebe nnd

Frolic capturcd by British frigate Orpheus.
l'eacock captured the British Epcrvier.
Wasp captured the British ves seIs Reindeer and Avon
British Heet invaded Louisiana.
'l'reaty of peace signed at Ghent.

1815. Frigate President captured by a British squadron.
Constitution captured the Cyane and Levant.
Hornet captured the British brig Penguin.
Attack on New Orleans.
Decatur sent to the Mediterranean.


1816. Indiana admitted.
1817. James Monroe maugurated.

Mississippi admitted.
Seminole War in Georgia.

1818. Illinoia admitted.
1819. Alabama admitted.

Part of the northern boundary of the Unitc1 StatElll
setUed by treaty.

1820. Maine admitted.
1821. Missouri admitted. "Missouri Compromise" adopted.

Monroe Doctrine proc1aimed.
Treaty between Spain and the United States.

1824. Lafayette visited the Vnited States.
1825. John Quincy Adama inaugurated.
1826. John Adama and Thomas Jelferson died.
1829. J ackson inaugurated President of the United States.
1831. James Monroe died.
1832. Black IIawk War.

South Carolina passed the Nullification Act.
1833. Removal of government funds to state banks.
1835. Seminole ,"Var eommenced by 08ce01a.

Major Dade defeated.
1836. "Specie Circular" issned.

"Distribntion Act ,. passed.
Arkansas admitted.

1837. Michigan admitted. Van Buren inaugurated.
Osceola imprisoned by General Jes8up.
Rebellion broke out in Canada.

1841. IIarrison inaugurated.
Harrison died (April 4).
Bills for rechartering the United Statea B..nk vetooo.

1842. Treaty with Seminole Indians.
Difliculties in Rhode Island.
Webster and Ashburton treaty.

1845. Fl )rida admitt.ed.


1845. James K. Polk inaugurated.
Annexatim. of Texas.
General Taylor sent to Corpus Christi.

1846. Oregon boundary line aettled.
Iowa admitted.
lIostilitiea commenced by tbe Mexicana.
Fort Brown attaeked by the Mexicana.
Mexicana defeated at Palo Alto.
Dattle of Resaca de la Palma.
Taylor took possession of l\1atamoras.
Monterey capturad by Taylor.


California. New l\Iexico. and Chihuahua captured
1847. General Seott took eommand of the army in l\1exitlo.

Santa Anna defeated at Buena Vista.
Vera Cruz surrendered to General Scott.
Santa Anna def!'ated at Cerro Gordo.
Scott took pORsession of La Puebla.
Contreras amI ChurulJUsco captured by Scott.
El lI1olinos del Rey and Chapultepec captured.
Scott entera the City of Mexico.

1848. Treaty of Peace at Guadalupe Hidalgo.
Wisconsin admitted into the Union.

1849. Taylor inaugurated President.
Henry Clay's compromise bill introduced into Con

1850. President Taylor died.

California admittcd into the Union.
185::l. Death of Clay and Webster.
1852. Franklin Pieree inaugurated President.

Death of Vice-Preaident King.
Treaty with Mexieo.

1854. Commodore Perry's treaty with Japan.
Territories of Kansas and Nebraska organized.

185':'. James B·lchano.n inaugurated.


1857. A military force 8ent agaínst the Morm.ms.
1858. Mínnesota adlllitted as a State.
1859. Oregon adlllítted as a 8tate.

John Brown seized IIarper's Ferry.
1860. Ransas admitted as a free 8tate.

Abraham Lincoln elected President.
80uth Carolina seceded from tbe Un ion.
Tbe 8tar of tbe West fired into by the 80utb Carolina

troops (January 9).
1861. Other States se ceded from the Union.

The ~o-called " 80uthorn Confederacy" formed.
Abraham Lincoln inaugurated.
General Anderson evacuated Fort Sumter (ApriI12).
The Presídent called for seventy-five thousand meno
Union troops attacked while passing through Balti·


The public property at lIarper's Ferry and Norfolk

Cal! for volunteers for tlle arllly and navy.
Battle of Great Bethel (June 10).
Confederates defeated at Rich Mountain, Virginia.
Battle at Sto George, Virginia.
Battle of Bull Run (July 21).
General McClellan appointed commander ofthearmy.
The forts at IIatteras ·Inlet eaptured by tbe Unían

~ •• leral Rosecrans defeated the Confederatcs at Sumo

General 8cott resigned as commnndel'-in-ehief.
Ililton IIead and Beaufort cap tu red (November 7).
Captain Wilkes captured Mason and Slidell.
Battle near Carthage, Mi~souri.
Fort Le.x:ingt,on, Missouri. captured by the Confeder-



1861. Confederates defeated at Milford, Miss~uri.
1862. Battle near Somerset, Kentucky.


Fort Donelson captured by General Grant, (Feb 16)
Confedera tes defeated at Pea Ridge, .A.rkansas.
Battle of 8hiloh, Tennessee.
Capture of Jaland No. 10 by the Union troops.
Capture of IIuntsville by General Mitchell.
8urrendor of New OrIeana to the Union army.
Invasion of Kentucky by General Bragg.
Attack upon Corinth, Mis~issippi.
8herman defeated nt Vicksburg.
Capture of Roanoke Island.
The frigates Cumberland and Congresa 8unk by tha

The Merrimnc defeated by the Monitor .
.A.rmy of the Potomac advanced towards Richmond

(February 22).
Burnside captured Newbern.
Forts Pulaski and Macon capturad.
McClellan landed at Fortress Monroe.
Rattle of Williamsburg.
Norfolk captured.
Battle of Fair Oaks.
Soven daya' fighting before Richmond.
Banks attacked at Winchester.
Confederates defeated at Cross Keya.
The troops under Fremont, Banks, and McDowell

Three hundred thousand more troopa called by the

Halle,)k appointed commander-in-chief.
Confiseation Act passed.
Washin~ton threatened.
Rattle oi Ced!lr Mountain.


1862. Attempl to deskoy Pope's army.
Battle of South lHountain.
Ib.rper's Ferry 8urrendered.
Battle of Antietam.
Cavalry raid into Pennsylvania.
McClellan snperseded by Burnsid~.
Battle of Fredericksburg.
1~63. Slaves freed in the Southern State8 (January 1).

Arkansas Post captured by Porter.
UnÍon forces defeated at Spring IIill ana Cedal

Confederates defeated at Champion lIills.
Capture of VickslJurg by Grant.
Capture of Port IIuu80n hy Banks.
Morgan's raid into Indiana.
Battle at Chi~auga.
·Wheeler's raid into 'l.'ennessee.
Burbridge defeated at Bayou Coteau.
BattIe of Chattanooga.
Longstreet's army defeated.
Hooker appointed eommander of the Army of the

West Virginia admitted as a State.
A draft for three hundred thousana men ordered.
Riot in Ncw York.
Battle of OhancellorsvilJe.
Stoneman's raid through Virginia.
Battle of Gettysburg.
Siege of Fort Waguer eommenced in July.

181:4 Draft for five hundred thousand men ordered..
Sherman's raid through Mississippi.
Smith's raid through Mississippi.
Confederates repulsed at Paducllh, Ky.
Banks defeated at Mansfield, La.


L864. Confederates captured Fort Pillow.
Union force s defeated at Guntown, Tennessee.
Morgan's raid into Kentucky.
Morgan defeated by Burbridge.


Confederates defeated by Sherman at Decatur and

Confederate Heet defeated by Farragut in Mobile

Fort Gaines and Fort Morgan captured.
Confedcrates dcfeated at Joncsboro.
General French defeated at Altoona.
General Thomas retreated to Nashville.
Hood's aTmy defeated at Nashville.
Sherman's march from Atlanta to Savannah.
The command of the Union armies assigned to

Plymouth captured by the Confedera tes.
Army of the Potomac moved towards Richmond

(May 4).
:Battle of the Wilderness.
Battle of Spottsylvania Court-House.
Butler landed at Bermuda I1undred.
Grant commenced the siege of Petersburg.
Butler attacked by Beauregard.
The pirate Alabama captured.
General Early invaded Mal·yland.
Chambersburg burned (July 30).
Sheridan defeated the Confederates at Opequan,

Abraham Lincoln reelected President.

1865 Wilmington captured by the Union troops
Sherman's campaign through South Carolina.
Sheridan's raid into the Shcnandoah Valley.
Vigorous operations against Petersburg commenced


1865. General Lee's army surrendered to Grant.
Johnston's army surrendered to Shel'man.
Abraham Lincoln assassinated (April 14).
Andrew Johnson inaugurated President.
Jefferson Davis captured.
The President issued a proclamation of pardon.
The United States ports opened for commerce.
Captain Wirz tried and hanged.
Secession ordinances repeBled.
Slavery was abolished.
'rhe Freedman's Bureau established.

1866. The Atlantic cable successfully laido
1867. The Reconstruetion Aet passed.

The 'renure of Offiee Bill passed.
Nebraska admitted.
Alaska purehased.

1868. Andrew Johnson impeached.
Treaty made with China.

1869. General Grant inaugurated President.
Pacific Railroad com pleted.

1870. Fifteenth Amendment to Constitution adopte.l.
1871. Treaty with Great Britain.


In 1637, a war was cornrnenccd between the Pequod

Indiana and tIJe Connecticut settlers. It ended the Barna
year in the destruction of the tribe.

In 1642, a war was cornrnenced betwecn the Indian
and the Maryland settlcrs. It ended in 1644.

In 1644, a war was cornrnenced between the Virginia
settlers and thc Indians. It ended in 1646, by the savages
subrnitting to the English.

In 1645, the Dutch settlers of New York cornrnenced a
war with the AIgonquin Indians. It cnded in 1647, in the
defeat of tlle savagcs at Strickland Plains.

In 1675, the N arl'agansett and 'Varnpanoag Indians,
under King Philip, cornrnenced a war with the Massa-
chusctts scttlcrs. It ended in 1676, in the destruction of
both the Indian trilles.

In 1689, King Williarn's War was commcnced between
England and France. It ended in 1697, by the Treaty of

In 1702, Qneen Anne's War was commenced bctween
England on the one side, and France and Spain on the
other. It ended in 1713, by the Treaty of Utrecht.

In 1711, the Tuscarora and Coree Indians cornmenced a
war with the settlers of North and South Carolina. It
ended the same year in the defeat of the Indians.

In 1715, a war was cornmenced betwecn the Yamasea
Indians and the settlers of South Carolina. It endeJ the
same year in the defeat of the Indians.

In 1740, during the war bctween England and Spain,
the English settlers of Georgia commenced a war with the
Spaniards of Florida. It lasted until1742.

In 1744, King George's War cornmenced between France


and Ellgland. It ended in 1748, by the Treaty of Aix·la,.
Chapelle, by which an places captured were restored to
the French.

In 1754, the French and Indian "'Val' commenced between
England on the one side, nnd the French and Indians on
the otber. It ended in 17G3, by a treaty at Paria, by
which a11 the French territory in the northern parts of
Ameriea east of the Mississippi was ceded to Great

Iu 1775, the Revolutionary War commenced between
England and the American Colonies. It cnded in 1783,
by a treaty at Paris, by which the Independence of the
United States was acknowledged.

In liQO, during W u8hington's administration, the
Indians northwest of the ühio comIllcnccd a war against
the United Statea. It ended in 1795, by Wayne's Treaty
which seoured peace.

In 1801, dllring Jefferson's administmtion, Tripoli de-
clared war agninst the United States. It continued until
1805, when a treaty, whieh providcd for the liberation of
the American prisoners upon the paymont of sixty thou·
sand dollar~, was made at Algiers.

In 1812, the United Statcs declarcd war against Greah
Britain. It was ended by a treaty of peace whieh was
signed at Ghent, in December, 1814, and ratificd by the
United States, in February, 1815.

In 1813, the Creek and Seminole Indians commeneed a
war against the whites in Georgin and Alabnma. It ended
in 1814, in the defeat of the Indians at Tohopeka.

In 1815, the United States declared war against AIgiers.
It was ended the same year by eommodore Decatur's com-
pelling the Dey to sign a treaty by which he released all
American prisoners, nade indemnity for captures, and
relinquished aH claim to tribute in the future.


In 1b17, the Creck and Seminolo Indians, on<1ouraged
by the Spaniards of Florida, commenced a war againat
the inhabitants of Georgia. It was ended in 1818, by
General Jackson's capturing Pensacola.

In 1832, the Indian tribe~, led by Black Hawk, corn-
menced a war upon the inhabitants of Illinois. It was
ended the aame year, when the Indiana by a treaty ceded
nearly the whole of Iowa aud Wiaconsin to the United

In 1835, the Seminole Indians under Osceola commenced
a \Var against the United States. It continued until1842,
when peace was finally established.

In 1846, tbe United States declared war against Mexico.
It ended in 1848, by a treatyat Guadalupe Hidalgo, b~
which N ew Mexico and California were eeded to tba
United States, and the Mexican govcrnrnent in return
received fifteen millions of dollars for the ceded terri-

In January, 1861, tbe Great Civil War bctwcen the
United States Governrnent and the so-called "Southern
Confederacy" cornrnenced in tha southern part of tha
United States. It ended in April, 1865, by the Burrender
of the Confederate arrnies.


In 1620, a treaty was made at Plyrnouth, between the
Massachusetts settlers and MaSs3soit, the great Indian
Bhier of the country. It was kept unbr<ken for fifty

In Hi82, a treaty was made at Philadelphia, between
William Penn and the Indiana, which was kept unbroken
Cor more than seventy years.


In 1733, treutics were made between James Ogletborpe,
governor of Georgia, and the neighboring Indians, whieh
secured peace between the parties for many year8.

In Febl'uary, 1778, a treuty was made with France, by
which that nation openly ucknowledged the Independenc6
01 the United States.

In 1795, John Jay, on the part of the United States,
.:lonc\u.u.eu. a trc\ü"y V/ltu Great 1hitain, wnicn p1'Ovil1811
that the western posts held by the British should be given
up, and authorized a restricted trade between the United
States and the British West Indies.

In li95, a treaty was made between the United States
and Spain, whieh secured to the Americana the free navi·
gation of the ~Iississi ppi ri ver.

In 1795, a treaty was made between the United Statea
and Algiers, by which the American eommerce in the
Mediterl'anean was protected.

In September, 1800, a treaty was made between the
United States and Franee, which settled the difficulties
betwccn the two nations.

In 1819, a treaty was made bctween the United States
and Great Britain. By it the 49th parille1 of north lati·
tude, from the Lake of the W ooda to the Rocky Mountains,
was made the boundary line between the United Statea
and British America.

In 1821, a treaty was made between the United States
and Spain. By it Florida and the adjacent islands were
ceded to the United States.

In 1846, the boundary Hne of Oregon was aetUed by a
treaty between the United States and Grea.t Britain.

In 1854, Commodore Perry, on the part of the United
States, made a treaty with Japan, by whieh commercial
intercourse was estaLlished between the two nations.



1635. CJayborne's first Rebellion in Maryland.
l(j45. Clayborne's second Rebellion in Maryland.
1672. Rebellion of the settlers in New Jersey.
1676. Bacon's Rebellion in Virginia.
1710. Rebellion of the settlers in South Carolina.
1786. Shay's In~urrection in Massachusetta.
1794. Whiskey Insurrection in Pennsylvania.
1842. Insurrection in Rhode Ialand.
1855. Civil 'War between the aettlera in Kanaas.


1859. John Brown'a Insurrection at lIarper'a Ferry, Vil
1861. The Great Rebellion in the Southem Statel!.





1. George Wasbington, Virginia, 1789-1797, 8 yeara, • Jobn Adams.
2. Jobn Adams, M assaehusetts, • 1797-1801, 4 years, Thomae J eft'ersoD.

3. Thomaa J e!ferson, Virginia, • 1801-] 809, 8 years,. { Aaron Burr. . George Clinton.
lo James Madison, • I Virginia, . 1809-1817, 8 years,. { George Clinton. Elbridge Gerry.

5. James Monroe, Virginia, . 1817-1825, 8 yeara, D. D. Tompkina.
6. Jobn Quinoy AJams, Mllssachusetts, • 1825-1829, 4 yeara, John C. Calhoun.

7. Andrew Jackson, Tennessee, 1829-1837, 8 yeare, • { Jobn C. Calboun. Martin Van Buren.
8. Martin Van Buren, . New York, 1837-1841, 4 yeara, R. 1\1. J obnson.

9. William H. Harrison, Ohio, 1841, 1 month, John Tyler.
10. John Tyler, Virginia, 1841-1845, 3 yesrs, 11 months.

n. James K. Polk, Tcnnessee, 1845-1849, 4 rears, George M. Dalias.
12. Zacháry Taylor, . Louisiana, 1849-1850. 1 year, 4 montbs, Millard Fillmorc.

13. Millanl Fillmore, New York, .• 18.10-1853, 2 years, 8 months,
14. Franklin Pieree, • New IIllmpshire, 1853-1857, 4 yeara, William R. King.

15. James Ducbanan, Pennsylnnia, 1857-1861, 4 years, ••• J. C. Breckinridge.
16. Abrabam Lincoln, Illinois, 1861-1865, 4 years, 1 montb, { Hannibal Hamlin. Andrew Jobn.on.

1'1. Andrcw J ohnson, Tenncssee, 1865-1869, 3 years, 11 montha,
18. Ulysscs S. Grant, Illinoia, 1869. Scbuyler Colfax.



Stat ... When aettled. Where settled. whom tcd as Ad~ln¡._ sotllad. Stat... tlOn ..
By Admito I

--------·[---1----------1---- -----------
Virginia .......... 1607 Jam .. town ............. I~nglisb
New YOI'k ........ 1614 N.w york .............. Dutch .. .
MassachuBcttS... 1620 Plymouth_ ...•......... English
New lIaolpshire 16:!3 Dover ....... .•.. ...•... }l;nglish
N ew J eraey ...... 1624 Bergen ................. Dutch .. .
Conneclient ..... 16.13 lIartford ................ Dutch .. .
Maryland .......•. ]634 Sto ~ary. _ •.......•.... ~ng!!s~
lthodelsland.... 1636 Provldence •............ Engti¡;!l
Dalaware......... 1638 New Sweden ........... Swede~.
Nortb Carolina.. 1663 AllJemarle ............. EngUF<h
South Carolina.. 1670 Old Charleston ..•••••. }~ngliHll
Pennsyl'1¡·anillo,.. 168l Che~ter .................. Englbü
Georgia............ 1733 &\vannah ............... EngEsh

~:~~~cn~;;:.::::::: ~~i~ ~~~~~~~~~~~.~ .. :::::: ~~~.l.¡~~
Teuu6ssee........ 1757 FOl't Loudon. .......... Englisb
Ohio. .............. 1788 Mari"tta ................ U. S .... ..
Lonisinna ........ 16tJ!) IbervilJe ............... French.
Indiana............ HigO Vincennes .............. French.
Misshisippi....... 161)1) Hny of Biloxi ......... Frcncb.
(]lillois...... ..... 16S6 Kflskaskia. ............. French.
Alalm,ma.......... 170~ l\JolJile ................... French.
Maine........ ...... 1613 lUto Desert lBland .... I'rench.
l\Iissoun .......... 1763 Sto Genevieve .......... Frt:-nch.
ArkltnsElS._....... 1685 Arkansas Post ........ French.
Michigan......... 1668 Sanl! Sto Mari ......... Fr.nch.
Florida............ 1565 Sto Augn.lin .......... Spanish
TexlUl......... ...... 1690 Sto Antonia de Bexar Spanish
Iowa ............... 1833 Burlington ............. U. S .... ..
Wisconsin........ HigO Green Hay .............. French.
California ........ 1769 Los Angelos ............ Spawsh
Minn •• ota........ 1846 Sto Paul .................. U. S .... ..
Oregon ............. 1811 .4storia ................... U. S .... ..
¡{ansas '" ......... u ..................................... U. S ..... .

~:~~~:~:~~~~~.:: :::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::: Ig: L:::
* The thirt •• u original State ••




17m} m~ Washingkn'e
180~ J efferson'a.

m~! /Madiaon, •• 1817
1819 j)Ionroe'a.
1836} , 1837 J ackson 8.
1845 TyIer's.
18!5} 1846 Polk's.

~mf ::::::::: .. 1860 m: Lincolu' •.
1807 Johnson's.









Where fought.

Englisha French.

Great Mcaduws. Washington. Jumonville.
Fort N ece.Bity. \Vashington. VillierB.
1 N S r { ]I.1,mckton.}

n uva co la .. I 'Vinslow.
Nr. FLDuquesne Brauuock.
N car L. G eorge. Williams. Dieskan.
Fort Edward. Johnson. Dieskau.
Oswe~o. J\lcreer. Montcalm.
Furt Wm.lIenry. J\lunroe, MontO:1lm:
Luuisburg. Amherst.
Ticonderoga. Abererombie. Montcalm.
Fort }'runtenae. llrna.treet.
Furt Niagara. PrjJeaux.
Qnebec. Wolfc. Montcalm.


Where fough t.

Awcric.:.tn. IJritish.

---I Army sucoessf~



177 j. Lexington. Parhr. ¡SlDith "ud American.
'Bunker's llill.

1776. }'orl Muultric.

Long Island.

White Plains.
Ft. Washington.

1777 Prinl.!cton.
];'urt Schuyler.





Sto Clair.


IDe Laplace. American.
llowe find llritish.

Carlton. British.
Clinton & Sir American.
Peter Parker.

IIuwe !IIH! British.


Sto Lcger.

.c\ luerican.


When Camllanders. Army
fougbt. Where fought. American. I British. sucees"fuL

1777. Fart Mercer. Col. Grecne. Donop. American.
1778. Monmouth. 'Vashington: Clinton. American.

Wyoming. Zeh. Butler. J ohn Butler. British.
Rhode lsJand. Sullivan. Pigot. American.
Cberry Valley. Brant. IBrilish.
Savannah. Roht. Howe. Campbell. IBritish.

1779. Sllnbury. Lane. Prevost. Britisb.
Kcttle Crcek. Pickens. Boyd. American.
Brier Creck. Asb. Prevost. British.
Stono Ferry. Lincoln. Britisb.
Stony Point. Wayne. Johnson. American.
Panlns Hook. IJee. American.
Savannah. Lincoln. Prevost. British.

1780. Monk's Cornero Tarlcton. British.
Cbarleston. Lincoln. Clinton. British.
Sander's Creek. Gates. Corn wl1l1is. British.
Fishing Creek. Sumpter. T"r1cton. British.
King's l\it. Campbell. Fcrguson. Americao.

1781. Cowpens. Morgan. 'rarlcton. American.
Gnilford C. H. Grccne. Cornwallis. British.
Habkirk's HilJ. Greene. Rawdon. British.
Ninety.Six. Greene. British.
Fort G riswold. Ledyard. Amold. British.
Entaw Springs. Grecne. Stewart. IndeciE!ive.
Yorktown. Wasbington Cornwallis . Amerioan.

.1; De Grasse.



When American. British. Vessel
fot.1ght. Vessel. I Commander. Vessel. I Commander. 8uccessfuL

1807. Frigate Chesapeake, Darron, Ship Leopard, Humphries, British.
1811. Frigate President, • Rogers, Sloop Little Belt, Bingham, • American.

!812. Frigate Essex, Porter, • Sloop Alert,
: J

Frigate Constitution, • HuI!, Frigrtte Gucrricre, • Dacres, American.

Sloop Wasp, • Jones, Brig Frolic, • • • American.
Frigate U nited States, Decatur, Frigate Macedonian, Carden, American.

Frignte Constitution, • Bainbri(lge, }"rigute Java, Lambert, • American.
1813. Sloop Hornet, Lawrence, Brig Pencock, Peake, • Amerjcan.

Frigate Chesapeake, Lawrenoe, Frigatc Shannon, Brokc, • British.
Drig Argus, AlIen, Sloop Pelicnn, Maples, British.
Brig Enterprise, llurrows, Bl'ig Doxer, Blyth, ~ American.
Fleet of 54 guns on L. Erie, Perry, • Fleet of 63 guns, BareJay, American.

1814. Frigate Essex, Porter, . Fr. Phrebe; Sloop Cheru b, British.
Sloop Frolic, . Dainhridgc, Frigate Orpheus, Pigot, British.
Sloop Peacock, 'Varringtun, B rig E rervier, Wales, • American.
Sloop Wasp, • Blakely, • Drig Reindeer, Munners, American.
Sloop Wasp, • B1akely, Sloop Avoc, A rbuthnot, Arnericall.

Fleet of 86 guns on Lake
McDonough, 1 Champlain, • . • • Fleet of 95 guns, . Downie, AIl1ericon ..

1815. • Frigate Constitution, • Stew:1rt, • Cyane; Levant, American. I • Sloop Hornet,. • • • Biddle, • Bri~ Penguin, Dickenson. American.

~ Ji'ougbt aner tb. treat¡ oC peaco was rñ~Ad 8t Ohent.


CJJ Where fought.
" o

181 2. Queeustown.
181 3, Frenehtowllo

Fort Meigs.
Fort George.
Sltckett's Harbor.
Fort Stephenson.

181 4. Chippewa.
Lundy's Lome.
Fort Erie.
N orth Paint.
Fort McHenry.

181 5 • ., New Orleans.


American. British.

Van Rensse- Brock.

Winchester. Proctor.
Pike. Schealfo.
Harrison. Proctor.
Brown. Prevost.
Croghan. Proctor.
Harrison. Proctor.
Brow!\. Riall.
Brown. Drummond.
nrown. Drummond.
Winder. Ross.
Macomb. Prevost.
Stricker. Ross.
Armstead. Cochrane.
Jack.on. l'ackenham.




* Fought after the treaty of penCó wao signed at Gh.nt.

.. ~

.. ..co





Where fought.

Palo Alto.
Resaca de la Palma.
Baena Vista.
Vera Cruz.
Cerro Gordo.
Molino del Rey.
Chapu Hepec,.

Commanders .





Santa Anna.
Santa Anno..
Santa Ann&,
Santa A.nna.
Santa Anna.

auacessf ID.


America n.


Amcric ano

Santa Anna. Amanean.



When Comma,nderB. Army
fought. Where fought. Bueeessfu!.

Union. Confederate.

April12. Ft. Sumter, S. C. AnderBon. Beauregard. Confad.
July Ó. Cllrthl1ge, Mo. Siga!. Jaekson. Confed.

11. Rich Mt., Va. Roseerans. Pegram. Union.
18. Centre,'ille, V 11. MeDowell. Beauregard. Confed.
21. Bull Run, Va. MeDowell. Beaul·egard. Confcd.

Aug. 29. Hatteras lnl., N. C. Butler. Union.
Sept. 10. SUll1lllcrville, Va. Rosecrans. Floyd. Un ion.

20. Lexington, Mo. Th-Iulligan. Price. Confed.
Oct. 21. BaIl's B1uff, Va. Stone. Evans. Confed.
Nov. 7. Port Royal, S. C. Dupont. Union.

Jan.19. 8omerset, Ey. Thomas. Zollickoffer. Un ion.
Feb. 6. Ft. Henry, Tenn. Foote. Tilghm!ln. Union.

8. Roanoke ls!., N. C. Burnside. Unlon.
16. Ft. Donelsull, Tenn. Grant. Floyd. Uníon.

March 8. Pea Ridge, Arl\:. Curtis. Price. Union.
14. Newbern, N. C. • Burnside. Braneh. Union.
23. Winchcstcf, Va. Shields. Jnckson. Uniun.

April 6. Shiloh, 'renn. Grant. Beauregard. Union ..
7. Islalld No. 10. Foote. Mal",ll. Union.

11. Ft. Pulaski. Geo. Gilmore. Olmstead. Union.
11. Hunt"ville, Ala. Mitchell. Union.
30. Bridgeport, Ala. Mitchell. Rirby8mith Union.

May 5. Williamsburg, Va. McClellan. Johnson. Union ..
9. Farmiugton, Tenn. Pope. Bragg. Confed.

25. Winchester, Va. Banks. EwelJ aud Confed,

27. Hanaver C, H., Va. Portero Semmes. Union.
31. F"ir Oaks, Va. lIfcClellan. lL E. Lee. Indecisiv6.

June S. Ceoss Reys, Va. Fremont. Jaekson. Union.
June 24 reven d~ys' }

to fight on the McClellan. R. E. Lee. Confed.
Jnly 1. Pe~insul3., Va.

3. Vicksburg. Farragut. Pemberton. Confed.
Aug.5. Batan l1ouge, La. WllJiams. Breckin- Union.

9. Cedur l\1t., Va. Banks. (Well and Unian.

20.1 Clarkaville Jack"on. Tann. Mason. John8on. Confed.

( C01lt¡nued.)

Whcn COlUmanuers. Army
fought. Where fought. suoeessful.

Union. Confederate.

Aug. 22. Gallatin, Tenn. Jobnson. Morgan. Conred.

27. N ear Manassas, Va. Taylor. Ewell. Confed.
27. Kettle Creck, Va. Hooker. Ewell. Un ion.
29. Bull Run, Va. Pope. Jackson. Confed.

Sept. 10. Fayet.te, West Va. Siber. Loring. Confed.
14. Munfordsville, Ky. Wilder. Duncan .. Un ion.
14. Soutb !lIt., Md. McClellan. Longstreet. Union.
15. Harper's Ferry, Va. Mi!e". Jacksou. Confed.
17. Antietam, Md. McClellan. Lee. Unian ..
17. Munfordsville, Ky. Wilder. Bragg. Confed.
19. Iuka, Miss. Rosecrans .. Price. Union.

Oct. 3. Corintb, Miss. Rosecrans. Van Dorn'. Union.
8. Perryville, Ky. Buel!. Bragg. Indecisil'

18. Le:xlngton, Ky. Morgan. Confed.
22, Mltysville, Ark. Blunt. Union.

Dec. 7. Prairie Grove, Ark. Blunt. Hindman. Un ion.
13. l'rodericksbuTg, Va. Burnside. R. E. Lee. Conred.

Vicksburg. Sberman. Pemberton. Confed.

Jan. l. Murfreesboro. Rosccrn.lls. Bragg. Un ion.
l. Hunt's Cross· Sullivan. I<'orrest. Union.

Roads, Tenn.
11. Arkansas Post. McClernand Churchi1l. Union.

Feb.3. Ft. Donelson,Tenn. Harding. Whceler. Un ion.
March 5. Spring Hill, Tenn. Coburn. Van Dorn. Confed.

31. Somersct, Kv. Gilmorc. Pegram. ·Unioo.
April 'l. Cedar Blufl. Dodge. ForresL Confed.

10. Franklin, Tenn. Granger. Van Dorn. Union.
May 2. Chanccllorsl'ille, Hooker. R. E. Lee. Confed.

14. J ackson, Miss. Grant. Johnston. Un ion.
16. Champion HilIs. Grant. Pemberton. Union.
18. Vickshurg, Miss. Grant. Pemberton. Confed.
27. Port H udson. Banks. Gardner. Confed.

JuIy 1. Gettysburg, Penn. Meade. R. E. Lee. Un ion.
4. Helena, Ark. Prentiss. IPrice. Union. 4. Vickshurg. Grant. Pemberton. Union.
9. Port Hudson, La. Banks. Gardner. Union.

18'IFt. \Vagner, S. C. Gilmore. Beauregard. Confed.
20. Goiger's Creek, O. Shackelford.¡ Margan. Unian.
23. Mana~8a1 Gap, Va. Spinola. Anderson. Union


( (JulItillllea.)

When Cororoanders. I Army
fought. Where fought. . suecessfu!.

Union. Confederate'l

Jllly 26. New Lisbon, O. Shackelford. Morgan. Union.
Sept. 9. Cumberland Gap, Shackelford. Fruzicr. Un ion.

19. Chickamauga" Geo. Rosecrans. Bra.gg. Indecisive.

Oct. 14. Bristoe Stat.ion, Va. Meade. R. E. Lee. Union.
25. Pille BluJf, Ark. Clayton. l\Iarmaduke. Union.

Nov. 4. l3ayou Coteau, La. Burbridge. Wlllker. Cunfed.
23. Chatta.nooga, Tenn. Grn,nt. Bragg. Un ion.

Deo. 14. Beans·s Station, Shackelford. Longstreet. Confed.

Feb.20. Olustee, Flor. Seymour. Finnegan. CORfed.

Mch.25. ParlucHh, Ky. IIieks. Forre$t. Union.
26. Cane J{i ver, La. A. J. Smith. ~Iowcr. Confed.

April 8. Mansfie1d. La. Banks. K. Smith. Confed.
9. Pleasant Hill. LIl.. I Banks, K. timith. Union.

12. Ft. PillolV, Ky. Booth. Forrest. Confed.
20. PI'ylIJouth. N. C. ¡'lVessels. lIok •• Confed.

May Ó. \V ilderness, Va. G ra,nt. Lee. Union.
10. {SPottsYll'l1nia } IGrant. Lee. Union. C. H., Va.
15. Newmarket, Va. Sigel. Breckiu- Confed.

16. Port Waltbal, Va. - Butler.

Ben.uregard. Confe.1.
21. Uermuda Hundred, Butlor. Beauregard. Union.

Juna l. Cold JI arbor. Va Grant. Lee. Indecisive.

5. Piedmont, Va. Huntcr. Junes. Uninn.
10. Guntown, Tenn. Sturgis. Furrest. Confed.
13. Cyntbian:1, Ky. Burbridge. l\lorgan. Union.
26. Lafayctte, Tenn. WatkinB. Pillow. Unian.
27. Kencsa-w, 'l'enn. Shennan. .Jobnston. Cunfed.

July 9. Monocaey, Md. Wallace. Breekin- Confed.

20. Winchestcr, Va. Averill. Early. Union.
20. Decatur, Ga. Sherman. nood. Union.
22. Atlanta, Ga. Sberman. Hood. Un ion.
24. Winchestcr, V!l. Averill. Early. Confed.
28. A tlan ta, Ga. Sherma:r. Union.
ao. Pctersburg, VIL. Grant. Lee. Confed.

Aug.17. Dalton, Ga. Sicbold. Wheeler. Union.


( Cantil/ued.)

When ) Commanders. Army
fought. Where fought. successfllL

Uníon. Confaderate.

A ug.19. Ream's Station, Va. 1Varren. Hill. Confed.

23. Ft. Margan, Ala. Farragut. Page. Union.
25. Ream's S¡ation, Va. Hancock. Hil!. Uníon.
31. J onesboro', Ga. Sherman. Lee. Union.

ept. 18. Opequan, Va. Sheridan. Early. Union.
22. Fisher's Hil!, Va. Sheridan. Early. Union.
29. Pilot Knob, Mo. Ewing. Priee. Union.

Oct. 2. Saltville, V u. Burbridge. Brccken- Confed.

5. Allatoona, Ga. Corseo Frcneh. Unjon.
14. Glasgow, Mo. Harding. Clark. Confed.
19. Lexington, Mo. Blunt. Prica. Confed.
19. Ceuar Creck, Va. Sheridan. Early. Uníon.
25. Bíg Blue, Mo. Blunt. Price. Union.

Nov. 13. Panther's Gap, Ky. Gillem. Breekin- Confad.

30. Franklin, Tenn. Thomas. Hood. Unjon.
Dec. 15. N ash v ille, Tenn. Thomas. Hood. Un ion.

25. Ft. Fiaher, N. C.

Butler. Whiting. Confed.

Jall.15. Ft. Fisher, N. C. Terry. Whjting. Union.
areh 3. Waynesboro', Va. Sheridan. Early. Union. M

15. Averysboro', N. C. Sherman. lIardee. Union.
19. Bentonsville, N. C. Sberman. Johnston. Union.

Aprill. Petersbnrg, Va. Grant. ILee. Union.



1. What nations claimed portiona of America, and upon
what did each found ita claims? See pages 9, 10, 15.

2. Give an account of the voyagea for discovel'y made
by the English prior to 1607. Pages 9, 11, 12.

3. Of those made by the Frcnch. Page 10.
4. Of those made by the Spanish. Pages 9, 10.
5. What settlements were attempted prior to 16077

Pages lO, 11, 12.
6. Give an account of Cartier'a voyages to America.

Page 10.
7. GiVé an account of the attempts of the French to

aettle Fl(,rida. Page 1I.
8. Giv& an account of the attempts to settle Roanoke

lsland. Page 12.
9. Which of the thirteen original colonies made treaties

uf friendship with the Iudians? Pagos 17, 32, 34.
10. When did Ya., N. n., N. O., S. C., aud Ga. become

royal provinces? Pages 15, 20, 31, 35.
11. 1Vhich colonies offered an asylum for perijecuted

Ohristians ? Pages 23, 27, 32, 34.
12. Which of the colonies were aettled by other nations

than the English, and when did each come ¡nto the pos-
session of the English ? Pages 15, lu, 20, 21, 22.

13. 1Vhen and of what colonies was Andross Govern9r1
Pages 16, 18, 19,21,26,27.

14. Whcn and of what colonies was Fletcher governorf
Pages Hi, 22, 32.

15. When and of what two colonies were Seth Scthel
snd John Archdale governors? Pages 28, 29,30.



16. What colonies were aettled on accónnt of religious
persecution? Pages 17,27.

17. Which colonies were aetUed by religious denomina-
tiona? Pages 17, 23, 27, 3l.

IR. Give an account of the "Legislative Assemblie6"
which met in tha colonies prior to the Revolution. Pages

19. Give an account of the lndian massacres in the col-
onies prior to the French and lndian War. Pages 14, 19,
20, 29, 35, 3G.

20. In which of the colonies is there no mentíon 01
"lndian troubles" prior to King William's War? Mass.,
N. J., Del., R. l., Penn., Ga.

21. State what is said of Capto John Smith in conneetion
with the colonies. Pages 13, 17.

22. 01' Roger Williams. Pages 18, 27.
23. 01' Rev. John WheeJwright. Pages 18, 19.
24. 01' WiIliam Penn. Pages 21, 31, 32, 33.
25. Of Andrass. Pages 16, 18, 19,21,26,27.
26. What IS said of the charters of Connecticntt Pages

27. 'What is said of the Rhode lsland chartera? Pagea

28. What 18 said of 8eth 80the1? Pages 28, 30.
29. What is said of John Archdale? Pages 29, 30.
30. What is said of James Oglethorpe? Pages 34, 35.
31. Give an account of the expeditions against Quebeo.

Pages 36, 43, 49. '
32. Give an account of the expeditions against Louis-

burgo Pages 37, 41.
33. Give an aecount of tha expeditions against Fort Du-

quesne. Pages 30, 42.
34. Describe tha expeditions against Ticonderoga and

Crown Point. Pages 40, 42, 48.
35. Who were fue oommanders-in-chief of the Englisb


forces in the French and lndian 'Var, and ",hen was oReh
Rppointed? Pages :l9, 40, 41, 42.

36. What is said of the attt'mpts made to form a union
of the colonies prior to the Revolution ? Pages 18, 39.

37. What is said of the Stamp Act? Pages 43, 44.
38. State what is said of "tea" in connpction with tha

events leading to the Revolution. Pages 44, 45, 46.
39. Describe the invasion of Canada by the Americana

in 1775. Pages 49, 50.
40. 'Vhen did the first Colonial, and ,,-hen the first Con-

tillen tal Congress meet, and what did they do? Pages

41. Describe tho siego of llnston. Pages 49, 50.
42. Describe the capture of New Yurk city by the Brit-

ish. Pages 51, 52.
43. Give a history of the Continental Congress. Pages

48,51, 54, 5i, 65, 66.
44. Describe the expcditions against Charleston. Pages

51, 63.
45. Describo the invasion of the United States by HUI"-

goyne. Pages 55, 56.
46. Give an acr.ount of the capture of Philadelphia.

Pages 57, 58.
47. Describe the expeditions against Savannah. Pages

60, 6l.
48. '\Vhat events occurrcd on tha 18th of June in dif-

ferent years? Pages 50, 59.
40. When were the cities of N ew York, Philadelphia,

Savannah, and Charleston taken by the British; and when
were New York and Philadelphia evacllated? Pages 52,
57, 59, 60, 63, 70.

50. \Vho were the commanders of the American army in
the Suuth during the Revolution? Pages 61, 63, 64.

51. Who were the commanders-in-chief of the Britisb
umy during the Revolution? Paga 59.

52. At what placea díd the army under Wa¡hín¡;t::m apend

the wintera from 1775 to 1782? Pagea 50, 54, 58, 60, 62,

53. At what places did the British a.rmyat the North
Bpend the ",inters from 1775 to 1782? Pages 50, 54, 57,
54. Where did the Continental Congresa hold their meet·

inga? At Philadelphia, except when that city was occu-
pied by the British, when the Congress met at Lancaster
and York.

55. What foreigners served aa officers in the American
army during the Revolution? Pages 54, 57, 63.

56. In what expeditions and battles were the allied
armies of the United States and li'rance engaged during
the Revolution? Pages 60, 61, 68, 69.

57. Mention two events which occurred on the 19th of
April in different yeara. Pages 47, 70.

58. State what is said of Arnold. Pages 48, 49, 50, 55,
64, 65, 66, 69.

59. Give an account of the evacuation of Philadelphia
by the British, and of their retreat to New York. Page 59.

60. Give an aecount of the battles during the Revolution
in whieh Indians were engaged. Pages 55, 60, 62.

61. Describe the movements of the Southern army while
under the cornrnand of General Gates. Pagcs 63, 64.

62. Describe Arnold's treason. Pages 64, 65.
63. Describe the retreat of the Americana after the

battle of the Cowpens. Page 67.
64. Describe the movements of the Southern army while

ander the command of General Greene. Pages 64, 67, 68.
6.5. State the reasona which led to the adoption of tha

Federal Constitution. Page 71.
66. 'Vho have, at different times, been appointed como

• The ramainlng winters wcre spent a.t New York.

miasioners to aettle difficulties with Great Britain, and
what did they accomplish? Pagea 70, 76, 99, 100.

67. '\Vho have been appointed envoys to France, and
wbat did tbey accomplish? Page 77.

G8. What cities have, at different times, been the soot
of government of tbe United States, and wben did Con.
gress meet in each city for the first time? Pages 73, 74, 78.

69. Describe the wars with the Indiana northwest of tha
Ohio. Pages 74,75, 82.

70. Give the history of the United States Bank. Pages

71. Give a brief history of Florida. Pages 9, 10, 11
30, 34, (l3, (l6, 97, 99.

72. Give a history of Louisiana. Pages 79, 82.
73. Name the Presidents who died on the anniversary

of the Deelaration of Independence, mentioning the year
of each one's death. Page 94.

74. Describe the foIlowing: "Alien and Sedition Law8;"
"The l\Ionroe Doctrine;" "Specie Circular," and "Día-
tribution Act." Pages 78, 93, 96.

75. Describe tbe foIlowing: "Orders in Council;"
"Milan Deeree," and "Nullification Act." Pagea 81, 95.

76. What Vice-Presidents have become Presidenta on
account of the death of the President, and when? Pages
98, 105.

77. Describe tha batUes fought on the Lakes during the
war of 1812. Pages 85, 88.

78. Who have called extra sessions of Congresa? When
and for what purposes? Pages 77, 97, 98.

79. When have compromise bilis becn introduced into
Congress ~ Give !he provisions of each. ~~~h.l05.

80. Wrlte a brlef account of Georg,::)Vaill!n.gtQJ'l.. atl
ti d · n' h' . , ....... ... oun lU t 18 lstory. ,'::'::" ,:,.': ". '. '\



\.- ~ \ .: